Glasgow is the most populous city in Scotland, the third most populous city in the United Kingdom, as of the 2017 estimated city population of 621,020. Part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as "Glaswegians" or "Weegies", it is the fourth most visited city in the UK. Glasgow is known for the Glasgow patter, a distinct dialect of the Scots language, noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland, tenth largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, the establishment of the University of Glasgow in the fifteenth century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. From the eighteenth century onwards, the city grew as one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals and engineering. Glasgow was the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, although many cities argue the title was theirs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow's population grew reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938. Comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s, resulting in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns; the wider metropolitan area is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland's population. The city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at 4,023/km2. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018; the origin of the name'Glasgow' is disputed. It is common to derive the toponym from the older Cumbric glas cau or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green basin or green valley.
The settlement had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures. It is recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern, procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, making many converts. A large community became known as Glasgu; the area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia, with the River Clyde providing a natural location for fishing. The Romans built outposts in the area and, to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia, constructed the Antonine Wall. Items from the wall like altars from Roman forts like Balmuildy can be found at the Hunterian Museum today. Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian missionary Saint Mungo in the 6th century, he established a church on the Molendinar Burn, where the present Glasgow Cathedral stands, in the following years Glasgow became a religious centre.
Glasgow grew over the following centuries. The Glasgow Fair began in the year 1190; the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status and landed wealth, its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean. Following the European Protestant Reformation and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier Merchants' Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. Glasgow's substantial fortunes came from international trade and invention, starting in the 17th century with sugar, followed by tobacco, cotton and linen, products of the Atlantic triangular slave trade.
Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, best built city in Britain, London excepted". At that time the city's population was about 12,000, the city was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to its economy and urban fabric, brought about by the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire, Glasgow became p
Falkirk Football Club is a Scottish professional association football club based in the town of Falkirk. The club was founded in 1876 and competes in the Scottish Championship as a member of the Scottish Professional Football League; the club was elected to the Second Division of the Scottish Football League in 1902–03, was promoted to the First Division after two seasons and achieved its highest league position in the early 1900s when it was runner-up to Celtic in 1907–08 and 1909–10. The football club was registered as a Limited Liability Company in April 1905 – Falkirk Football & Athletic Club Ltd. Falkirk won the Scottish Cup for the first time in 1913. After 1945, Falkirk were promoted and demoted between the Premier and First Divisions seven times until 1995–96, during the 1970s spent three seasons in the Second Division. In 2005, Falkirk were promoted to the Scottish Premier League. Falkirk won the Scottish Cup again in 1957 and were runners-up in the competition in 1997, 2009 and 2015.
As a result of its performance in the 2009 Scottish Cup, the club qualified for the inaugural season of the UEFA Europa League in 2009–10. Falkirk have won the second tier of Scottish football a record seven times, an honour shared with St Johnstone, they have won the Scottish Challenge Cup more than any other club, winning it for the fourth time in 2012. In their early years, Falkirk played at three venues: Hope Street, Randyford Park and Blinkbonny Park. Between 1885 and 2003, the club was based at Brockville Park, built on the former Hope Street ground. After the creation of the SPL in 1998, its strict stadium criteria – to which Brockville Park did not conform – was enforced, the club was denied promotion on three occasions; the club's present home ground since 2003 is the Falkirk Stadium, an 7,937 all-seater stadium on the outskirts of Falkirk. The club's date of formation is uncertain. Although some accounts point to the year 1876, others claim it was formed in 1877. However, the former is the date used by its fans.
In 1878, the club joined the Scottish Football Association, became eligible to compete in the Scottish Cup, a knockout tournament which became the country's main association football cup competition. The club reached the second round in the first year. In the first few years after it was formed, Falkirk played friendly games, they played. It left the latter in 1884 and moved to Brockville Park, which remained the club's home ground for 118 years; the Stirlingshire Football Association was founded in 1883, which invited clubs from the Stirlingshire region to join. It resulted in the establishment of a new tournament, the Stirlingshire Cup, a competition open to the teams from the region, which Falkirk won in its inaugural season; the club's nickname is "The Bairns", a Scots word meaning sons or daughters, given to natives of the town of Falkirk. This is reflected in the Falkirk Burgh motto: "Better meddle wi' the de'il than the Bairns o' Fa'kirk". After playing regional matches, friendly games and the nationwide Scottish Cup tournament for the majority of its existence, the club was elected to the bottom tier of the Scottish Football League in 1902–03, a national sports league consisting of Scotland's top football clubs.
At the time, the league consisted of the First and Second Divisions. Falkirk was promoted to the top division with a second-place finish behind Clyde after two seasons. Despite the club's success, several months beforehand a proposal to merge with local rivals East Stirlingshire was raised, narrowly rejected in a vote. In 1907–08, Falkirk's third season in the top flight, the club finished the season in second place, its highest league position to date, repeated this in the 1909–10 season. On both occasions it finished behind champions Celtic despite being the top goal scorers in the league, becoming the first Scottish club to break the 100 goals barrier in a single season. In 1913, the club won the Scottish Cup for the first time, defeating Raith Rovers in the final 2–0. Nine years the club broke the world record transfer fee, paying £5000 for the transfer of striker Syd Puddefoot from English club West Ham United. Falkirk spent 30 consecutive seasons in their first spell in the top flight of Scottish football, before being relegated in 1934–35 after finishing 20th at the bottom of the league.
Despite this, the club was promoted to the top flight after one season, as champions of the 1935–36 Second Division, amassing a club record of 132 league goals in the process. Falkirk remained in the top flight until the outbreak of World War II in 1939, when the league was suspended. After the war ended in 1945, the Scottish Football League resumed and Falkirk regained its place in the First Division for the 1946–47 season. In 1947, a new competition, the Scottish League Cup, was inaugurated. In the 1947–48 season, Falkirk reached the final, lost 4–1 to East Fife in the replayed final after an initial 0–0 draw; the club competed in the final of the Scottish Cup in 1957. They defeated Kilmarnock in a replay; this was their first success in the tournament since winning it 44 years earlier. In June 1958 Alex Parker and Eddie O'Hara from the cup winning side were bought by Everton for a combined fee or £18,000. John White was signed two months from Alloa Athletic with £3,300 of that money. In the years to follow and promotion between the first and second tiers occurred seven times until the 1995–96 season.
The club spent eight consecutive seasons at a time in either division. As a result, Falkirk has won or finished runners-up in the second tier of Scottish football a record 14 times, the majority occurring in this period. T
Celtic Park is a football stadium in the Parkhead area of Glasgow, is the home ground of Celtic Football Club. With a capacity of 60,411, it is the largest football stadium in Scotland and the fifth-largest football stadium in the United Kingdom, it is known by Celtic fans as either Parkhead or Paradise. Celtic was formed in November 1887 and the first Celtic Park was opened in the Parkhead area in 1888; the club moved to a different site in 1892, when the rental charge was increased. The new site was developed with vast terracing sections; the record attendance of 83,500 was set at an Old Firm derby on 1 January 1938. The terraces were covered and floodlights were installed between 1957 and 1971; the Taylor Report mandated that all major clubs should have an all-seated stadium by August 1994. Celtic was in a poor financial position in the early 1990s and no major work was carried out until Fergus McCann took control of the club in March 1994, he carried out a plan to demolish the old terraces and develop a new stadium in a phased rebuild, completed in August 1998.
Celtic Park has been used as a venue for Scotland internationals and Cup Finals when Hampden Park has been unavailable. Before the First World War, Celtic Park hosted various other sporting events, including composite rules shinty-hurling and field and the 1897 Track Cycling World Championships. Open-air Mass celebrations and First World War recruitment drives were held there. More Celtic Park hosted the opening ceremony of the 2014 Commonwealth Games and has been used for concerts, including performances by the Who and U2. Celtic F. C. was formed in November 1887. The original Celtic Park was built at the north east junction of Springfield Road and London Road in Parkhead by a volunteer workforce within six months of formation, its opening game was a match between Cowlairs. Celtic played its first match on 28 May 1888 at Celtic Park, against Rangers, which Celtic won 5–2, it hosted a British Home Championship match between Scotland and Ireland on 28 March 1891. Celtic was forced to leave this site in 1892, when the landlord increased the annual rent from £50 to £450.
The new stadium was built in a disused brickyard 200 yards from the old site. The first turf, transported from County Donegal, was laid by Irish patriot Michael Davitt and planted with shamrocks, he recited a verse that said the turf would "take root and flourish", but it was stolen soon afterwards. A journalist said the move was like "leaving the graveyard to enter paradise", which led to the ground being nicknamed "Paradise", although is often referred to as "Parkhead"; the new Celtic Park was opened on 20 August 1892 with a match against Renton. A journalist writing in the Athletic News described Celtic Park as the best ground in Britain at the time, a title for which it may only have been challenged by Goodison Park, the home of Everton. Celtic Park was successful, attracting record gate receipts and an attendance of 45,107 for the Scotland v England game in the 1894 British Home Championship. Celtic F. C. purchased the site for £100,000 in 1897. The new stadium consisted of terracing with a capacity of 40,000.
It was an elongated oval shape, similar to Hampden Park. A running track and concrete cycling track were constructed around the periphery of the pitch. On the northern side of the pitch there was a seated stand. In 1894, Celtic built the first press box at a football stadium in Britain, located high up on the main stand at Celtic Park. In the 1890s, club director James Grant financed the construction of an enclosed windowed stand, built on stilts on the south side of the pitch; the spectators watched through sliding windows from padded seats, but they had to climb four flights of stairs to reach their position and the windows steamed up. In May 1904, a fire destroyed the older north grandstand and damaged the adjacent pavilion; the north enclosure was rebuilt by the following year. By 1927 the Grant Stand had become unsafe and was demolished, to be replaced in summer 1929 by a new single-tier Main Stand, designed by Duncan and Kerr; this stand, which cost £35,000 and provided 4,800 seats, was smaller and less ornate than the Main Stand at Ibrox.
The Celtic Park main stand had a similar feature to Ibrox, however, in the pedimented roof gable over the press box. Prior to its completion, the old pavilion on the opposite side of the field which dated from the original construction of the ground in 1892 and had escaped the 1904 fire burned down in March 1929, destroying some of the club's old records and photographs; the club had to play the rest of their marches in the 1928–29 season at nearby Shawfield Stadium and had to replace the roof of the stand next to the pavilion, which became known as the "Hayshed". Although it was only the third biggest ground in Glasgow, the rebuilt Celtic Park had a greater capacity than any club stadium in England; the record attendance for a Celtic match at Celtic Park was set by an Old Firm derby against Rangers on New Year's Day 1938. Some sources give the attendance for this game as 92,000, but contemporary sources suggest that the attendance was 83,500. Significant improvements were carried out between 1957 and 1971 due to the great success Celtic achieved under the management of Jock Stein.
A roof was built o
Stirling Albion F.C.
Stirling Albion Football Club is a Scottish football club based in the city of Stirling. The club was founded in 1945 following the demise of King's Park after World War II; the club competes in Scottish League Two as a member of the Scottish Professional Football League. Its highest league position came in 1958–59 with a 12th-placed position in the top flight, its only major success is in the league where it has won the second tier of Scottish football on four occasions, the last coming in 1964–65. The club has more competed in the third or fourth tier following league re-construction in 1975 and 2013. Stirling's home ground is Forthbank Stadium, a 3,798 capacity stadium in the east of the city near the banks of the River Forth. Before the stadium was opened in 1993 the club was based at Annfield Stadium, the home of the club since it was founded in 1945. Stirling Albion was founded in 1945 after the town's previous football team King's Park had failed to survive the Second World War. King's Park's ground had been damaged during the war, having been hit by a German bomb on 20 July 1940.
