The Philadelphia Tribune is the oldest continuously published African-American newspaper in the United States. The paper began in 1884. Throughout its history, The Philadelphia Tribune has been committed to the social and economic advancement of African Americans in the Greater Philadelphia region. During a time when African Americans struggled for equality, the Tribune acted as the "Voice of the black community" for Philadelphia. Historian V. P. Franklin asserted that the Tribune "was an important Afro-American cultural institution that embodied the predominant cultural values of upper-, middle-, lower-class Black Philadelphians."In the early 21st century, the paper is headquartered at 520 South 16th Street, Pennsylvania. It publishes on Tuesday, Thursday and Sunday; the Philadelphia Tribune publishes the Tribune Magazine, Entertainment Now, The Learning Key, The Sunday Tribune. The Tribune has a weekly readership of about 625,000, is read by people living in the Philadelphia-Camden Metro Area, as well as in Chester.
The Tribune has received the John B. Russwurm award as "Best Newspaper" in the country seven times since 1995. Christopher J. Perry was born on September 1854 in Baltimore, Maryland to free people of color. Perry attended school in Baltimore, gaining a positive reputation in his local community through his public speeches. After he graduated from high school in 1873, the ambitious Perry migrated to Philadelphia, feeling there were more opportunities in the northern city, given the waning days of Reconstruction in the South.:261Once in Philadelphia, Perry began writing for local newspapers such as the Northern Daily and the Sunday Mercury. He wrote a column titled, "Flashes and Sparks" for the Mercury, which provided information to the growing Black community in Philadelphia. Other migrants from the South were settling there. Through his regular columns, Perry gained positive attention from the educated members of the African-American community in Philadelphia. However, in 1884, the Sunday Mercury went bankrupt and Perry was without a job.:262Later that year on November 27, 1884, Perry began his own newspaper entitled the Philadelphia Tribune.
He ran the operation as the owner, editor and advertiser. Perry worked on the Tribune until his death in 1921. Throughout his career with the Tribune, Perry promoted the advancement of African Americans in society and covered issues affecting their daily lives; when the Tribune began publication in 1884, it was a weekly, one-page paper, publishing from 725 Sansom Street. Despite the challenges Black businesses faced during the late nineteenth century in journalism, the Tribune enjoyed unusual success during its early years, it averaged 3,225 copies weekly by 1887. In 1891, Perry and the Tribune received national recognition when Garland Penn, a prominent advocate for African-American journalism, praised the Philadelphia newspaper in his book The Afro-American Press and Its Editors. In his book, Penn complimented the Tribune's consistency and reliability.:262 However, the Tribune was not the only African-American newspaper circulating in Philadelphia at the time. The Tribune competed against other African-American newspapers during its first few decades, such as The Philadelphia Standard Echo, The Philadelphia Sentinel, The Philadelphia Defender, The Courant.
But by 1900, the Tribune became the leading voice of Black Philadelphia, W. E. B. Du Bois referred to it as "the chief news-sheet" in the city.:263 After Reconstruction ended in 1877, many African Americans from the South migrated to northern cities in search of a better life. The city went through a fundamental transformation as African Americans flooded the city looking for jobs. Racial tensions divided Philadelphia as the new Black migrants crowded neighborhoods and competed with Whites for jobs, including Irish immigrants and other European immigrants. During the migration and The Tribune served as an outlet to educate and inform Black Philadelphians, it helped the new migrants adjust to their new city, it covered job openings, civic affairs, social events, church news. Rather than just report the news, the Tribune committed itself to helping to improve the standard of living for African Americans in Philadelphia; the Tribune supported and advertised civic groups such as The Armstrong Association, Negro Migration Committee, the National Urban League of Philadelphia in order to combat the increasing discrimination found within the city.:266 Beginning about 1910, a new wave of black migrants moved to Philadelphia, as part of the Great Migration from the rural South to northern and midwestern industrial cities.
