Royal Society of Edinburgh
The Royal Society of Edinburgh is Scotland's national academy of science and letters. It is a registered charity, operating on a wholly independent and non-party-political basis and providing public benefit throughout Scotland, it was established in 1783. As of 2017, it has more than 1,660 Fellows; the Society covers a broader selection of fields than the Royal Society of London including literature and history. Fellowship includes people from a wide range of disciplines – science & technology, humanities, social science and public service. At the start of the 18th century, Edinburgh's intellectual climate fostered many clubs and societies. Though there were several that treated the arts and medicine, the most prestigious was the Society for the Improvement of Medical Knowledge referred to as the Medical Society of Edinburgh, co-founded by the mathematician Colin Maclaurin in 1731. Maclaurin was unhappy with the specialist nature of the Medical Society, in 1737 a new, broader society, the Edinburgh Society for Improving Arts and Sciences and Natural Knowledge was split from the specialist medical organisation, which went on to become the Royal Medical Society.
The cumbersome name was changed the following year to the Edinburgh Philosophical Society. With the help of University of Edinburgh professors like Joseph Black, William Cullen and John Walker, this society transformed itself into the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1783 and in 1788 it issued the first volume of its new journal Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh; as the end of the century drew near, the younger members such as Sir James Hall embraced Lavoisier's new nomenclature and the members split over the practical and theoretical objectives of the society. This resulted in the founding of the Wernerian Society, a parallel organisation that focused more upon natural history and scientific research that could be used to improve Scotland's weak agricultural and industrial base. Under the leadership of Prof. Robert Jameson, the Wernerians first founded Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society and the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, thereby diverting the output of the Royal Society's Transactions.
Thus, for the first four decades of the 19th century, the RSE's members published brilliant articles in two different journals. By the 1850s, the society once again unified its membership under one journal. During the 19th century the society contained many scientists whose ideas laid the foundation of the modern sciences. From the 20th century onward, the society functioned not only as a focal point for Scotland's eminent scientists, but the arts and humanities, it still continues to promote original research in Scotland. In February 2014, Dame Jocelyn Bell Burnell was announced as the society's first female president, taking up her position in October; the Royal Society has been housed in a succession of locations: 1783–1807 – College Library, University of Edinburgh 1807–1810 – Physicians' Hall, George Street. The Royal Medals are awarded annually, preferably to people with a Scottish connection, who have achieved distinction and international repute in either Life Sciences and Engineering Sciences, Arts and Social Sciences or Business and Commerce.
The Medals were instituted in 2000 by Queen Elizabeth II, whose permission is required to make a presentation. Past winners include: The Lord Kelvin Medal is the Senior Prize for Physical and Informatics Sciences, it is awarded annually to a person who has achieved distinction nationally and internationally, who has contributed to wider society by the accessible dissemination of research and scholarship. Winners are required to deliver a public lecture in Scotland; the award is named after William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, a famous mathematical physicist and engineer, Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Glasgow. Senior Prize-winners are required to have a Scottish connection but can be based anywhere in the world; the Keith medal has been awarded every four years for a scientific paper published in the society's scientific journals, preference being given to a paper containing a discovery. It is awarded alternately for papers on Environmental Sciences; the medal was founded in 1827 as a result of a bequest by Alexander Keith of Dunnottar, the first Treasurer of the Society.
The Makdougall Brisbane Prize has been awarded biennially, preferably to people working in Scotland, with no more than fifteen years post-doctoral experience, for particular distinction in the promotion of scientific research and is awarded sequentially to research workers in the Physical Sciences, Engineering Sciences and Biological Sciences. The prize was founded in 1855 by Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane, the long-serving fourth President of the Society. The'Gunning Victoria Jubilee Prize Lectureship' is a quadrennial award to re
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Humboldt University of Berlin
Humboldt University of Berlin is a university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany. It was established by Frederick William III on the initiative of Wilhelm von Humboldt, Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Ernst Daniel Schleiermacher as the University of Berlin in 1809, opened in 1810, making it the oldest of Berlin's four universities. From 1810 until its closure in 1945, it was named Friedrich Wilhelm University. During the Cold War the university found itself in East Berlin and was de facto split in two when the Free University of Berlin opened in West Berlin; the university received its current name in honour of Alexander and Wilhelm von Humboldt in 1949. The university is divided into nine faculties, including its medical school shared with the Free University of Berlin, has a student enrollment of around 32,000 students, offers degree programmes in some 189 disciplines from undergraduate to postdoctorate level, its main campus is located on the Unter den Linden boulevard in central Berlin.
