Rushworth is a township in Victoria, Australia. It is located 157 kilometres north of Melbourne and, at the 2011 census, had a population of 1,381. Rushworth was established during the Victorian gold rush in 1853, it was named by poet and local Goldfields Commissioner Richard Henry Horne in 1854. Its post office opened on 16 September 1857; the goldfields became no longer viable due to the underground water table and were closed during the gold rush. The town has an Australian rules football team competing in the District Football League. Golfers play at the course of the Rushworth Golf Club on Tatura Road. Whroo, Victoria Balaclava Mine
Footscray is an inner-western suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 5 km from Melbourne's Central Business District. Its local government area is the City of Maribyrnong. At the 2016 census, Footscray had a population of 16,345. Footscray is characterised by a diverse, multicultural central shopping area, which reflects the successive waves of immigration experienced by Melbourne, by Footscray in particular. Once a centre for Greek and former Yugoslavian migrants, it became a hub for Vietnamese and East African immigrants in Melbourne, it has begun to undergo rapid development and gentrification. Footscray is named on the River Cray in London, England. Footscray is part of the City of Maribyrnong and was built on the traditional lands of the Kulin nation. For thousands of years, Footscray was the meeting place of the lands of the Yalukit-willan, the Marin-balluk and the Wurundjeri. Koories stalked game, collected food and fished along the river junction, estuaries and lagoons. Within Melbourne's western region, the Marin-balug and Kurung-jand-balug clans of the Woiwurrung cultural group, the Yalukit willam clan of the Boonwurrung cultural group shared the luscious resources around the Maribyrnong Valley.
The first European to visit the area was Charles Grimes in 1803. A park, where he landed, is named after him at Napier St. In 1839 a punt was built on the Maribyrnong River, it was the only connecting link between Melbourne and Geelong, Ballarat and Bendigo; the Punt Hotel opened three years and was the first building in the area. During the first decade drovers transporting cattle and sheep provided the only business at the hotel. After 1851, when gold was discovered out west, the pub did a roaring trade with diggers. Part of the old pub still stands and it has been renamed The Pioneer; the Post Office first opened on 12 October 1857. Footscray was declared a municipality in 1859 with a population of 70 buildings. Around the same year the first bridge was built across Saltwater River. Between 1881 and 1891 Footscray's population more than tripled from 6,000 to 19,000. Footscray developed into an industrial zone in the second half of the nineteenth century, with the manufacturing industry beginning to decline in the 1960s and 70s.
Footscray was home to the Aboriginal Boonwurrung tribes of the Kulin nation. In 2011, Footscray's 13,193 residents came from 135 countries. In 2006 less than half the population was born in Australia, the main countries of overseas origin are Vietnam, India, United Kingdom and Italy. In the 21st Century, Maribyrnong of which Footscray is a part, saw a major increase in residents from Sudan, Somalia, Sri Lanka and Myanmar, including a large proportion of refugees. Footscray has Victoria's fourth-highest proportion of residents born in South-East Asia; the average person in Footscray is 33 years of age. Maribyrnong Council predicts a population boom will more than double Footscray resident numbers from 14,100 to 30,500 by 2031, requiring about 7000 new dwellings. Footscray falls within the federal electorate of Gellibrand and the state electorate of Footscray, the City of Maribyrnong at local level; the suburb's historical voting patterns have been typical of a working-class suburb with a high migrant population.
Footscray is a safe state ALP seat, 65% of the vote went to Labor at the 2014 State election. Consistent with other inner-city electorates in Melbourne, other state capitals, voter support for the Australian Greens has increased in recent years. One third of voters at the Central Footscray booth voted for the Australian Greens in the 2010 Federal election doubling the Greens vote in one election cycle. For the first time in over 100 years, Maribyrnong Council is no longer under Labor control. In 2012 voters elected three Labor councillors. Catherine Cummings is the Mayor for 2012–13. At the Federal Election of 2010, the ALP won Gellibrand, which includes Footscray, with 59% of the vote; the Lib/Nat parties got 23%, whilst The Greens saw a swing of +6% with 15% of the vote. Janet Rice of The Greens was elected to Maribyrnong Council in 2003, re-elected in 2005 and elected Mayor in 2006. Whilst Mayor, Janet had a Mayoral bike instead of a car; the first Vietnamese woman Mayor was Mai Ho, from 1997 to 1998.