The expansion of railroads drew many new workers. After World War I began, industries began to recruit blacks as whites were drafted into the military; the city was crowded and new migrants moved into White neighborhoods, resulting in violent reactions in working-class areas. White mobs formed to intimidate Black families. In 1914, a White mob attacked and destroyed the new home of a Black woman, but the Philadelphia Department of Public Safety failed to investigate the crime and no White newspapers reported the incident; the managing editor of the Tribune, G. Grant Williams, reported the case and encouraged African-Americans to join the police force and become part of shaping the city.:268The newspaper worked with the Colored Protective Association to help defend African-Americans who were unfairly arrested. Williams wrote articles on how to protect community women from racial violence, as well as giving advice on morals and values; as a way to create a cultural identity and unity among Blacks in the city, the Tribune publiciz
In the English language, the word nigger is an ethnic slur directed at black people. The word originated in the 18th century as an adaptation of the Spanish negro, a descendant of the Latin adjective niger, which means black, it was used derogatorily, by the mid-20th century in the United States, its usage became unambiguously pejorative, a racist insult. Accordingly, it began to disappear from popular culture, its continued inclusion in classic works of literature has sparked controversy; because the term is considered offensive, it is referred to by the euphemism "the N-word". The variants neger and negar derive from various Mediterranean language words for "black", including the Spanish and Portuguese word negro and the now-pejorative French nègre. Etymologically, noir, nègre, nigger derive from nigrum, the stem of the Latin niger. In its original English language usage, nigger was a word for a dark-skinned individual; the earliest known published use of the term dates from 1574, in a work alluding to "the Nigers of Aethiop, bearing witnes".
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first derogatory usage of the term nigger was recorded two centuries in 1775. In the colonial America of 1619, John Rolfe used negars in describing the African slaves shipped to the Virginia colony. American English spellings and neggar, prevailed in a northern colony, New York under the Dutch, in metropolitan Philadelphia's Moravian and Pennsylvania Dutch communities. Lexicographer Noah Webster, whose eponymous dictionary did much to solidify the distinctive spelling of American English, suggested the neger spelling in place of negro in 1806; the dialect spoken in the Southern United States changes the pronunciation of negro to nigra. During the fur trade of the early 1800s to the late 1840s in the Western United States, the word was spelled "niggur", is recorded in literature of the time. George Fredrick Ruxton used it in his "mountain man" lexicon, without pejorative connotation. "Niggur" was evidently similar to the modern use of "dude" or "guy".
This passage from Ruxton's Life in the Far West illustrates the word in spoken form—the speaker here referring to himself: "Travler, this niggur's no travler. It was not used as a term for blacks among mountain men during this period, as Indians and Frenchmen and Anglos alike could be a "niggur". "The noun slipped back and forth from derogatory to endearing."The term "colored" or "negro" became a respectful alternative. In 1851 the Boston Vigilance Committee, an Abolitionist organization, posted warnings to the Colored People of Boston and vicinity. Writing in 1904, journalist Clifton Johnson documented the "opprobrious" character of the word nigger, emphasizing that it was chosen in the South because it was more offensive than "colored" or "negro". By the turn of the century, "colored" had become sufficiently mainstream that it was chosen as the racial self-identifier for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. In 2008 Carla Sims, its communications director, said "the term'colored' is not derogatory, chose the word'colored' because it was the most positive description used.
It's outdated and antiquated but not offensive." Canadian writer Lawrence Hill changed the title of his 2007 novel The Book of Negroes. The name refers to a real historical document, but he felt compelled to find another name for the American market, retitling the US edition Someone Knows My Name. Nineteenth-century literature features usages of "nigger" without racist connotation. Mark Twain, in the autobiographic book Life on the Mississippi, used the term within quotes, indicating reported speech, but used the term "negro" when writing in his own narrative persona. Joseph Conrad published a novella in Britain with the title The Nigger of the'Narcissus', but was advised to release it in the United States as The Children of the Sea, see below. By the late 1960s, the social change brought about by the civil rights movement had legitimized the racial identity word black as mainstream American English usage to denote black-skinned Americans of African ancestry. President Thomas Jefferson had used this word of his slaves in his Notes on the State of Virginia', but "black" had not been used until the 20th century.
In the 1990s, "Black" was displaced in favor of "African American", an example of what linguist Steven Pinker calls the "euphemism treadmill". Moreover, as a compound word, African American resembles the vogue word Afro-American, an early-1970s popular usage; some black Americans continue to use the word nigger spelled as nigga and niggah, without irony, either to neutralize the word's impact or as a sign of solidarity. In the 1990s, dune coon would evolve as an equivalent of the variant sand nigger, an epithet directed at persons of Middle Eastern heritage. H. W. Fowler in A Dictionary of Modern English Usage states that applying the word nigger to "others than full or partial negroes" is "felt as an insult by the person described, & betrays in the speaker, if not deliberate insolence, at least a arrogant inhumanity".
