Baffin Island, in the Canadian territory of Nunavut, is the largest island in Canada and the fifth-largest island in the world. Its area is 507,451 km2 and its population is about 11,000, it is located in the region of 70° N and 75° W. It was named by English colonists after English explorer William Baffin. Historians believe it is that Pre-Columbian Norse explorers from Greenland and Iceland knew of the island, they believe it is the site of Helluland, referred to in the Icelandic sagas (Grœnlendinga saga and the Saga of Erik the Red. Iqaluit, the capital of Nunavut, is located on the southeastern coast; until 1987, the town was called Frobisher Bay, after the English name for the bay on which it is located. That year the indigenous people voted to take their own nameTo the south lies Hudson Strait, separating Baffin Island from mainland Quebec. South of the western end of the island is the Fury and Hecla Strait which separates the island from the Melville Peninsula on the mainland. To the east are Davis Strait and Baffin Bay, with Greenland beyond.
The Foxe Basin, the Gulf of Boothia and Lancaster Sound separate Baffin Island from the rest of the archipelago to the west and north. The Baffin Mountains run along the northeastern coast of the island and are a part of the Arctic Cordillera. Mount Odin is the highest peak, with an elevation of at least 2,143 m, although some sources say 2,147 m. Another peak of note is Mount Asgard, located in Auyuittuq National Park, with an elevation of 2,011 m. Mount Thor, with an elevation of 1,675 m, is said to have the greatest purely vertical drop of any mountain on Earth, at 1,250 m; the two largest lakes on the island lie in the south-central part of the island: Nettilling Lake and Amadjuak Lake further south. The Barnes Ice Cap, in the middle of the island, has been retreating since at least the early 1960s, when the Geographical Branch of the Department of Mines and Technical Surveys sent a three-man survey team to the area to measure isostatic rebound and cross-valley features of the Isortoq River.
Conversely, in the 1970s parts of Baffin Island failed to have the usual ice-free period in the summer. Baffin Island has been inhabited for over 3,000 years, first by the pre-Dorset, followed by the Dorset, the Thule, ancestors of the Inuit who have lived on the island for the last thousand years. In about 986, Erik Thorvaldsson, known as Erik the Red, formed three settlements near the southwestern tip of Greenland. In late 985 or 986, Bjarni Herjolfsson, sailing from Iceland to Greenland, was blown off course and sighted land southwest of Greenland. Bjarni appears to be the first European to see Baffin Island, the first European to see America beyond Greenland, it was about 15 years that the Norse Greenlanders, led by Leif Erikson, a son of Erik the Red, started exploring new areas around the year 1000. Baffin Island is thought to be Helluland, the archaeological site at Tanfield Valley is thought to have been a trading post; the Saga of Erik the Red, 1880 translation into English by J. Sephton from the original Icelandic'Eiríks saga rauða': "They sailed away from land.
Thence they sailed away from Bjarneyjar with northerly winds. They were out at sea two half-days, they came to land, rowed along it in boats, explored it, found there flat stones, many and so great that two men might well lie on them stretched on their backs with heel to heel. Polar-foxes were there in abundance; this land they gave name to, called it Helluland." In September 2008, the Nunatsiaq News, a weekly newspaper, reported that Patricia Sutherland, who worked at the Canadian Museum of Civilization had archaeological remains of yarn and cordage, rat droppings, tally sticks, a carved wooden Dorset culture face mask depicting Caucasian features, possible architectural remains, which indicated that European traders and settlers had been on Baffin Island not than 1000 CE. What the source of this Old World contact may have been is unclear and controversial. So, as Sutherland said, if you believe that spinning was not an indigenous technique, used in Arctic North America you have to consider the possibility that as "remote as it may seem," these finds may represent evidence of contact with Europeans prior to the Vikings' arrival in Greenland."