This was one of only two bombs to fall on the town during the Second World War. The new club was the brainchild of local businessman Thomas Fergusson, a local coal magnate, he purchased the Annfield estate to build a new stadium. Annfield was situated within a quarter of a mile from the town centre and would be the home of The Binos until 1992; the name'Albion' came from the make of Fergusson's coal trucks. This however is an urban myth. Albion Coal lorries were used as grandstands but the Club was named at a meeting of fans long before a ball was kicked; the name Albion was chosen because it was an old word for Great Britain and held meaning for the founder. Between the 1940 and 1960, the club gained a reputation as a club, too good for the lower league but never quite good enough to establish themselves in the top flight, hence the club's nickname of The Yo-Yos. For a time it was a saying in Scotland that something or somebody was "going up and down like Stirling Albion". In 1966 the club became the first British team to play in Japan.
Under the vastly experienced Bob Shankly, Stirling made progress, achieving consecutive 3rd place finishes in 1971/72 and 1972/73, narrowly missing out on promotion to the top tier. On retiring to the boardroom, Shankly was succeeded for one season by Frank Beattie but handpicked his long-term protege, former Albion player Alex Smith, cutting his managerial teeth at Stenhousemuir. Smith’s first season in 1974/75 saw the club finish 8th, three points behind Alex Ferguson’s St Mirren in 6th; that slim margin would prove crucial as league reconstruction meant it was the difference between staying in the 2nd division or starting afresh in the new 3rd tier. Over the next two seasons, Smith began a major rebuild of the playing staff that would create one of Albion’s finest squads. To a core of long-standing regulars including midfielder Robert Duffin, half-back James Clark and goalkeeper George Young, he added, among others, centre-half John Kennedy from Partick Thistle, Clyde full-back James Burns and Hibernian youngsters Allan Moffat and David Steedman.
Midfielder Robin Thomson and teenage winger Graeme Armstrong arrived from non-league football. Albion opened the 1976/77 season with a League Cup campaign that saw them nearly topple Premier Division Aberdeen in the quarter-finals, losing the first leg 1-0 at Pittodrie but winning the return by the same score at Annfield with a Robert Gray header; the Dons won the replay at the neutral ground of Dens Park, Dundee, 2-0, before beating both Rangers and Celtic on the way to lifting the trophy. Albion went on to win the Second Division crown that season, conceding only 29 goals in 39 matches and taking the title with several games to spare. Back in the 2nd tier, Albion finished a creditable 5th in 1977/78 and enjoyed comfortable mid-table finishes in the subsequent two seasons. However, despite consolidation on the pitch, Annfield's infrastructure was in dire need of repair and the club’s cash supplies began to run low; the 1980/81 season started memorably with a stunning 1-0 win over Celtic in the first leg of their 2nd round League Cup tie thanks to a Lloyd Irvine goal.
They took an early lead in the 2nd leg at Parkhead too with a Matt McPhee free kick, but minutes away from a famous victory, a late Tommy Burns strike took the tie to extra time. Albion were overwhelmed and lost 6-2 on aggregate, a teenage Charlie Nicholas coming off the bench to grab his first two goals for the Hoops. Following a third match against Celtic – a 3-0 defeat in the Scottish Cup in February – goals and confidence dried up and 13 games without finding the net led to relegation back to the 3rd tier. Through necessity, Albion began to cash in on the squad’s better players, Smith was given the task of developing a conveyor belt of local talent to sell on and keep Albion afloat. George Young had signed for Rangers for £20,000 in 1979 but the exodus began to pick up pace. Defender George Nicol went to Dundee United in John Kennedy to St Johnstone a year later. Three of Smith’s local discoveries left in quick succession in 1983 and 1984: striker John Colquhoun to Celtic, midfielder Brian Grant to Aberdeen and Scotland youth defender John Philliben to Doncaster Rovers.