Mai Ho arrived in Australia in December 1982 with sixteen dollars. By 1997 she was Mayor of Maribyrnong. Twelve months her daughter, Tan Le, was voted Young Australian of the Year. There are over 130 restaurants in Footscray, including. Footscray has one each of the following restaurants. Subway and Nandos are the only multi-national corporate food outlets in central Footscray. Notable restaurants include the award-winning Station Hotel, winner of radio 3AW's "Pub of the Year"; the Footscray Market is a large indoor fresh produce and seafood market, with 33 food stalls and 50 general stalls, catering to the various ethnicities and local restaurants. It is located opposite Footscray railway station; the Melbourne Wholesale Market on Footscray Road moved to Epping in 2015. Another large market in Footscray was Little Saigon, which o
Australian Football Hall of Fame
The Australian Football Hall of Fame was established in 1996, the Centenary year of the Australian Football League, to help recognise the contributions made to the sport of Australian rules football by players, media personalities and administrators. It was established with 136 inductees; as of 2014, this figure has grown to 257, including 27 "Legends". While those involved in the game from its inception in 1858 are theoretically eligible few outside the major leagues – the Australian Football League, the Victorian Football League, the West Australian Football League and the South Australian National Football League – have been recognised to date. A committee considers candidates on the basis of their ability, integrity and character. While the number of games played, coached or umpired, or years of service in the case of administrators and media representatives, is a consideration, it alone does not determine eligibility. Players must be retired from the game for at least three years before they become eligible for induction, while coaches, umpires and media representatives are eligible upon retirement.
The committee considers candidates from all the states and territories of Australia and from all Australian Football competitions within Australia. The following excerpt from the official Hall of Fame website highlights the main criteria used by the committee in selecting inductees to the Hall of Fame: The Committee shall consider a candidate's outstanding service and overall contribution to the game of Australian Football in determining a candidate's eligibility for induction into the Hall of Fame. Without limiting clause 5.1, the Committee may consider a candidate's individual record, integrity and character. The number of football games played, coached or umpired or the years of service provided shall only be a consideration and shall not be determinative in assessing a candidate's eligibility. A player, umpire, administrator or media representative involved at any level of Australian Football may be eligible for induction into the Hall of Fame. Candidates shall be adjudged on the basis of their overall contribution to Australian Football, as opposed to one specific aspect.
In 2010, several amendments were made to the selection criteria: The key criteria changes include: The maximum number of inductees in any single year reduced from eight to six, to increase the emphasis and honour for those inducted. The requirement to induct a minimum of three retired players reduced to a minimum of two, to ensure older players deserving of induction are represented in proportion; the requirement to have one inductee from the grouping of categories umpire/administrator/media every year changed to a minimum of one from this category every two years. The Hall of Fame selection committee to be independent from the AFL Commission; the wording in the charter has been changed so that the selection committee recommends to the commission for “endorsement” rather than for “approval”. Selectors would be appointed for an initial term of three years, with two further opportunities to be appointed for subsequent three year terms. At least 25 per cent of the selection committee to reside outside of Victoria.
The Legends category is reserved for those who are deemed to have had a significant impact on the game of Australian rules football. All "Legends" enshrined to date represent former players of the VFL/AFL, with the exception of Barrie Robran who played the whole of his career in the SANFL. Being named as a "Legend" of the Australian Football Hall of Fame is the highest honour which can be bestowed onto an Australian footballer. In 2010, several amendments to the Legends category were made to ensure the exclusivity and prestige of the Hall of Fame. Among them were: The Legends category remains for recognition of the most significant playing and coaching records The number of Legends that can be part of the Hall of Fame remains at a maximum of 10 per cent of the total inductees Criteria for elevating an inductee to Legend status requires that only ‘playing and coaching’ records be taken into account and not a candidate’s overall contribution to the game outside of playing and coaching People inducted into the Australian Football Hall of Fame on their coaching records.