Combat medic or field medic is a US term for military personnel who have been trained to at least an EMT-B level, are responsible for providing first aid and frontline trauma care on the battlefield. They are responsible for providing continuous medical care in the absence of a available physician, including care for disease and battle injuries. Combat medics are co-located with the combat troops they serve in order to move with the troops and monitor ongoing health. Other countries have similar services, but this article is concerned with the US provision. In 1864, sixteen European states adopted the first-ever Geneva Convention to save lives and alleviate the suffering of wounded and sick persons in the battlefield, as well as to protect trained medical personnel as non-combatants, in the act of rendering aid. Chapter IV, Article 25 of the Geneva Convention states that: "Members of the armed forces specially trained for employment, should the need arise, as hospital orderlies, nurses or auxiliary stretcher-bearers, in the search for or the collection, transport or treatment of the wounded and sick shall be respected and protected if they are carrying out these duties at the time when they come into contact with the enemy or fall into his hands."
Article 29 reads: "Members of the personnel designated in Article 25 who have fallen into the hands of the enemy, shall be prisoners of war, but shall be employed on their medical duties insofar as the need arises." According to the Geneva Convention, knowingly firing at a medic wearing clear insignia is a war crime. In modern times, most combat medics carry a personal weapon, to be used to protect themselves and the wounded or sick in their care. During World War II, for example, medics serving the European and Mediterranean areas carried the M1911A1 pistol while those serving the Pacific theater carried pistols or M1 carbines; when and if they use their arms offensively, they sacrifice their protection under the Geneva Conventions. Surgeon Dominique Jean Larrey directed the Grande Armée of Napoleon to develop mobile field hospitals, or "ambulances volantes", in addition to a corps of trained and equipped soldiers to aid those on the battlefield. Before Larrey's initiative in the 1790s, wounded soldiers were either left amid the fighting until the combat ended or their comrades would carry them to the rear line.
During the American Civil War, Surgeon Jonathan Letterman, Medical Director of the Army of the Potomac, realized a need for an integrated medical treatment and evacuation system, equipped with dedicated vehicles, organizations and personnel. The Letterman plan was first implemented in September 1862 at the Battle of Maryland; the United States Army’s need for medical and scientific specialty officers to support combat operations resulted in the creation of two temporary components: the U. S. Army Ambulance Service, established on June 23, 1917 and the Sanitary Corps, established on June 30, 1917. Officers of the Sanitary Corps served in medical logistics, hospital administration, patient administration, resource management, x-ray, laboratory engineering, physical reconstruction, gas defense, venereal disease control, they were dedicated members of the medical team that enabled American generals to concentrate on enemy threats rather than epidemic threats. On August 4, 1947, Congress created the Navy Medical Service Corps.
In the United States, a report entitled "Accidental Death and Disability: The Neglected Disease of Modern Society", was published by National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council. Better known as "The White Paper" to emergency providers, it revealed that soldiers who were wounded on the battlefields of Vietnam had a better survival rate than those individuals who were injured in motor vehicle accidents on California freeways. Early research attributed these differences in outcome to a number of factors, including comprehensive trauma care, rapid transport to designated trauma facilities, a new type of medical corpsman, one, trained to perform certain critical advanced medical procedures such as fluid replacement and airway management, which allowed the victim to survive the journey to definitive care; the International Committee of the Red Cross, a private humanitarian institution based in Switzerland, provided the first official symbol for medical personnel. The first Geneva convention called for "Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field," adopted the red cross on a field of white as the identifying emblem.
This symbol was meant to signify to enemy combatants that the medic qualifies as a non-combatant, at least while providing medical care. Islamic countries use a Red Crescent instead. During the 1876–1878 war between Russia and Turkey, the Ottoman Empire declared that it would use a red crescent instead of a red cross as its emblem, although it agreed to respect the red cross used by the other side. Although these symbols were sponsored by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the Magen David Adom, Israel's emergency relief service, used the Magen David. Israeli medics still wear the Magen David. To enable MDA to become a recognized and participating member of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Protocol III was adopted, it is an amendment to the Geneva Conventions relating to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem and authorizes the use of a new emblem, known as the third protocol emblem or the Red Crystal. For indicative use on foreign territory, any national society
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
York, known as the White Rose City, is the county seat of York County, United States, located in the south-central region of the state. The population within York's city limits was 43,718 at the 2010 census, a 7.0% increase from the 2000 count of 40,862. When combined with the adjacent boroughs of West York and North York and surrounding Spring Garden, West Manchester, Springettsbury townships, the population of Greater York was 108,386. York is the 11th largest city in Pennsylvania; the city has been called an "architectural museum," because the downtown features numerous well-preserved historic structures, such as the 1741 Golden Plough Tavern, the 1751 General Horatio Gates House, the 1766 York Meetinghouse, the 1863 Billmeyer House, the 1888 York Central Market, the 1907 Moorish Revival Temple Beth Israel. Other notable buildings are the Laurel-Rex Fire Company House, Forry House, Farmers Market, Barnett Bobb House, Cookes House, United Cigar Manufacturing Company building, Stevens School, York Dispatch Newspaper Offices, York Armory.