Meanwhile, stalwart goalkeeper Gordon Arthur departed for Dumbarton. Despite the calibre of the players leaving, Albion maintained consistent top-half finishes and, in 1984, racked up a record 20-0 Scottish Cup victory over Selkirk, which made headlines around the world. Following a bright start to the 1986/87 campaign, Smith was prised away to take charge of St Mirren, his assistant George Peebles took over at Ann
Sir Alfred Ernest Ramsey was an English football player and manager. As a player, he represented the England national team and captained the side, but he is best known for his time as England manager from 1963 to 1974, which included guiding them to victory in the 1966 FIFA World Cup. Knighted in 1967 in recognition of the World Cup win, Ramsey managed his country to third place in the 1968 European Championship and the quarter-finals of the 1970 World Cup and the 1972 European Championship respectively; as a player, Ramsey was a member of England's 1950 World Cup squad. Ramsey was raised in a quiet Essex village, he showed sporting promise from an early age and, after serving in the British Army during the Second World War, embarked on a football career as a right-back. He was considered a rather slow but accomplished player with a tremendous grasp of the tactical side of the game. Nicknamed "The General", he played for England 32 times between 1948 and 1953, captaining the side three times, scoring three times and appearing in the 1950 World Cup.
He played his club football for Southampton and Tottenham Hotspur and was part of the Tottenham side that won the English League championship in the 1950–51 season. Ramsey retired from playing aged 35 to become the manager of Ipswich Town in the third tier of English football. Ipswich rose through the divisions over the next six years, winning the Third Division South in 1956–57 and the Second Division in 1960–61. In the 1961–62 season, Ipswich's first campaign in the top division, Ramsey's team defied expectations to become champions of England. Ramsey took charge of the England team a year later. In a distinct break with common practice of the day, he used a narrow formation that led to his England side being dubbed "The Wingless Wonders". England's World Cup victory at Wembley in 1966 made Ramsey a national hero, though he had his critics, both at the time and since, he lost the England job acrimoniously, following the team's failure to qualify for the 1974 World Cup. After managing England, Ramsey held football-related roles at Birmingham City and Panathinaikos, before retiring in 1979–80.
He led a somewhat reclusive life in Ipswich over the next two decades and died in 1999, aged 79. A statue of Ramsey was dedicated at the reconstructed Wembley Stadium in 2009, various honours have been afforded to him in Ipswich, he is the first person to have been inducted into the English Football Hall of Fame twice: an inaugural inductee in 2002, in recognition of his achievements as a manager and admitted again in 2010 for his achievements as a player. He remains regarded as one of British football's all-time great managers. Alfred Ernest Ramsey was born on 22 January 1920 at 6 Parrish Cottages, Halbutt Street in Dagenham, an agrarian village in Essex, about 10 miles east of central London, he was the third of five children, four boys and a girl, born to Herbert Ramsey, a manual labourer who worked a smallholding, kept pigs and drove a horse-drawn dustcart, his wife Florence. Parrish Cottages lacked hot running water and electricity, the only toilet was outside; such conditions were typical of Dagenham during this period, although Ramsey's street became something of an anachronism as he grew up.
From 1921, London County Council transformed the area into the Becontree estate, a vast urban community that by 1934 was home to 120,000 people and the Ford Dagenham automobile factory. Parrish Cottages remained untouched: electricity was not installed until the 1950s, then only with the reluctant approval of Ramsey's mother, according to a neighbour, was frightened of it. In the recollection of a childhood contemporary, Phil Cairns, the Ramsey house was "little more than a wooden hut"; the young Alf Ramsey was described by his friend Fred Tibble as "a quiet boy who loved sport". In his 1952 autobiography Talking Football, Ramsey described "liv for the open air from the moment I could toddle", spending hours each day in the meadow behind the family cottage, playing ball games with his brothers, he learned skills such as ball control and heading with a tennis ball. From the age of five, Ramsey attended Becontree Heath School, which had a roll of about 200 pupils aged from four to fourteen, he and his brothers had to walk two hours from their house to get there, passed a ball between each other on the way to break the monotony.