John Acraman Charles Kingston Richard Twopeny Every year there is a special Hall of Fame dinner to announce and welcome the new inductees to the Hall of Fame. The Hall of Fame inductions started in Melbourne in 1996 to celebrate the VFL-AFL centenary season. Ceremonies have only been held outside of Victoria twice, once at Canberra in 2013 and once at Adelaide in 2017; the Hall of Fame has been criticised by football writers and historians for being biased towards figures from Victoria. The initial selection committee was made up of 11 Victorians, one South Australian and one Western Australian, with the current selection committee being made up of six Victorians, two Western Australians and one South Australian. Of the 136 inaugural inductees into the Hall of Fame, 116 played substantial parts of their careers in Victoria, with eleven of the thirteen "Legends" from Victoria. Criticism has been slated at the under-representation of pioneers and other early stars of the game. Adam Cardosi wrote in 2014: If we take the HOF at face value, footy legends only started to appear in number from the 1930s, reached a high point in the 1960s and 1970s....
Thus, according to the HOF’s reckoning, the first sixty five years of the game is worth one legend, while the next sixty five years is worth 24 legends. In 2018 the same criticism was levelled by ABC sport reporter James Coventry who cr
The Age is a daily newspaper, published in Melbourne, since 1854. Owned and published by Nine, The Age serves Victoria but is available for purchase in Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and border regions of South Australia and southern New South Wales, it is delivered in both hardcopy and online formats. The newspaper shares many articles with other Fairfax Media metropolitan daily newspapers, such as The Sydney Morning Herald; as at February 2017, The Age had an average weekday circulation of 88,000, increasing to 152,000 on Saturdays. The Sunday Age had a circulation of 123,000; these represented year-on-year declines of somewhere from 8% to 9%. The Age's website, according to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, is the 44th and 58th most visited website in Australia as of July 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the seventh most visited news website in Australia, attracting more than 7 million visitors per month; the Age was founded by three Melbourne businessmen, the brothers John and Henry Cooke, who had arrived from New Zealand in the 1840s, Walter Powell.
The first edition appeared on 17 October 1854. The venture was not a success, in June 1856 the Cookes sold the paper to Ebenezer Syme, a Scottish-born businessman, James McEwan, an ironmonger and founder of McEwans & Co, for 2,000 pounds at auction; the first edition under the new owners was on 17 June 1856. From its foundation the paper was self-consciously liberal in its politics: "aiming at a wide extension of the rights of free citizenship and a full development of representative institutions," and supporting "the removal of all restrictions upon freedom of commerce, freedom of religion and—to the utmost extent, compatible with public morality—upon freedom of personal action."Ebenezer Syme was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly shortly after buying The Age, his brother David Syme soon came to dominate the paper and managerially. When Ebenezer died in 1860, David became editor-in-chief, a position he retained until his death in 1908, although a succession of editors did the day-to-day editorial work.
In 1891, Syme bought out Ebenezer's heirs and McEwan's and became sole proprietor. He built up The Age into Victoria's leading newspaper. In circulation, it soon overtook its rivals The Herald and The Argus, by 1890 it was selling 100,000 copies a day, making it one of the world's most successful newspapers. Under Syme's control The Age exercised enormous political power in Victoria, it supported liberal politicians such as Graham Berry, George Higinbotham and George Turner, other leading liberals such as Alfred Deakin and Charles Pearson furthered their careers as The Age journalists. Syme was a free trader, but converted to protectionism through his belief that Victoria needed to develop its manufacturing industries behind tariff barriers. In the 1890s, The Age was a leading supporter of Australian federation and of the White Australia policy. After Syme's death the paper remained in the hands of his three sons, with his eldest son Herbert Syme becoming general manager until his death in 1939.