The city is home to four national historic districts: Fairmount Historic District, Northwest York Historic District, Springdale Historic District, York Historic District. York known as Yorktown in the mid 18th to early 19th centuries, was founded in 1741 by settlers from the Philadelphia region and named for the English city of the same name. By 1777, most of the area residents were of either Scots-Irish descent. York was incorporated as a borough on September 24, 1787, as a city on January 11, 1887. During the American Revolutionary War, York served as the temporary capital of the Continental Congress; the Articles of Confederation were drafted and adopted in York, though they were not ratified until March 1781. York styles itself the first Capital of the United States, although historians consider it to be the fourth capital, after Philadelphia and Lancaster; the claim arises from the assertion that the Articles of Confederation was the first legal document to refer to the colonies as "the United States of America".
The argument depends on whether the Declaration of Independence, which uses the term, would be considered a true legal document of the United States, being drafted under and in opposition to British rule. This does not, prevent modern businesses and organizations in the York area, such as the First Capital Dispensing Co. First Capital Engineering and First Capital Federal Credit Union from using the name; the Conway Cabal, a political intrigue against General George Washington, had its origins in the Golden Plough Tavern in York. According to U. S. census reports from 1800 through 1840, York ranked within the nation's top 100 most populous urban areas. During the American Civil War, York became the largest Northern town to be occupied by the Confederate army when the division of Major General Jubal Anderson Early spent June 28–30, 1863, in and around the town while the brigade of John B. Gordon marched to the Susquehanna River at Wrightsville and back. Early laid York under tribute and collected food, clothing, $28,000 in cash from citizens and merchants before departing westward obeying the revised orders of Robert E. Lee.
The sprawling York U. S. Army Hospital on Penn Commons served thousands of Union soldiers wounded at the battles of Antietam and Gettysburg. In the Postbellum era, York remained a regional center for local agriculture, but became an important industrial center, with such industries as steam engines, railroad manufacturing, papermaking coming to the forefront. York features some unique architecture ranging from colonial era buildings to large gothic churches; the York Motor Car Co. built Pullman automobiles on North George St. from 1905 thorough 1917. An early and unique six-wheeled prototype was involved in one of the city's first known automobile accidents. Another model was driven to San Francisco and back over about one month to prove its reliability several years before the creation of the Lincoln Highway which ran through town, connecting New York and San Francisco; the York area had been home for more than 100 years to the Pfaltzgraff company, which built its first pottery factory in the area in 1895 and continued manufacturing in York until 2005.
Though now produced by The Hershey Company, the York Peppermint Pattie was created in York in 1940. Throughout the middle 20th Century, the black residents of the city were subject to hostile racial prejudice and social injustices. Between 1955 and 1970, the people of York experienced racial discrimination leading to riots, most notably the 1969 York Race Riot, which resulted in the death of Lily Allen and Henry C. Schaad; these murders were left ignored until 31 years when allegations of murder and racial prejudice were raised against the mayor at the time, Charlie Robertson. Additionally, throughout the entire century, the city held unopposed Ku Klux Klan rallies and public meetings, despite continuous racial tensions. Though the murders of Allen and Schaad were solved and the perpetrators were apprehended, the actions, which originate back to the beginnings of the hate group, continue to present day. In 2002, the city faced a budget shortfall of $1,000,000. Mayor John S. Brenner's plan to raise the money by asking York County's 302,000 adult residents to donate $3.32 to the city received national attention.
The plan, referred to by some as the "Big Mac" Plan, did not raise all the monies sought. After many years of attempting to secure funding for a stadium and a baseball team to play in it, the first decade of the century saw York realize both goals. In 2007, Santander Stadium, home of the Yo
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe