Sinclair User abbreviated SU, was a magazine dedicated to the Sinclair Research range of home computers, most the ZX Spectrum. Published by ECC Publications, EMAP, it was published in the UK between 1982 and 1993, was the longest running Sinclair-based magazine. Like many similar magazines, it contained news, game reviews, tips, help guides, regular columns, readers' letters and cover-mounted game demos. In May 1992 the former rival publication CRASH was notionally subsumed into Sinclair User but in practice this meant little more than the addition of the Crash! Logo to the magazine's cover page. In earlier years, the magazine built up personality cults around some of its "hilariously" monikered staff, including Bill "Incorruptible" Scolding, John "Disgusting" Gilbert, Chris "Lunchbreaks" Bourne, Claire "Ligger" Edgely, Richard Price, columnist Andrew Hewson. Under David Kelly's editorial tenure, the magazine began to focus more on the gaming scene, featured more colour graphics under designer Gareth "the Mad Celt".
By the time of editor Graham Taylor, the magazine included the cartoon character Kamikaze Bear, the tone of the publication changed from a semi-serious magazine to something aimed more at children. A short-lived spin-off known as Timex Sinclair User was published for the American market, where versions of Sinclair computers were marketed under the Timex Sinclair name. CRASH Sinclair Programs Your Sinclair Your Spectrum Mag-Slag — A humorous analysis of a typical Sinclair User review. Sinclair User — Images of scanned pages of Sinclair User
Winifred Phillips is an American music composer and author. Her music composition credits include God of War, Assassin's Creed III: Liberation, the Little Big Planet series. Phillips works with music producer Winnie Waldron. Phillips' love of music began in childhood, supported by her experiences in the public school system. “I had so many wonderful music teachers. I looked up to them," Phillips shared in an interview on GameSpot, "and I'd count the minutes until my next music class would begin. In middle school, my band teacher found out that I was a quick learner and got into the habit of giving me a new instrument to learn whenever there was a gap in one of his ensembles. I got to play all sorts of music and all different kinds of instruments.”Phillips had been an avid gamer in her childhood. "I’ve always loved video games since I was a kid. I’d played everything from shooters and side-scrollers to sprawling RPGs," Phillips said in an interview with NZGamer. "It didn’t occur to me right away that I could compose music for games – that happened after I’d been working in radio for a while."
From 1992 to 2003, Phillips was the composer and actress in a series of radio dramas, first presented on National Public Radio Playhouse under the title Generations Radio Theater Presents, later as Generations Radio Theater Presents: Radio Tales. This anthology series adapted classic works of American and world literature, was a recipient of funding from the National Endowment for the Arts; the series was described by National Public Radio as "featuring a top-to-bottom music score, original and integrated to the text". The programs aired as the Radio Tales series on the Sirius XM Book Radio channel of Sirius XM Satellite Radio. In 2004, Phillips contributed music to God of War; the music of God of War received five Game Audio Network Guild Awards, including Music of the Year. She followed this debut with musical scores for the Charlie and the Chocolate Factory and The Da Vinci Code games, published by 2K Games. After this, Phillips composed the music for the Shrek the Third video game for Activision.
Phillips' music for the Speed Racer game for Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment was named a finalist in the Hollywood Music Awards. After creating the music for The Maw XBLA game for Twisted Pixel Games, Phillips went on to create the music for two projects for the Maxis division of Electronic Arts: Spore Hero, SimAnimals, her music for Spore Hero was a finalist for The International Film Music Critics Award and the Hollywood Music in Media Award. Phillips won a Hollywood Music in Media Award in 2010 for her music for the Legend of the Guardians video game, published by Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment, her music for Legend of the Guardians was a finalist for The International Film Music Critics Award. In 2011, Phillips began creating music for the LittleBigPlanet video game franchise for Media Molecule / Sony Computer Entertainment Europe. To date, she has created music for LittleBigPlanet 2, LittleBigPlanet 2: Cross Controller, LittleBigPlanet 2: Toy Story, LittleBigPlanet Karting, LittleBigPlanet PS Vita and LittleBigPlanet 3.
Phillips wrote the music for the Assassin's Creed III: Liberation video game, published by Ubisoft. The soundtrack album of Assassin's Creed III: Liberation was released by Ubisoft Music on October 30, 2012. Together with music producer Winnie Waldron, Winifred Phillips won several awards for her work on this project. For the music composition of the Assassin's Creed III Liberation video game, Phillips won a Global Music Award for musical excellence. Winifred Phillips and Winnie Waldron won a 2012 Hollywood Music in Media Award and a GameFocus Award for the music score for Assassin's Creed III: Liberation; the main theme music of the Assassin's Creed III: Liberation video game won a G. A. N. G. Award from the Game Audio Network Guild in the category of "Best Original Vocal Song - Choral."' The music of Assassin's Creed III Liberation received nominations in several year-end award competitions, including the GameZone Awards, the Best of IGN Awards, the G4TV X-Play Best of 2012 Awards. On November 4, 2014, one of Phillips' tracks for the LittleBigPlanet 3 game, entitled "LittleBigPlanet 3 Ziggurat Theme," won a Hollywood Music in Media Award in the category of "Best Song for a Video Game."
LittleBigPlanet 2 was a 15th Annual Interactive Achievement Awards finalist in the category of "Outstanding Achievement in Original Music Composition". LittleBigPlanet 2 was a 2011 Game Developers Choice Awards finalist in the category of "Best Audio", which recognizes the overall excellence of audio in a game - including musical composition, sound design, sound effects, etc; the 10th Annual Game Audio Network Guild Awards nominated the original music track "Victoria's Lab" from LittleBigPlanet 2 in the category of "Best Original Vocal - Pop". Kotaku named the score of LittleBigPlanet 2 as one of the best video game soundtracks of the year. In the article "The Best Game Music of 2011: LittleBigPlanet 2", Features Editor Kirk Hamilton praised both the collection of licensed tracks and the original score, singling out the music of composer Winifred Phillips as his favorite original music of the game. Phillips is one of the composers for the Total War Battles: KINGDOM video game, developed by Creative Assembly and published by Sega.
In 2016, Phillips composed music for the Homefront: The Revolution videogame, developed by DS Dambuster and published by Deep Silver. Phillips' music has been released in several commercial soundtracks; the LittleBigPlanet 3 soundtrack album was released by Sony Computer Entertainment Europe on January 27, 2015. The soundtrack album for the Assassin's C
Willy Wonka is a fictional character who appears in Roald Dahl's 1964 children's novel Charlie and the Chocolate Factory and its sequel Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator. The eccentric owner of the Wonka Chocolate Factory, he has been portrayed by Gene Wilder and Johnny Depp in film. In Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, Wonka has hidden five Golden Tickets inside chocolate bars; the finders are rewarded with a lifetime supply of chocolate. The children are unaware, that the tour is a competition to test their character; as the tour proceeds, four of the children are eliminated. At this point Wonka reveals that the real prize is the factory, as Wonka needs someone to take it over and look after the Oompa Loompas who work there. Wonka goes aboard the Great Glass Elevator with Charlie and his family and links up with the Space Hotel U. S. A; the Space Hotel tracks the Elevator down back to Wonka's Factory. Wonka goes with Charlie and his family to the White House in the United States. Willy Wonka has hidden five Golden Tickets amongst his famous Wonka Bars.
The finders of these special tickets will be given a full tour of his guarded candy factory as well as a lifetime supply of chocolate. During the tour, Wonka tempts each of the bad children to disobey his orders with something related to their individual character flaws. One by one, each child disappears from the tour until Charlie Bucket is the only remaining child; however and Grandpa Joe have succumbed to temptation by this time and sampled Fizzy Lifting Drinks, Mr. Wonka's experimental line of beverages that gives the drinker the power to fly temporarily; the drinks, still too strong, brought Grandpa Joe close to death. Wonka informs Charlie that the tour is over, abruptly dismisses him and Grandpa Joe, disappears into his office without mentioning the promised grand prize of a lifetime supply of chocolate, they both go into Wonka's office to confront him. Grandpa Joe asks about the prize, but Wonka tells him that Charlie will not receive it because he broke the rules, angrily referring to the forfeiture clause of the contract the ticket holders signed at the start of the tour.