Ramsey was not popular nor diligent as a student, but he excelled in sports. In addition to football, he played cricket to a high standard and represented the school in the high jump, the long jump, both the 100-yard and 200-yard dash. Despite his diminutive stature, he enjoyed boxing until an incident when he was 10 years old, when a much larger opponent—"as wide as I was tall" in Ramsey's recollection—gave him a severe beating in a school tournament. Ramsey carried a noticeable scar above his mouth, a memento of this fight, for the rest of his life."He was withdrawn surly", Cairns recalled, "but he became animated on the football field". Ramsey was selected to play for Becontree Heath School when he was only seven years old, playing at inside-left alongside boys as old as fourteen. Alf's selection for the school team prompted the purchase of his first pair of football boots. Two years aged nine, he became captain of the school team. By this point he had switched to playing at centre-half—the key position of the "WM" formation favoured in British football, between the full-backs and the forwards.
His main strength was perceived to be his accurate passing.
England national football team
The England national football team represents England in senior men's international football and is controlled by The Football Association, the governing body for football in England. England is one of the two oldest national teams in football, alongside Scotland, whom they played in the world's first international football match in 1872. England's home ground is Wembley Stadium and their headquarters are at St George's Park, Burton upon Trent; the team's manager is Gareth Southgate. Although part of the United Kingdom, England's representative side plays in major professional tournaments, but not the Olympic Games. Since first entering the tournament in 1950, England has qualified for the FIFA World Cup 15 times, they won the 1966 World Cup, when they hosted the finals, finished fourth in 1990 and 2018. Since first entering in 1964, England have never won the UEFA European Championship, with their best performances being a third-place finish in 1968 and 1996, the latter as hosts; the England national football team is the joint-oldest in the world.
A representative match between England and Scotland was played on 5 March 1870, having been organised by the Football Association. A return fixture was organised by representatives of Scottish football teams on 30 November 1872; this match, played at Hamilton Crescent in Scotland, is viewed as the first official international football match, because the two teams were independently selected and operated, rather than being the work of a single football association. Over the next 40 years, England played with the other three Home Nations—Scotland and Ireland—in the British Home Championship. At first, England had no permanent home stadium, they joined FIFA in 1906 and played their first games against countries other than the Home Nations on a tour of Central Europe in 1908. Wembley Stadium became their home ground; the relationship between England and FIFA became strained, this resulted in their departure from FIFA in 1928, before they rejoined in 1946. As a result, they did not compete in a World Cup until 1950, in which they were beaten in a 1–0 defeat by the United States, failing to get past the first round in one of the most embarrassing defeats in the team's history.
Their first defeat on home soil to a foreign team was a 0–2 loss to the Republic of Ireland, on 21 September 1949 at Goodison Park. A 6–3 loss in 1953 to Hungary, was their second defeat by a foreign team at Wembley. In the return match in Budapest, Hungary won 7–1; this stands as England's largest defeat. After the game, a bewildered Syd Owen said, "it was like playing men from outer space". In the 1954 FIFA World Cup, England reached the quarter-finals for the first time, lost 4–2 to reigning champions Uruguay. England got to the semi final in 2018. Although Walter Winterbottom was appointed as England's first full-time manager in 1946, the team was still picked by a committee until Alf Ramsey took over in 1963; the 1966 FIFA World Cup was hosted in England and Ramsey guided England to victory with a 4–2 win against West Germany after extra time in the final, during which Geoff Hurst famously scored a hat-trick. In UEFA Euro 1968, the team reached the semi-finals for the first time, being eliminated by Yugoslavia.
England qualified for the 1970 FIFA World Cup in Mexico as reigning champions, reached the quarter-finals, where they were knocked out by West Germany. England had been 2–0 up, but were beaten 3–2 after extra time, they failed in qualification for the 1974, leading to Ramsey's dismissal, 1978 FIFA World Cups. Under Ron Greenwood, they managed to qualify for the 1982 FIFA World Cup in Spain; the team under Bobby Robson fared better as England reached the quarter-finals of the 1986 FIFA World Cup, losing 2–1 to Argentina in a game made famous by two goals by Maradona for contrasting reasons, before losing every match in UEFA Euro 1988. They next went on to achieve their second best result in the 1990 FIFA World Cup by finishing fourth – losing again to West Germany in a semi-final finishing 1–1 after extra time 3–4 in England's first penalty shoot-out. Despite losing to Italy in the third place play-off, the members of the England team were given bronze medals identical to the Italians'; the England team of 1990 were welcomed home as heroes and thousands of people lined the streets, for a spectacular open-top bus parade.