Syme's will prevented the sale of any equity in the paper during his sons' lifetimes, an arrangement designed to protect family control but which had the effect of starving the paper of investment capital for 40 years. Under the management of Sir Geoffrey Syme, his chosen editors Gottlieb Schuler and Harold Campbell, The Age failed to modernise, lost market share to The Argus and to the tabloid The Sun News-Pictorial, although its classified advertisement sections kept the paper profitable. By the 1940s, the paper's circulation was smaller than it had been in 1900, its political influence declined. Although it remained more liberal than the conservative Argus, it lost much of its distinct political identity; the historian Sybil Nolan writes: "Accounts of The Age in these years suggest that the paper was second-rate, outdated in both its outlook and appearance. Walker described a newspaper which had fallen asleep in the embrace of the Liberal Party, it is criticised not only for its increasing conservatism, but for its failure to keep pace with innovations in layout and editorial technique so demonstrated in papers like The Sun News-Pictorial and The Herald."
In 1942, David Syme's last surviving son, Oswald Syme, took over the paper. He modernised the paper's appearance and standards of news coverage. In 1948, convinced the paper needed outside capital, he persuaded the courts to overturn his father's will and floated David Syme and Co. as a public company, selling 400,000 pounds worth of shares, enabling a badly needed technical modernisation of the newspaper's production. A takeover attempt by the Warwick Fairfax family, publishers of The Sydney Morning Herald, was beaten off; this new lease on life allowed The Age to recover commercially, in 1957 it received a great boost when The Argus ceased publication. Oswald Syme retired in 1964, his grandson Ranald Macdonald became chairman of the company, he was the first chairman to hand over full control of the paper to a professional editor from outside the Syme family. This was Graham Perkin, appointed in 1966, who radically changed the paper's format and shifted its editorial line from the rather conservative liberalism of the Symes to a new "left liberalism" characterised by attention to issues such as race and the environment, opposition to White Australia and the death penalty.
It became more s
Australian rules football
Australian rules football known as Australian football, or called Aussie rules, football or footy, is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field a modified cricket ground. Points are scored by kicking the oval-shaped ball between behind posts. During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field and use any part of their bodies to move the ball; the primary methods are kicking and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled: for example, players running with the ball must intermittently bounce or touch it on the ground. Throwing the ball is not allowed and players must not get caught holding the ball. A distinctive feature of the game is the mark, where players anywhere on the field who catch the ball from a kick are awarded possession. Possession of the ball is in dispute at all times except when mark is paid. Players can use their whole body to obstruct opponents. Dangerous physical contact, interference when marking and deliberately slowing the play are discouraged with free kicks, distance penalties or suspension for a certain number of matches, depending on the seriousness of the infringement.
The game features frequent physical contests, spectacular marking, fast movement of both players and the ball and high scoring. The sport's origins can be traced to football matches played in Melbourne, Victoria in 1858, inspired by English public school football games. Seeking to develop a game more suited to adults and Australian conditions, the Melbourne Football Club published the first laws of Australian football in May 1859, making it the oldest of the world's major football codes. Australian football has the highest spectator attendance and television viewership of all sports in Australia, while the Australian Football League, the sport's only professional competition, is the nation's wealthiest sporting body; the AFL Grand Final, held annually at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, is the highest attended club championship event in the world. The sport is played at amateur level in many countries and in several variations, its rules are governed by the AFL Commission with the advice of the AFL's Laws of the Game Committee.
Australian rules football is known by several nicknames, including Aussie rules and footy. In some regions, it is marketed as AFL after the Australian Football League. There is evidence of football being played sporadically in the Australian colonies in the first half of the 19th century. Compared to cricket and horse racing, football was viewed as a minor "amusement" at the time, while little is known about these early one-off games, it is clear they share no causal link with Australian football. In 1858, in a move that would help to shape Australian football in its formative years, "public" schools in Melbourne, Victoria began organising football games inspired by precedents at English public schools; the earliest such match, held in St Kilda on 15 June, was between Melbourne Grammar and St Kilda Grammar. On 10 July 1858, the Melbourne-based Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle published a letter by Tom Wills, captain of the Victoria cricket team, calling for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter.