Charlie's drinking of the Fizzy Lifting Drinks amounted to theft, so he violated the contract and gets nothing. Wonka dismisses them with a furious, "Good day, sir!" Grandpa Joe angrily berates him for destroying his grandson's hopes, but Wonka is unmoved and angrily dismisses him again. Grandpa Joe vows to get revenge on Wonka by selling the Everlasting Gobstopper to Slugworth, but Charlie decides to return the gobstopper to Wonka's desk. Wonka joyfully tells him he has passed his test, reinstates his grand prize, apologizes for putting Charlie through the ordeal, reveals that Slugworth, spying on the kids, was his own employee in disguise; the trio enter the Great Glass Elevator, which goes high into the sky as Wonka reveals that the grand prize is the entire factory and business, which Charlie will get when Wonka retires, in the meantime Charlie and his whole family will move into the factory. Wonka reminds Charlie not to forget what happened to the man who got everything he wanted: "He lived ever after."
Willy Wonka, the owner of a famous chocolate factory, has long closed access to his factory due to problems concerning industrial espionage that led him to fire all his employees, among them Charlie's Grandpa Joe. One day, Wonka informs the world of a contest, in which five Golden Tickets have been placed in five random Wonka Bars worldwide, the winners will be given a full tour of the factory as well as a lifetime supply of chocolate, while one ticket holder will be given a special prize at the end of the tour. After all five of the tickets are found, Wonka greets Charlie and the other ticket holders outside the factory and leads the group into the facility. During the tour, Wonka tempts each of the bad children to disobey his orders with something related to their individual character flaws. Wonka invites Charlie to come live and work in the factory with him, reveals that the purpose of the Golden Tickets and the tour was to make the "least rotten" child the heir of the factory itself, so he can have someone carry on his legacy when he gets too old.
The only condition, however, is that Charlie must leave his family behind, because Wonka believes family is a hindrance to a chocolatier's creative freedom, a philosophy he developed due to his dentist father, Dr. Wilbur Wonka, denying his son any candy because of the potential risk to his teeth and forcing him to wear a large and hideously clunky set of braces. After secretly sampling some candy, Wonka was hooked and ran away to follow his dreams. After Charlie refuses his offer, Wonka falls into a state of emotional depression and returns to Charlie to seek advice. Wonka soon reunites with his estranged father and allows Charlie's family to live in the factory, forever. In 2013, an adaptation of the novel was produced in Theatre Royal Drury Lane starting on 25 June 2013. Willy Wonka in this production was originated by Douglas Hodge. In the play, Wonka decides to open his factory to five children whom can find one of five golden tickets hidden in the wrappers in Wonka Bars; the play begins with Charlie in a large trash pile looking for items that are "almost nearly perfect".
He goes home and we see the golden ticket winners on an oversized television with actors inside it. Once all the tickets have been won, Willy Wonka invites the children into his factory, where he tempts each of them with a weakness. Only Charlie is left. Willy Wonka
Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials. Incineration and other high-temperature waste treatment systems are described as "thermal treatment". Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash, flue heat; the ash is formed by the inorganic constituents of the waste and may take the form of solid lumps or particulates carried by the flue gas. The flue gases must be cleaned of gaseous and particulate pollutants before they are dispersed into the atmosphere. In some cases, the heat generated by incineration can be used to generate electric power. Incineration with energy recovery is one of several waste-to-energy technologies such as gasification and anaerobic digestion. While incineration and gasification technologies are similar in principle, the energy produced from incineration is high-temperature heat whereas combustible gas is the main energy product from gasification. Incineration and gasification may be implemented without energy and materials recovery.
In several countries, there are still concerns from experts and local communities about the environmental effect of incinerators. In some countries, incinerators built just a few decades ago did not include a materials separation to remove hazardous, bulky or recyclable materials before combustion; these facilities tended to risk the health of the plant workers and the local environment due to inadequate levels of gas cleaning and combustion process control. Most of these facilities did not generate electricity. Incinerators reduce the solid mass of the original waste by 80–85% and the volume by 95–96%, depending on composition and degree of recovery of materials such as metals from the ash for recycling; this means that while incineration does not replace landfilling, it reduces the necessary volume for disposal. Garbage trucks reduce the volume of waste in a built-in compressor before delivery to the incinerator. Alternatively, at landfills, the volume of the uncompressed garbage can be reduced by 70% by using a stationary steel compressor, albeit with a significant energy cost.
In many countries, simpler waste compaction is a common practice for compaction at landfills. Incineration has strong benefits for the treatment of certain waste types in niche areas such as clinical wastes and certain hazardous wastes where pathogens and toxins can be destroyed by high temperatures. Examples include chemical multi-product plants with diverse toxic or toxic wastewater streams, which cannot be routed to a conventional wastewater treatment plant. Waste combustion is popular in countries such as Japan where land is a scarce resource. Denmark and Sweden have been leaders by using the energy generated from incineration for more than a century, in localised combined heat and power facilities supporting district heating schemes. In 2005, waste incineration produced 4.8% of the electricity consumption and 13.7% of the total domestic heat consumption in Denmark. A number of other European countries rely on incineration for handling municipal waste, in particular Luxembourg, the Netherlands and France.
The first UK incinerators for waste disposal were built in Nottingham by Manlove, Alliott & Co. Ltd. in 1874 to a design patented by Alfred Fryer. They were known as destructors; the first US incinerator was built in 1885 on Governors Island in New York, NY. The first facility in the Czech Republic was built in 1905 in Brno. An incinerator is a furnace for burning waste. Modern incinerators include pollution mitigation equipment such as flue gas cleaning. There are various types of incinerator plant design: moving grate, fixed grate, rotary-kiln, fluidised bed; the burn pile is one of the simplest and earliest forms of waste disposal consisting of a mound of combustible materials piled on the open ground and set on fire. Burn piles can and have spread uncontrolled fires, for example, if the wind blows burning material off the pile into surrounding combustible grasses or onto buildings; as interior structures of the pile are consumed, the pile can shift and collapse, spreading the burn area. In a situation of no wind, small lightweight ignited embers can lift off the pile via convection, waft through the air into grasses or onto buildings, igniting them.
Burn piles do not result in full combustion of waste and therefore produce particulate pollution. The burn barrel is a somewhat more controlled form of private waste incineration, containing the burning material inside a metal barrel, with a metal grating over the exhaust; the barrel prevents the spread of burning material in windy conditions, as the combustibles are reduced they can only settle down into the barrel. The exhaust grating helps to prevent the spread of burning embers. Steel 55-US-gallon drums are used as burn barrels, with air vent holes cut or drilled around the base for air intake. Over time, the high heat of incineration causes the metal to oxidize and rust, the barrel itself is consumed by the heat and must be replaced; the private burning of dry cellulosic/paper products is clean-burning, producing no visible smoke, but plastics in the household waste can cause private burning to create a public nuisance, generating acrid odors and fumes that make eyes burn and water. Most urban communities ban burn barrels and certain rural communities may have prohibitions on open burning those home to many residents not familiar with this common rural practice.
As of 2006 in the United States, private rural household or farm waste incineration of small quantities was permitted
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
Roald Dahl was a British novelist, short story writer, poet and fighter pilot. His books have sold more than 250 million copies worldwide. Born in Wales to Norwegian immigrant parents, Dahl served in the Royal Air Force during the Second World War, he became a flying intelligence officer, rising to the rank of acting wing commander. He rose to prominence as a writer in the 1940s with works for both children and adults, he became one of the world's best-selling authors, he has been referred to as "one of the greatest storytellers for children of the 20th century". His awards for contribution to literature include the 1983 World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement, the British Book Awards' Children's Author of the Year in 1990. In 2008, The Times placed Dahl 16th on its list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". Dahl's short stories are known for their unexpected endings, his children's books for their unsentimental, macabre darkly comic mood, featuring villainous adult enemies of the child characters.