Sutherland's research led to a 2012 announcement that whetstones had been found with remnants of alloys indicative of Viking presence. In 2018, Michele Hayeur Smith of Brown University, who specializes in the study of ancient textiles, wrote that she does not think the ancient Arctic people, the Dorset and Thule, needed to be taught how to spin yarn "It's a pretty intuitive thing to do." Journal of Archaeological Science, August 2018:"... the date received on Sample 4440b from Nanook indicates that sinew was being spun and plied at least as early, if not earlier, than yarn at this site. We feel that the most parsimonious explanation of this data is that the practice of spinning hair and wool into plied yarn most developed within this context of complex, Arctic ﬁber technologies, not through contact with European textile producers. Our investigations indicate that Paleoeskimo communities on Baffin Island spun threads from the hair and from the sinews
Mountaineering is the set of activities that involves ascending mountains. Mountaineering-related activities include traditional outdoor climbing, hiking and traversing via ferratas. Indoor climbing, sport climbing and bouldering are considered mountaineering as well. While mountaineering began as attempts to reach the highest point of unclimbed big mountains, it has branched into specializations that address different aspects of mountains, depending on whether the route chosen is over rock, snow, or ice or on level ground. All require various degrees of experience, athletic ability, technical knowledge to maintain safety, it is still common to seek the summits of peaks, whether unclimbed or not. Mountaineering is called alpinism, mountain climbers are sometimes called alpinists, although use of the term may vary between countries and eras; the word "alpinism" was born in the 19th century to refer to climbing for the purpose of enjoying climbing itself as a sport or recreation, distinct from climbing while hunting or as a religious pilgrimage, done at that time.
The UIAA, the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation, is the International Olympic Committee-recognized world governing body for mountaineering and climbing, addressing issues like access, mountain protection, safety and ice climbing. Many cultures have harbored superstitions about mountains, which they regarded as sacred due to their perceived proximity with heaven, such as Mount Olympus for the Ancient Greeks. On April 26, 1336 famous Italian poet Petrarch climbed to the summit of 1,912 m Mount Ventoux overlooking the Bay of Marseilles, claiming to be inspired by Philip V of Macedon's ascent of Mount Haemo, making him the first known alpinist. One of the first European mountains visited by many tourists was Sněžka; this was due to the minor technical difficulties ascent and the fact that since the sixteenth century, many resort visitors flocked to the nearby Cieplice Śląskie-Zdrój and visible Sněžka, visually dominant over all Krkonoše was for them an important attraction. The first confirmed ascent took place in the year 1456.
In 1492 Antoine de Ville, lord of Domjulien and Beaupré, was the first to ascend the Mont Aiguille, in France, with a little team, using ladders and ropes. It appears to be the first recorded climb of any technical difficulty, has been said to mark the beginning of mountaineering. In 1573 Francesco De Marchi and Francesco Di Domenico ascended Corno Grande, the highest peak in the Apennine Mountains. During the Enlightenment, as a product of the new spirit of curiosity for the natural world, many mountain summits were surmounted for the first time.. In 1741 Richard Pococke and William Windham made a historic visit to Chamonix. In 1757 Swiss scientist Horace-Bénédict de Saussure made the first of several unsuccessful attempts on Mont Blanc in France offering a reward, claimed in 1786 by Jacques Balmat and Michel-Gabriel Paccard. By the early 19th century many of the alpine peaks were reached, including the Grossglockner in 1800, the Ortler in 1804, the Jungfrau in 1811, the Finsteraarhorn in 1812, the Breithorn in 1813.