The university is known worldwide for pioneering the Humboldtian model of higher education, which has influenced other European and Western universities, the university has been called "the mother of all modern universities."As of 2017, the university has been associated with 55 Nobel Prize winners, is considered one of the best universities in Europe as well as one of the most prestigious universities in the world for arts and humanities. It was regarded as the world's preeminent university for the natural sciences during the 19th and early 20th century, is linked to major breakthroughs in physics and other sciences by its professors such as Albert Einstein. Former faculty and notable alumni include eminent philosophers, artists, politicians, mathematicians and Heads of State; the University of Berlin was established on 16 August 1809, on the initiative of the liberal Prussian educational politician Wilhelm von Humboldt by King Friedrich Wilhelm III, during the period of the Prussian Reform Movement.
The university was located in a palace constructed from 1748-1766 for the late Prince Henry, the younger brother of Frederick the Great. After his widow and her ninety-member staff moved out, the first unofficial lectures were given in the building in the winter of 1809. Humboldt faced great resistance to his ideas, he submitted his resignation to the King in April 1810, was not present when the school opened that fall. The first students were admitted on 6 October 1810, the first semester started on 10 October 1810, with 256 students and 52 lecturers in faculties of law, medicine and philosophy under rector Theodor Schmalz; the university celebrates 15 October 1810 as the date of its opening. From 1828 to 1945, the school was named the Friedrich Wilhelm University, in honor of its founder. Ludwig Feuerbach one of the students, made a comment on the university in 1826: "There is no question here of drinking and plesant communal outings. Compared to this temple of work, the other universities appear like public houses."The university has been home to many of Germany's greatest thinkers of the past two centuries, among them the subjective idealist philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte, the theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher, the absolute idealist philosopher G.
W. F. Hegel, the Romantic legal theorist Friedrich Carl von Savigny, the pessimist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, the objective idealist philosopher Friedrich Schelling, cultural critic Walter Benjamin, famous physicists Albert Einstein and Max Planck; the founders of Marxist theory Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels attended the university, as did poet Heinrich Heine, novelist Alfred Döblin, founder of structuralism Ferdinand de Saussure, German unifier Otto von Bismarck, Communist Party of Germany founder Karl Liebknecht, African American Pan Africanist W. E. B. Du Bois and European unifier Robert Schuman, as well as the influential surgeon Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach in the early half of the 1800s; the structure of German research-intensive universities served as a model for institutions like Johns Hopkins University. Further, it has been claimed that "the'Humboldtian' university became a model for the rest of Europe with its central principle being the union of teaching and research in the work of the individual scholar or scientist."
In addition to the strong anchoring of traditional subjects, such as science, philosophy, history and medicine, the university developed to encompass numerous new scientific disciplines. Alexander von Humboldt, brother of the founder William, promoted the new learning. With the construction of modern research facilities in the second half of the 19th Century teaching of the natural sciences began. Famous researchers, such as the chemist August Wilhelm Hofmann, the physicist Hermann von Helmholtz, the mathematicians Ernst Eduard Kummer, Leopold Kronecker, Karl Weierstrass, the physicians Johannes Peter Müller, Albrecht von Graefe, Rudolf Virchow and Robert Koch, contributed to Berlin University's scientific fame. During this period of enlargement, the university expanded to incorporate other separate colleges in Berlin. An example would be the Pépinière and the Collegium Medico-chirurgicum. In 1717, King Friedrich I had built a quarantine house for Plague at the city gates, which in 1727 was rechristened by the "soldier king" Friedrich
Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly in the family Drosophilidae. The species is known as the common fruit fly or vinegar fly. Starting with Charles W. Woodworth's proposal of the use of this species as a model organism, D. melanogaster continues to be used for biological research in genetics, microbial pathogenesis, life history evolution. As of 2017, eight Nobel prizes had been awarded for research using Drosophila. D. Melanogaster is used in research because it can be reared in the laboratory, has only four pairs of chromosomes and lays many eggs, its geographic range includes all continents, including islands. D. melanogaster is a common pest in homes and other places where food is served. Flies belonging to the family Tephritidae are called "fruit flies"; this can cause confusion in the Mediterranean and South Africa, where the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata is an economic pest. Wildtype fruit flies are yellow-brown, with brick-red eyes and transverse black rings across the abdomen.