His books champion the kindhearted, feature an underlying warm sentiment. Dahl's works for children include James and the Giant Peach and the Chocolate Factory, The Witches, Fantastic Mr Fox, The BFG, The Twits and George's Marvellous Medicine, his adult works include Tales of the Unexpected. Roald Dahl was born in 1916 at Villa Marie, Fairwater Road, in Llandaff, Wales, to Norwegian parents, Harald Dahl and Sofie Magdalene Dahl. Dahl's father had emigrated to the UK from Sarpsborg in Norway, settled in Cardiff in the 1880s with his first wife, a Frenchwoman named Marie Beaurin-Gresser, they had two children together, Ellen Marguerite and Louis, before her death in 1907. His mother came over and married his father in 1911. Dahl was named after the Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen, his first language was Norwegian, which he spoke at home with his parents and his sisters Astri and Else. Dahl and his sisters were raised in the Lutheran faith, were baptised at the Norwegian Church, where their parents worshipped.
In 1920, when Dahl was three years old, his seven-year-old sister, died from appendicitis. Weeks his father died of pneumonia at the age of 57; that year, his younger sister Asta was born. With the option of returning to Norway to live with relatives, Dahl's mother decided to remain in Wales, her husband Harald had wanted their children to be educated in English schools, which he considered the world's best. Dahl first attended Llandaff. At the age of eight, he and four of his friends were caned by the headmaster after putting a dead mouse in a jar of gobstoppers at the local sweet shop, owned by a "mean and loathsome" old woman called Mrs Pratchett; the five boys named their prank the "Great Mouse Plot of 1924". Gobstoppers were a favourite sweet among British schoolboys between the two World Wars, Dahl would refer to them in his creation, Everlasting Gobstopper, featured in Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Dahl transferred to a boarding school in England: St Peter's in Weston-super-Mare, his parents had wanted him to be educated at an English public school and, because of the regular ferry link across the Bristol Channel, this proved to be the nearest.
Dahl's time at St Peter's was unpleasant. After her death in 1967, he learned that she had saved every one of his letters, in small bundles held together with green tape. In 2016, to mark the centenary of Dahl's birth, his letters to his mother were abridged and broadcast as BBC Radio 4's Book of the Week. Dahl wrote about his time at St Peter's in his autobiography Boy: Tales of Childhood. From 1929, when he was 13, Dahl attended Repton School in Derbyshire. Dahl disliked the hazing and described an environment of ritual cruelty and status domination, with younger boys having to act as personal servants for older boys subject to terrible beatings, his biographer Donald Sturrock described these violent experiences in Dahl's early life. Dahl expresses some of these darker experiences in his writings, marked by his hatred of cruelty and corporal punishment. According to Boy: Tales of Childhood, a friend named Michael was viciously caned by headmaster Geoffrey Fisher. Writing in that same book, Dahl reflected: “All through my school life I was appalled by the fact that masters and senior boys were allowed to wound other boys, sometimes quite severely...
I couldn’t get over it. I never have got over it.” The master was selected as the Archbishop of Canterbury and crowned Queen Elizabeth II in 1953. Dahl said the incident caused him to "have doubts about religion and about God", he was never seen as a talented writer in his school years, with one of his English teachers writing in his school report "I have never met anybody who so persistently writes words meaning the exact opposite of what is intended." Dahl was exceptionally tall. He played sports including cricket and golf, was made captain of the squash team; as well as having a passion for literature, he developed an interest in photography and carried a camera with him. During his years at Repton, the Cadbury chocolate company would send boxes of new chocolates to the school to be tested by the pupils. Dahl would dream of inventing a new chocolate bar.
Platform games, or platformers, are a video game genre and subgenre of action game. In a platformer the player controlled character must jump and climb between suspended platforms while avoiding obstacles. Environments feature uneven terrain of varying height that must be traversed; the player has some control over the height and distance of jumps to avoid letting their character fall to their death or miss necessary jumps. The most common unifying element of games of this genre is the jump button, but now there are other alternatives like swiping a touchscreen. Other acrobatic maneuvers may factor into the gameplay as well, such as swinging from objects such as vines or grappling hooks, as in Ristar or Bionic Commando, or bouncing from springboards or trampolines, as in Alpha Waves; these mechanics in the context of other genres, are called platforming, a verbification of platform. Games where jumping is automated such as 3D games in The Legend of Zelda series, fall outside of the genre. Platform games originated in the early 1980s, which were about climbing ladders as much as jumping, with 3D successors popularized in the mid-1990s.