Born in Australia, Wills played a nascent form of rugby football whilst a pupil at Rugby School in England, returned to his homeland a star athlete and cricketer. His letter is regarded by many historians as giving impetus for the development of a new code of football today known as Australian football. Two weeks Wills' friend, cricketer Jerry Bryant, posted an advertisement for a scratch match at the Richmond Paddock adjoining the Melbourne Cricket Ground; this was the first of several "kickabouts" held that year involving members of the Melbourne Cricket Club, including Wills, Bryant, W. J. Hammersley and J. B. Thompson. Trees were used as goalposts and play lasted an entire afternoon. Without an agreed upon code of laws, some players were guided by rules they had learned in the British Isles, "others by no rules at all". Another significant milestone in 1858 was a match played under experimental rules between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch College, held at the Richmond Paddock; this 40-a-side contest, umpired by Wills and Scotch College teacher John Macadam, began on 7 August and continued over two subsequent Saturdays, ending in a draw with each side kicking one goal.
It is commemorated with a statue outside the MCG, the two schools have competed annually since in the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, the world's oldest continuous football competition. Since the early 20th century, it has been suggested that Australian football was derived from the Irish sport of Gaelic football, not codified until 1885. There is no archival evidence in favour of a Gaelic influence, the style of play shared between the two modern codes was evident in Australia long before the Irish game evolved in a similar direction. Another theory, first proposed in 1983, posits that Wills, having grown up amongst Aborigines in Victoria, may have seen or played the Aboriginal game of Marn Grook, incorporated some of its features into early Australian football; the evidence for this is only circumstantial, according to biographer Greg de Moore's research, Wills was "almost influenced by his experience at Rugby School". A loosely organised Melbourne side, captained by Wills, played against other football enthusiasts in the winter and spring of 1858.
The following year, on 14 May, the Melbourne Football Club came into being, making it one of the
Spotswood is an inner-western suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 7 km south-west of Melbourne's central business district. Its local government area is the City of Hobsons Bay. At the 2016 census, Spotswood had a population of 2,604; the suburb is bounded by the Geelong railway line in the west, the West Gate Freeway in the north, the Yarra River in the east and by the boundaries of the properties below Burleigh Street in the south. Spotswood was named after J. S. Spottiswoode, one of the first farmers who owned much of the area in the 1840s. Spottiswoode Post Office opened on 1 February 1882 and was renamed Spottiswood around 1903 and Spotswood around 1906. Spotswood is known for the Victorian Science Museum, known as Scienceworks. Scienceworks is near the old sewage pumping station of Spotswood, constructed in 1897; this location was used as the police headquarters in Mad Max and for the Academy award-winning short film Harvie Krumpet. The suburb is served by the Spotswood railway station. Spotswood was the setting of the eponymous Australian film, made in 1990-1991, released in 1992, starring Anthony Hopkins, Toni Collette, Bruno Lawrence and Russell Crowe, as a minor character.
Most of the scenes in Spotswood were shot in the suburb, but the Moccasin factory is fictional and doesn't exist in Spotswood. Moccasins are a derogatory stereotype for the western suburbs of Melbourne; the suburb was the main location in the clay animation short-film Harvie Krumpet. The suburb has an Australian Rules football team competing in the Western Region Football League; the Spotswood Cricket Club plays at McLean Reserve and competes in the Victorian Turf Cricket Association. Golfers play at the course of the Westgate Golf Club on Creek Street. City of Footscray - the former local government area of which Spotswood was a part City of Williamstown - the former local government area of which Spotswood was a part
Melbourne Cricket Ground
The Melbourne Cricket Ground known as "The G", is an Australian sports stadium located in Yarra Park, Victoria. Home to the Melbourne Cricket Club, it is the 10th largest stadium in the world, the largest in Australia, the largest in the Southern Hemisphere, the largest cricket ground by capacity, has the tallest light towers of any sporting venue; the MCG is within walking distance of the city centre and is served by Richmond and Jolimont stations, as well as the route 70 tram and the route 246 bus. It is part of the Melbourne Sports and Entertainment Precinct. Since it was built in 1853, the MCG has been in a state of constant renewal, it served as the centrepiece stadium of the 1956 Summer Olympics, the 2006 Commonwealth Games and two Cricket World Cups: 1992 and 2015. It is famous for its role in the development of international cricket; the annual Boxing Day Test is one of the MCG's most popular events. Referred to as "the spiritual home of Australian rules football" for its strong association with the sport since it was codified in 1859, it hosts Australian Football League matches in the winter, with at least one game held there in most rounds of the home-and-away season.