They exhibit sexual dimorphism. Males are distinguished from females based on colour differences, with a distinct black patch at the abdomen, less noticeable in emerged flies, the sexcombs. Furthermore, males have a cluster of spiky hairs surrounding the reproducing parts used to attach to the female during mating. Extensive images are found at FlyBase. Under optimal growth conditions at 25 °C, the D. melanogaster lifespan is about 50 days from egg to death. The developmental period for D. melanogaster varies with temperature, as with many ectothermic species. The shortest development time, 7 days, is achieved at 28 °C. Development times increase at higher temperatures due to heat stress. Under ideal conditions, the development time at 25 °C is 8.5 days, at 18 °C it takes 19 days and at 12 °C it takes over 50 days. Under crowded conditions, development time increases. Females lay some 400 eggs, about five at a time, into rotting fruit or other suitable material such as decaying mushrooms and sap fluxes.
The eggs, which are about 0.5 mm long, hatch after 12–15 hours. The resulting larvae grow for about 4 days while molting twice, at about 48 h after hatching. During this time, they feed on the microorganisms that decompose the fruit, as well as on the sugar of the fruit itself; the mother puts feces on the egg sacs to establish the same microbial composition in the larvae's guts that has worked positively for herself. The larvae encapsulate in the puparium and undergo a 4-day-long metamorphosis, after which the adults eclose; the female fruit fly prefers a shorter duration. Males, prefer it to last longer. Males perform a sequence of five behavioral patterns to court females. First, males orient themselves while playing a courtship song by horizontally extending and vibrating their wings. Soon after, the male positions himself at the rear of the female's abdomen in a low posture to tap and lick the female genitalia; the male curls his abdomen and attempts copulation. Females can reject males by moving away and extruding their ovipositor.
Copulation lasts around 15–20 minutes, during which males transfer a few hundred long sperm cells in seminal fluid to the female. Females store the sperm in two mushroom-shaped spermathecae. A last male precedence is believed to exist; this precedence was found to occur through both incapacitation. The displacement is attributed to sperm handling by the female fly as multiple matings are conducted and is most significant during the first 1–2 days after copulation. Displacement from the seminal receptacle is more significant than displacement from the spermathecae. Incapacitation of first male sperm by second male sperm becomes significant 2–7 days after copulation; the seminal fluid of the second male is believed to be responsible for this incapacitation mechanism which takes effect before fertilization occurs. The delay in effectiveness of the incapacitation mechanism is believed to be a protective mechanism that prevents a male fly from incapacitating his own sperm should he mate with the same female fly repetitively.
Sensory neurons in the uterus of female D. melanogaster respond to a male protein, sex peptide, found in sperm. This protein makes the female reluctant to copulate for about 10 days after insemination; the signal pathway leading to this change in behavior has been determined. The signal is sent to a brain region, a homolog of the hypothalamus and the hypothalamus controls sexual behavior and desire. Gonadotropic hormones in Drosophila maintain homeostasis and govern reproductive output via a cyclic interrelationship, not unlike the mammalian estrous cycle. Sex Peptide perturbs this homeostasis and shifts the endocrine state of the female by inciting juvenile hormone synthesis in the corpus allatum. D. Melanogaster is used for life extension studies, such as to identify genes purported to increase lifespan when mutated. Females become receptive to courting males about 8–12 hours after emergence. Specific neuron groups in females have been found to affect copulation behavior a
National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization. NAS is part of the National Academies of Sciences and Medicine, along with the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Medicine; as a national academy, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. Election to the National Academy is one of the highest honors in the scientific field. Members serve pro bono as "advisers to the nation" on science and medicine; the group holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code. Founded in 1863 as a result of an Act of Congress, approved by Abraham Lincoln, the NAS is charged with "providing independent, objective advice to the nation on matters related to science and technology. … to provide scientific advice to the government'whenever called upon' by any government department. The Academy receives no compensation from the government for its services."
As of 2016, the National Academy of Sciences includes about 2,350 members and 450 foreign associates. It employed about 1,100 staff in 2005; the current members annually elect new members for life. Up to 84 members who are US citizens are elected every year. 190 members have won a Nobel Prize. By its own admission in 1989, the addition of women to the Academy "continues at a dismal trickle", at which time there were 1,516 male members and 57 female members; the National Academy of Sciences is a member of the International Council for Science. The ICSU Advisory Committee, in the Research Council's Office of International Affairs, facilitates participation of members in international scientific unions and serves as a liaison for U. S. national committees for individual scientific unions. Although there is no formal relationship with state and local academies of science, there is informal dialogue; the National Academy is governed by a 17-member Council, made up of five officers and 12 Councilors, all of whom are elected from among the Academy membership.