The term describes games where jumping on platforms is an integral part of the gameplay and came into use after the genre had been established, no than 1983. The genre is combined with elements of other genres, such as the shooter elements in Contra, Beat'em up elements of Viewtiful Joe, adventure elements of Flashback, or role-playing game elements of Castlevania: Symphony of the Night. While associated with console gaming, there have been many important platform games released to video arcades, as well as for handheld game consoles and home computers. North America and Japan have played major parts in the genre's evolution. Platform themes range from cartoon-like games to science fantasy epics. At one point, platform games were the most popular genre of video game. At the peak of their popularity, it is estimated that between one-quarter and one-third of console games were platformers. No genre either before or since has been able to achieve a similar market share; as of 2006, the genre had become far less dominant, representing a two percentage market share as compared to fifteen percent in 1998, but is still commercially viable, with a number of games selling in the millions of units.
Since 2010, a variety of endless running platformers for mobile devices have brought renewed popularity to the genre. Platform games originated in the late 1970s - early 1980s. Most, but not all, early examples of platform games were confined to a static playing field viewed in profile. Space Panic, a 1980 arcade release by Universal, is sometimes credited as being the first platform game, though the distinction is contentious. While the player had the ability to fall, there was no ability to jump, so the game does not satisfy most modern definitions of the genre. However, it influenced the genre, with gameplay centered on climbing ladders between different floors, a common element in many early platform games. A difficult game to learn, Space Panic remained obscure as an arcade game, but the 1981 unauthorized clone Apple Panic was a hit for home computers. Another precursor to the genre from 1980 was Nichibutsu's Crazy Climber, which revolved around the concept of climbing vertically-scrolling skyscrapers.
Donkey Kong, an arcade game created by Nintendo and released in July 1981, was the first game that allowed players to jump over obstacles and across gaps, making it the first true platformer. It introduced a modern icon of the genre, under the name Jumpman. Donkey Kong was ported to many consoles and computers at the time, notably as the system-selling pack-in game for ColecoVision, a handheld version from Coleco in 1982; the game helped cement Nintendo's position as an important name in the video game industry internationally. The following year, Donkey Kong received a sequel, Donkey Kong Jr.. The third game in the series, Donkey Kong 3, was not a platformer, but it was succeeded by Mario Bros, a platform game that offered two-player simultaneous cooperative play; this title laid the groundwork for other popular two-player cooperative platformers such as Fairyland Story and Bubble Bobble, which in turn influenced many of the single-screen platformers that would follow. Beginning in 1982, transitional games emerged that did not feature scrolling graphics, but had levels that spanned several connected screens.
Pitfall!, released for the Atari 2600, featured broad, horizontally extended levels. It was a breakthrough for the genre. Smurf: Rescue in Gargamel's Castle was released on the ColecoVision that same year, adding uneven terrain and scrolling pans between static screens. Manic Miner and its sequel Jet Set Willy continued this style of multi-screen levels on home computers. Wanted: Monty Mole won the first award for Best Platform game in 1984; that same year, Epyx released Impossible Mission, which further expanded on the exploration aspect and laid the groundwork for such games as Prince of Persia. The term platform game is somewhat ambiguous when referring to games that predate the widespread, international use of the term; the concept of a platform game as it was defined in its earliest days is somewhat different from how the term is used today. Following the release of Donkey Kong, a genre of similarly-styled games emerged characterized by a profile view of tiers connected by ladders; these included Kangaroo, Canyon Climber, Miner 2049er, Lode Runner, Jumpman.
The two most common gameplay goals were to get to the top of the screen or to collect all of a particular item, both of which are found in Donkey Kong. The North Ame