In 1808 Marie Paradis became the first female to climb Mont Blanc, followed in 1838 by Henriette d'Angeville. The beginning of mountaineering as a sport in the UK is dated to the ascent of the Wetterhorn in 1854 by English mountaineer Sir Alfred Wills, who made mountaineering fashionable in Britain; this inaugurated what became known as the Golden age of alpinism, with the first mountaineering club - the Alpine Club - being founded in 1857. Prominent figures of the period include Lord Francis Douglas, Florence Crauford Grove, Charles Hudson, E. S. Kennedy, William Mathews, A. W. Moore, Leslie Stephen, Francis Fox Tuckett, John Tyndall, Horace Walker and Edward Whymper. Well-known guides of the era include Christian Almer, Jakob Anderegg, Melchior Anderegg, J. J. Bennen, Michel Croz, Johannes Zumtaugwald. In the early years of the "golden age", scientific pursuits were intermixed with the sport, such as by the physicist John Tyndall. In the years, it shifted to a more competitive orientation as pure sportsmen came to dominate the London-based Alpine Club and alpine mountaineering overall.
One of the most dramatic events was the spectacular first ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865 by a party led by English illustrator Edward Whymper, in which four of the party members fell to their deaths. This ascent is regarded as marking the end of the mountaineering golden age. By this point the sport of mountaineering had reached its modern form, with a body of professional guides and fixed guidelines. Mountaineering in the Americas became popular in the 1800s. In North America, Pikes Peak in the Colorado Rockies was first climbed by Edwin James and two others in 1820. Though lower than Pikes Peak, the glaciated Fremont Peak in Wyoming was thought to be the tallest mountain in the Rockies when it was first climbed by John C. Frémont and two others in 1842. Pico de Orizaba, the tallest peak in Mexico and third tallest in North America, was first climbed by U. S. military personnel which included William F. Raynolds and a half dozen other climbers in 1848. Glaciated and more technical climbs in North American were not achieved until the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
In 1897 Mount Saint Elias on the Alaska-Yukon border was summitted by the Duke of the Abruzzi and party. But it was not until 1913 that Denali, the tallest peak in North America, was climbed
El Capitan is a vertical rock formation in Yosemite National Park, located on the north side of Yosemite Valley, near its western end. The granite monolith is about 3,000 feet from base to summit along its tallest face, is a popular objective for rock climbers; the formation was named "El Capitan" by the Mariposa Battalion when they explored the valley in 1851. El Capitan was taken to be a loose Spanish translation of the local Native American name for the cliff, variously transcribed as "To-to-kon oo-lah" or "To-tock-ah-noo-lah", it is unclear if the Native American name referred to a specific tribal chief or meant "the chief" or "rock chief". The top of El Capitan can be reached by hiking out of Yosemite Valley on the trail next to Yosemite Falls proceeding west. For climbers, the challenge is to climb up the sheer granite face. There are many named climbing routes, all of them arduous, including Iron Hawk and Sea of Dreams. El Capitan is composed entirely of granite, a pale, coarse-grained granite emplaced 100 mya.
In addition to El Capitan, this granite forms most of the rock features of the western portions of Yosemite Valley. A separate intrusion of igneous rock, the Taft Granite, forms the uppermost portions of the cliff face. A third igneous rock, diorite, is present as dark-veined intrusions through both kinds of granite prominent in the area known as the North America Wall. Along with most of the other rock formations of Yosemite Valley, El Capitan was carved by glacial action. Several periods of glaciation have occurred in the Sierra Nevada, but the Sherwin Glaciation, which lasted from 1.3 million years ago to 1 mya, is considered to be responsible for the majority of the sculpting. The El Capitan Granite is free of joints, as a result the glacial ice did not erode the rock face as much as other, more jointed, rocks nearby. Nonetheless, as with most of the rock forming Yosemite's features, El Capitan's granite is under enormous internal tension brought on by the compression experienced prior to the erosion that brought it to the surface.
These forces contribute to the creation of features such as the Texas Flake, a large block of granite detaching from the main rock face about halfway up the side of the cliff. Between the two main faces, the Southwest and the Southeast, is a prow. While today there are numerous established routes on both faces, the most popular and famous route is The Nose, which follows the south buttress; the Nose was first climbed in 1958 by Warren Harding, Wayne Merry and George Whitmore in 47 days using "siege" tactics: climbing in an expedition style using fixed ropes along the length of the route, linking established camps along the way. The fixed manila ropes allowed the climbers to ascend and descend from the ground up throughout the 18-month project, although they presented unique levels of danger as well, sometimes breaking due to the long exposure to cold temperatures; the climbing team relied on aid climbing, using rope and expansion bolts to make it to the summit. The second ascent of The Nose was in 1960 by Royal Robbins, Joe Fitschen, Chuck Pratt and Tom Frost, who took seven days in the first continuous climb of the route without siege tactics.
The first solo climb of The Nose was done by Tom Bauman in 1969. The first ascent of The Nose in one day was accomplished in 1975 by John Long, Jim Bridwell and Billy Westbay. Today, The Nose takes fit climbers 4–5 full days of climbing. Efforts during the 1960s and 1970s explored the other faces of El Capitan, many of the early routes are still popular today. Among the early classics are Salathé Wall on the southwest face, the North America Wall on the southeast face. Climbed in the 1960s are routes such as: Dihedral Wall. Ascents include: Wall of the Early Morning Light, now known as Dawn Wall, on the Southeast face, adjacent to the prow. Today there are over 70 routes on "El Cap" of various difficulties and danger levels. New routes continue to be established consisting of additions to, or links between, existing routes. After his successful solo ascent of the Leaning Tower, Royal Robbins turned his attention to the Yvon Chouinard-T. M. Herbert Muir Wall route, completing the first solo ascent of El Capitan during a 10-day push in 1968.
The first solo ascents of El Capitan's four classic "siege" routes were accomplished by Thomas Bauman on The Nose in 1969. Other noteworthy early solo ascents were the solo first ascent of Cosmos by Jim Dunn in 1972, Zodiac by Charlie Porter in 1972; these ascents were long 7- to 14-day ordeals that required the solo climber lead each pitch, rappel, clean the climbing gear, reascend the lead rope, haul equipment, food
Yosemite National Park
Yosemite National Park is an American national park located in the western Sierra Nevada of Central California, bounded on the southeast by Sierra National Forest and on the northwest by Stanislaus National Forest. The park is managed by the National Park Service and covers an area of 747,956 acres and sits in four counties: centered in Tuolumne and Mariposa, extending north and east to Mono and south to Madera County. Designated a World Heritage site in 1984, Yosemite is internationally recognized for its granite cliffs, clear streams, giant sequoia groves, mountains, meadows and biological diversity. 95% of the park is designated wilderness. On average, about 4 million people visit Yosemite each year, most spend the majority of their time in the 7 square miles of Yosemite Valley; the park set a visitation record in 2016, surpassing 5 million visitors for the first time in its history. Yosemite was central to the development of the national park idea. Galen Clark and others lobbied to protect Yosemite Valley from development leading to President Abraham Lincoln's signing the Yosemite Grant in 1864.
John Muir led a successful movement to have Congress establish a larger national park by 1890, one which encompassed the valley and its surrounding mountains and forests, paving the way for the National Park System. Yosemite is one of the largest and least fragmented habitat blocks in the Sierra Nevada, the park supports a diversity of plants and animals; the park has an elevation range from 2,127 to 13,114 feet and contains five major vegetation zones: chaparral and oak woodland, lower montane forest, upper montane forest, subalpine zone, alpine. Of California's 7,000 plant species, about 50% occur in the Sierra Nevada and more than 20% are within Yosemite; the park contains suitable habitat for more than 160 rare plants, with rare local geologic formations and unique soils characterizing the restricted ranges many of these plants occupy. The geology of the Yosemite area is characterized by granitic remnants of older rock. About 10 million years ago, the Sierra Nevada was uplifted and tilted to form its gentle western slopes and the more dramatic eastern slopes.
The uplift increased the steepness of stream and river beds, resulting in the formation of deep, narrow canyons. About one million years ago and ice accumulated, forming glaciers at the higher alpine meadows that moved down the river valleys. Ice thickness in Yosemite Valley may have reached 4,000 feet during the early glacial episode; the downslope movement of the ice masses cut and sculpted the U-shaped valley that attracts so many visitors to its scenic vistas today. The name "Yosemite" referred to the name of a renegade tribe, driven out of the area by the Mariposa Battalion; the area had been called "Ahwahnee" by indigenous people. Yosemite Valley has been inhabited for nearly 3,000 years, although humans may have first visited the area as long as 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the indigenous natives called themselves the Ahwahnechee, meaning "dwellers in Ahwahnee." They are related to the Northern Mono tribes. Many tribes visited the area to trade, including nearby Central Sierra Miwoks, who lived along the drainage area of the Tuolumne and Stanislaus Rivers.
A major trading route went over Mono Pass and through Bloody Canyon to Mono Lake, just to the east of the Yosemite area. Vegetation and game in the region were similar to that present today; the California Gold Rush in the mid-19th century increased travel by European-Americans in the area, causing competition for resources between the regional Paiute and Miwok and the miners and hangers on. In 1851 as part of the Mariposa Wars intended to suppress Native American resistance, United States Army Major Jim Savage led the Mariposa Battalion into the west end of Yosemite Valley, he was pursuing forces of around 200 Ahwahneechee led by Chief Tenaya. Accounts from this battalion were the first well-documented reports of ethnic Europeans entering Yosemite Valley. Attached to Savage's unit was Dr. Lafayette Bunnell, the company physician, who wrote about his awestruck impressions of the valley in The Discovery of the Yosemite. Bunnell is credited with naming Yosemite Valley, based on his interviews with Chief Tenaya.
Bunnell wrote. The Miwok, a neighboring tribe, most white settlers considered the Ahwahneechee to be violent because of their frequent territorial disputes; the Miwok term for the Pai-Ute band was yohhe'meti, meaning "they are killers". Correspondence and articles written by members of the battalion helped to popularize the natural wonders of the Yosemite Valley and the surrounding area. Chief Tenaya and his Ahwahneechee were captured and their village burned; the chief and some others were allowed to return to Yosemite Valley. In the spring of 1852 they attacked a group of eight gold miners, moved east to flee law enforcement. Near Mono Lake, they took refuge with the nearby Mono tribe of Paiute, they stole horses from their hosts and moved away, but the Mono Paiutes tracked down and killed many of the Ahwahneechee, including Chief Tenaya. The Mono Paiute took the survivors as captives back to Mono Lake and absorbed them into the Mono Lake Paiute tribe. After these wars, a number of Native Americans continued to live within the boundaries of Yosemite.
A number of Indians supported the growing tourism industry by worki
A crevasse is a deep crack, or fracture, found in an ice sheet or glacier, as opposed to a crevice that forms in rock. Crevasses form as a result of the movement and resulting stress associated with the shear stress generated when two semi-rigid pieces above a plastic substrate have different rates of movement; the resulting intensity of the shear stress causes a breakage along the faces. Crevasses have vertical or near-vertical walls, which can melt and create seracs and other ice formations; these walls sometimes expose layers. Crevasse size depends upon the amount of liquid water present in the glacier. A crevasse may be as deep as 100 metres, as wide as 20 metres, up to several hundred metres long. A crevasse may be covered, but not filled, by a snow bridge made of the previous years' accumulation and snow drifts; the result is that crevasses are rendered invisible, thus lethal to anyone attempting to navigate their way across a glacier. A snow bridge over an old crevasse may begin to sag, providing some landscape relief, but this cannot be relied upon.
Anyone planning to travel on a glacier should be trained in crevasse rescue. The presence of water in a crevasse can increase its penetration. Water-filled crevasses may reach the bottom of glaciers or ice sheets and provide a direct hydrologic connection between the surface, where significant summer melting occurs, the bed of the glacier, where additional water may moisten and lubricate the bed and accelerate ice flow. Longitudinal crevasses form parallel to flow, they develop such as where a valley widens or bends. They are concave down and form an angle greater than 45° with the margin. Splashing crevasses result from shear stress from the margin of the glacier and longitudinal compressing stress from lateral extension, they extend from the glacier's margin and are concave up with respect to glacier flow, making an angle less than 45° with the margin. At the centre line of the glacier, there is zero pure shear from the margins, so this area is crevasse-free. Transverse crevasses are the most common crevasse type.
They form in a zone of longitudinal extension where the principal stresses are parallel to the direction of glacier flow, creating extensional tensile stress. These crevasses stretch across the glacier transverse to cross-glacier, they form where a valley becomes steeper. Bergschrund – A crevasse between moving glacier ice and the stagnant ice or firn above Bowie Crevasse Field Glaciology – Scientific study of ice and natural phenomena involving ice Boon, S. & M. J. Sharp. "The role of hydrologically-driven ice fracture in drainage system evolution on an Arctic glacier". Geophysical Research Letters. 30: 1916. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter Colgan, W. & Rajaram, H. & Abdalati, W. & McCutchan, C. & Mottram, R. & Moussavi, M. S. & Grigsby, S.. "Glacier crevasses: Observations and mass balance implications". Rev. Geophys. 54. Doi:10.1002/2015RG000504. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter "Crevasse". Encyclopædia Britannica. Das, S. B. Joughin, I. & Behn, M. D. & Howat, I. M. & King, M. A. & Lizarralde, D. & Bhatia, M.
P.. "Fracture propagation to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet during supraglacial lake drainage". Science. 320: 778. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter Mountaineering: The Freedom of the Hills. ISBN 0-89886-309-0. Paterson, W. S. B.. The Physics of Glaciers. ISBN 0-7506-4742-6. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter van der Veen, C. J.. "Fracture mechanics approach to penetration of surface crevasses on glaciers". Cold Regions Technology. 27: 31–47. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter Zwally, H. J. & Abdalati, W. & Herring, T. & Larson, K. & Saba, J. & Steffen, K.. "Greenland ice-sheet". Science. 297: 218–222. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter Media related to Crevasses at Wikimedia Commons
Douglas Keith Scott, known as Doug Scott, is an English mountaineer noted for the first ascent of the south-west face of Mount Everest on 24 September 1975. During this expedition and Dougal Haston became the first Britons to climb Everest. In receiving one of mountaineering's highest honours, the Piolet d'Or Lifetime Achievement Award, his personal style and climbs were described as "visionary". Over the years he has been on 40 expeditions to the high mountains of Asia, during which he made some 30 first ascents. Scott was educated in Nottingham at Cottesmore Secondary Mundella Grammar schools, he started climbing at the age of 13, his interest sparked by seeing climbers on the Black Rocks in Derbyshire whilst hiking with the Scouts. His father, George Douglas Scott, was a policeman and committed amateur sportsman – running and achieved fame as a boxer, becoming Amateur Boxing Association British Heavyweight Champion in 1945. Scott lived on the outskirts of Nottingham with his father and mother, Edith Joyce Scott, younger brothers and Garry.
All were encouraged towards the open countryside the Peak District. After two years at Loughborough Teachers’ Training College, Scott taught geography, history, PE and games for ten years at his old secondary modern school. In 1962 he married Janice Brook, with whom he had three children, Michael and Rosie; the marriage was dissolved in 1988. In 1993 he married Sharabati Prabhu, with whom he had two sons and Euan; the marriage was dissolved in 2003. In 2007 he married Patricia Lang. Athletics Hill walking and rock climbing Rugby - founding member of Nottingham Modern's RFC, 1956 Mountaineering Mountain photography Organic vegetable gardening Scott is regarded as one of the world’s leading high altitude and big wall climbers, he is best known for surviving an unplanned bivouac with Dougal Haston 100 metres below the summit of Everest, without oxygen, sleeping bags and, as it turned out, without frostbite. Apart from his first ascent of the southwest face of Everest with Haston, all his other Himalayan climbs were achieved in lightweight or pure Alpine style.
He pioneered big wall climbing on Baffin Island, Mount Kenya and in the Karakoram, famously on The Ogre with Chris Bonington, on Shivling in the Indian Himal. Highlights of Scott’s climbing career include: 1965: Tarso Tiroko, Tibesti mountains of Chad with Ray Gillies, Clive Davies and Pete Warrington 1967: South face of Koh-i-Bandaka, Hindu Kush with Ray Gillies 1970: Salathe Wall of El Capitan with Peter Habeler 1972: Mount Asgard, Baffin Island with Dennis Hennek, Paul Nunn and Paul Braithwaite 1974: Changabang, first ascent with Bonington, Haston et al 1974: Pic Lenin, with Clive Rowland, Guy Lee, Braithwaite 1975: Southwest face of Everest, with Haston 1976: South face Denali, with Haston 1977: Baintha Brakk, with Bonington, descent with both legs broken at the ankle with the selfless help of Mo Anthoine and Clive Rowland 1978: Mount Waddington, with Rob Wood 1979: North ridge of Kangchenjunga, with Pete Boardman and Jo Tasker. 1979: Nuptse, North face, with Georges Bettembourg, Brian Hall and Alan Rouse 1981: Shivling, with Bettemboug, Greg Child and Rick White 1982: Shishapangma, south face, with Alex MacIntyre and Roger Baxter-Jones 1983: Lobsang Spire, with Child and Peter Thexton 1984: Chamlang, East ridge, with Michael Scott, Jean Afanassieff and Ang Phurba 1988: Jitchu Drake, with Prabhu and Victor Saunders 1992: Nanga Parbat, Central Mazeno Peaks, with Sergey Efimov, Alan Hinkes, Ang Phurba and Nga Temba.
1998: Drohmo, South pillar, with Roger Mear 2000: Targo Ri, Central Tibet, with Julian Freeman-Attwood and Richard CowperScott is a founder member of the Nottingham Climbers Club, was president of the Alpine Climbing Group, Vice president BMC and president of the Alpine Club. He was made a CBE in 1994. In 1999 he was awarded the Patron’s Medal of the Royal Geographical Society. In 2005 he was presented with the Golden Eagle Award by the Outdoor Photographers Guild. In 2005, following on from Tom Weir and Adam Watson, he became the third recipient of the John Muir Trust Lifetime Achievement Award in recognition of his mountaineering accomplishments and commitment to conservation and supporting mountain people and mountain environments around the world. Following on from Walter Bonatti and Reinhold Messner he received the Piolet d'Or Lifetime Achievement Award in Chamonix in 2011. Scott was made a Freeman of the City of Nottingham in 1976 and has since had a Nottingham tram named after him, he was awarded an honorary MA by the universities of Nottingham and Loughborough, 1993, Hon. MEd Nottingham Trent, 1995, Hon Dr. Derby University, 2007.
He was BMC representative on the UIAA and is a member of the UIAA Management Committee: 2008 - 2012. Scott edited the well-received document'The UIAA's Recommendations for Preserving Natural Rock for Adventure Climbing' He was Chairman of Mount Everest Foundation 2014 - 2017 and Vice Chairman of the Mountain Heritage Trust 2014 - 2017 He is Hon Member of the Climbers Club, The Alpine Club and the American Alpine Club He is a Patron of the BMC 2015 - present During Scott's climbing career, his understanding of the culture and the people in the regions where he c
Denali is the highest mountain peak in North America, with a summit elevation of 20,310 feet above sea level. With a topographic prominence of 20,156 feet and a topographic isolation of 4,629 miles, Denali is the third most prominent and third most isolated peak on Earth, after Mount Everest and Aconcagua. Located in the Alaska Range in the interior of the U. S. state of Alaska, Denali is the centerpiece of Preserve. The Koyukon people who inhabit the area around the mountain have referred to the peak as "Denali" for centuries. In 1896, a gold prospector named it "Mount McKinley" in support of then-presidential candidate William McKinley. In August 2015, following the 1975 lead of the State of Alaska, the United States Department of the Interior announced the change of the official name of the mountain to Denali. In 1903, James Wickersham recorded the first attempt at climbing Denali, unsuccessful. In 1906, Frederick Cook claimed the first ascent, proven to be false; the first verifiable ascent to Denali's summit was achieved on June 7, 1913, by climbers Hudson Stuck, Harry Karstens, Walter Harper, Robert Tatum, who went by the South Summit.