The stadium fills to capacity for the AFL Grand Final. Home to the National Sports Museum, the MCG has hosted other major sporting events, including international rules football matches between Australia and Ireland, international rugby union matches, State of Origin games, FIFA World Cup qualifiers. Concerts and other cultural events are held at the venue, with the record attendance standing at around 130,000 for a Billy Graham evangelistic crusade in 1959. Grandstand redevelopments and occupational health and safety legislation have limited the maximum seating capacity to 95,000 with an additional 5,000 standing room capacity, bringing the total capacity to 100,024; the MCG is listed on the Victorian Heritage Register and was included on the Australian National Heritage List in 2005. Journalist Greg Baum called it "a shrine, a citadel, a landmark, a totem" that "symbolises Melbourne to the world". Founded in November 1838 the Melbourne Cricket Club selected the current MCG site in 1853 after playing at several grounds around Melbourne.
The club's first game was against a military team at the Old Mint site, at the corner of William and Latrobe Streets. Burial Hill became its home ground in January 1839, but the area was set aside for Botanical Gardens and the club was moved on in October 1846, to an area on the south bank of the Yarra about where the Herald and Weekly Times building is today; the area was subject to flooding, forcing the club to move again, this time to a ground in South Melbourne. It was not long before the club was forced out again, this time because of the expansion of the railway; the South Melbourne ground was in the path of Victoria's first steam railway line from Melbourne to Sandridge. Governor La Trobe offered the MCC a choice of three sites; this last option, now Yarra Park, had been used by Aborigines until 1835. Between 1835 and the early 1860s it was known as the Government or Police Paddock and served as a large agistment area for the horses of the Mounted Police, Border Police and Native Police.
The north-eastern section housed the main barracks for the Mounted Police in the Port Phillip district. In 1850 it was part of a 200-acre stretch set aside for public recreation extending from Governor La Trobe's Jolimont Estate to the Yarra River. By 1853 it had become a busy promenade for Melbourne residents. An MCC sub-committee chose the Richmond Park option because it was level enough for cricket but sloped enough to prevent inundation; that ground was located. At the same time the Richmond Cricket Club was given occupancy rights to six acres for another cricket ground on the eastern side of the Government Paddock. At the time of the land grant the Government stipulated that the ground was to be used for cricket and cricket only; this condition remained until 1933 when the State Government allowed the MCG's uses to be broadened to include other purposes when not being used for cricket. In 1863 a corridor of land running diagonally across Yarra Park was granted to the Hobson's Bay Railway and divided Yarra Park from the river.
The Mounted Police barracks were operational until the 1880s when it was subdivided into the current residential precinct bordered by Vale Street. The area closest to the river was developed for sporting purposes in years including Olympic venues in 1956; the first grandstand at the MCG was the original wooden members’ stand built in 1854, while the first public grandstand was a 200-metre long 6000-seat temporary structure built in 1861. Another grandstand seating 2000, facing one way to the cricket ground and the other way to the park where football was played, was built in 1876 for the 1877 visit of James Lillywhite's English cricket team, it was during this tour. In 1881 the original members' stand was sold to the Richmond Cricket Club for £55. A new brick stand, considered at the time to be the world's finest cricket facility, was built in its place; the foundation stone was laid by Prince George of Wales and Prince Albert Victor on 4 July and the stand opened in December that year. It was als