However, the team did not win any matches in UEFA Euro 1992, drawing with tournament winners Denmark, with France, before being eliminated by host nation Sweden. The 1990s saw four England managers, each in the role for a brief period. Graham Taylor was Robson's successor, but resigned after England failed to qualify for the 1994 FIFA World Cup after losing a controversial game against the Netherlands in Rotterdam. At UEFA Euro 1996, held in England, Terry Venables led England, equalling their best performance at a European Championship, reaching the semi-finals as they did in 1968, before exiting via a penalty shoot-out loss to Germany, he resigned following investigations into his financial activities. His successor, Glenn Hoddle left the job for non-footballing reasons after just one international tournament – the 1998 FIFA World Cup — in which England were eliminated in the second round again by Argentina and again on penalties. Following Hoddle's departure, Kevin Keegan took England to UEFA Euro 2000, but performances were disappointing and he resigned shortly afterwards.
Sven-Göran Eriksson took charge between 2001 and 2006, was the team's first non-English manager. He guided England to the quarter-finals of the 2002 FIFA World C
Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares a border to the west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in some areas, the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments". Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom.
Most of these were the Protestant descendants of colonists from Great Britain. However, a significant minority Catholics, were nationalists who wanted a united Ireland independent of British rule. Today, the former see themselves as British and the latter see themselves as Irish, while a distinct Northern Irish or Ulster identity is claimed both by a large minority of Catholics and Protestants and by many of those who are non-aligned. For most of the 20th century, when it came into existence, Northern Ireland was marked by discrimination and hostility between these two sides in what First Minister of Northern Ireland, David Trimble, called a "cold house" for Catholics. In the late 1960s, conflict between state forces and chiefly Protestant unionists on the one hand, chiefly Catholic nationalists on the other, erupted into three decades of violence known as the Troubles, which claimed over 3,500 lives and caused over 50,000 casualties; the 1998 Good Friday Agreement was a major step in the peace process, including the decommissioning of weapons, although sectarianism and religious segregation still remain major social problems, sporadic violence has continued.
Northern Ireland has been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown since the late 1990s; the initial growth came from the "peace dividend" and the links which increased trade with the Republic of Ireland, continuing with a significant increase in tourism and business from around the world. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17.2% in 1986, dropping to 6.1% for June–August 2014 and down by 1.2 percentage points over the year, similar to the UK figure of 6.2%. 58.2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sportspeople from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough and George Best; some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British. Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, the rest of the UK are complex, with Northern Ireland sharing both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom.
In many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games; the region, now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century. The English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Following Irish defeat at the Battle of Kinsale, the region's Gaelic, Roman Catholic aristocracy fled to continental Europe in 1607 and the region became subject to major programmes of colonialism by Protestant English and Scottish settlers. A rebellion in 1641 by Irish aristocrats against English rule resulted in a massacre of settlers in Ulster in the context of a war breaking out between England and Ireland fuelled by religious intolerance in government.
Victories by English forces in that war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne in this latter war are still celebrated by some Protestants. Popes Innocent XI and Alexander VIII had supported William of Orange instead of his maternal uncle and father-in-law James II, despite William being Protestant and James a Catholic, due to William's participation in alliance with both Protesant and Catholic powers in Europe in wars against Louis XIV, the powerful King of France, in conflict with the papacy for decades. In 1693, Pope Innocent XII recognised James as continuing King of Great Britain and Ireland in place of William, after reconciliation with Louis. In 1695, contrary to the terms of the Treaty of Limerick, a series of penal laws were passed by the Anglican ruling class in Ireland in intense anger at the Pope's recognition of James over William, felt to be a betrayal.
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