In 1951, Bradford Washburn pioneered the West Buttress route, considered to be the safest and easiest route, therefore the most popular in use. On September 2, 2015, the U. S. Geological Survey announced that the mountain is 20,310 feet high, not 20,320 feet, as measured in 1952 using photogrammetry. Denali is a granitic pluton lifted by tectonic pressure from the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate; the forces that lifted Denali cause many deep earthquakes in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. The Pacific Plate is seismically active beneath Denali, a tectonic region, known as the "McKinley cluster". Denali has a summit elevation of 20,310 feet above sea level, making it the highest peak in North America and the northernmost mountain above 6,000 meters elevation in the world. Measured from base to peak at some 18,000 ft, it is among the largest mountains situated above sea level. Denali rises from a sloping plain with elevations from 1,000 to 3,000 ft, for a base-to-peak height of 17,000 to 19,000 ft.
By comparison, Mount Everest rises from the Tibetan Plateau at a much higher base elevation. Base elevations for Everest range from 13,800 ft on the south side to 17,100 ft on the Tibetan Plateau, for a base-to-peak height in the range of 12,000 to 15,300 ft. Denali's base-to-peak height is little more than half the 33,500 ft of the volcano Mauna Kea, which lies under water. Denali has two significant summits: the South Summit is the higher one, while the North Summit has an elevation of 19,470 ft and a prominence of 1,270 ft; the North Summit is sometimes counted as sometimes not. Five large glaciers flow off the slopes of the mountain; the Peters Glacier lies on the northwest side of the massif, while the Muldrow Glacier falls from its northeast slopes. Just to the east of the Muldrow, abutting the eastern side of the massif, is the Traleika Glacier; the Ruth Glacier lies to the southeast of the mountain, the Kahiltna Glacier leads up to the southwest side of the mountain. With a length of 44 mi, the Kahiltna Glacier is the longest glacier in the Alaska Range.
The Koyukon Athabaskans who inhabit the area around the mountain have for centuries referred to the peak as Dinale or Denali. The name is based on a Koyukon word for "high" or "tall". During the Russian ownership of Alaska, the common name for the mountain was Bolshaya Gora, the Russian translation of Denali, it was called Densmore's Mountain in the late 1880s and early 1890s after Frank Densmore, an Alaskan prospector, the first European to reach the base of the mountain. In 1896, a gold prospector named it McKinley as political support for then-presidential candidate William McKinley, who became president the following year; the United States formally recognized the name Mount McKinley after President Wilson signed the Mount McKinley National Park Act of February 26, 1917. In 1965, Lyndon B. Johnson declared the north and south peaks of the mountain the "Churchill Peaks", in honor of British statesman Winston Churchill; the Alaska Board of Geographic Names changed the name of the mountain to Denali in 1975, how it is called locally.
However, a request in 1975 from the Alaska state legislature to the United States Board on Geographic Names to do the same at the federal level was blocked by Ohio congressman Ralph Regula, whose district included McKinley's hometown of Canton. On August 30, 2015, just ahead of a presidential visit to Alaska, the Barack Obama administration announced the name Denali would be restored in line with the Alaska Geographic Board's designation. U. S. Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell issued the order changing the name to Denali on August 28, 2015, effective immediately. Jewell said the change had been "a long time coming"; the renaming of the mountain received praise from Alaska's senior U. S. senator, Lisa Murkowski, who had introduced legislation to accomplish the name change, but it drew criticism from several politicians from Pres