About 85 percent of funding comes from the federal government through contracts and grants from agencies and 15 percent from state governments, private foundations, industrial organizations, funds provided by the Academies member organizations. The Council has the ability ad-hoc to delegate certain tasks to committees. For example, the Committee on Animal Nutrition has produced a series of Nutrient requirements of domestic animals reports since at least 1944, each one being initiated by a different sub-committee of experts in the field for example on dairy cattle; the National Academy of Sciences meets annually in Washington, D. C., documented in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, its scholarly journal. The National Academies Press is the publisher for the National Academies, makes more than 5,000 publications available on its website. From 2004 to 2017, the National Academy of Sciences administered the Marian Koshland Science Museum to provide public exhibits and programming related to its policy work.
The museum's exhibits focused on infectious disease. In 2017 the museum closed and made way for a new science outreach program called LabX; the National Academy of Sciences maintains multiple buildings around the United States. The National Academy of Sciences Building is located at 2101 Constitution Avenue, in northwest Washington, D. C.. S. State Department; the building has a neoclassical architectural style and was built by architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue. The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Goodhue engaged a team of artists and architectural sculptors including Albert Herter, Lee Lawrie, Hildreth Meiere to design interior embellishments celebrating the history and significance of science; the building is used for lectures, symposia and concerts, in addition to annual meetings of the NAS, NAE, NAM. The 2012 Presidential Award for Math and Science Teaching ceremony was held here on March 5, 2014. 150 staff members work at the NAS Building. In June 2012, it reopened to visitors after a major two-year restoration project which restored and improved the building's historic spaces, increased accessibility, brought the building's aging infrastructure and facilities up to date.
More than 1,000 National Academies staff members work at The Keck Center of the National Academies at 500 Fifth Street in northwest Washington, D. C; the Keck Center houses the National Academies Press Bookstore. The Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences – located at 525 E St. N. W. – hosted visits from the public, school field trips, traveling exhibits, permanent science exhibits. The NAS maintains conference centers in California and Massachusetts; the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center is located on 100 Academy Drive in Irvine, near the campus of the University of California, Irvine. The J. Erik Jonsson Conference Center located at 314 Quissett Avenue in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, is another conference facility; the Act of Incorporation, signed by President Abraham Lincoln on March 3, 1863, created the National Academy of Sciences and named 50 charter members. Many of the original NAS members came from the so-called "Scientific Lazzaroni," an informal network of phy
Indiana University is a multi-campus public university system in the state of Indiana, United States. Indiana University has a combined student body of more than 110,000 students, which includes 46,000 students enrolled at the Indiana University Bloomington campus. Indiana University has a total of nine different campuses; each one of the campuses is an four-year degree-granting institution. The flagship campus of Indiana University is located in Bloomington. Indiana University Bloomington is the location of Indiana University; the Bloomington campus is home to numerous premier Indiana University schools, including the College of Arts and Sciences, the Jacobs School of Music, an extension of the Indiana University School of Medicine the School of Informatics and Engineering, which includes the former School of Library and Information Science, School of Optometry, the O'Neil School of Public and Environmental Affairs, the Maurer School of Law, the School of Education, the Kelley School of Business.
In addition to its flagship campus, Indiana University comprises seven lesser extensions throughout Indiana: Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis is an urban expansion, co-locating degree programs of Indiana University alongside those of Purdue University and extending public higher education to the capitol. Located just west of downtown Indianapolis, it is the central location of several Indiana University schools, including the School of Medicine, the IU School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, the School of Dentistry, the School of Nursing, the School of Social Work, the Indiana University administrated Herron School of Art and Design, the Robert H. McKinney School of Law. Indiana University East is located in Richmond. Indiana University Fort Wayne, the system's newest campus, is located in Fort Wayne, it was established in 2018 after the dissolution of the former entity Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne, an extension similar to that of IUPUI under the administration of Purdue University.
IU Fort Wayne took over IPFW's academic programs in health sciences, with all other IPFW academic programs taken over by the new entity, Purdue University Fort Wayne. Indiana University Kokomo is located in Kokomo. Indiana University Northwest is located in Gary. Indiana University South Bend is located in South Bend. Indiana University Southeast is located in New Albany. Indiana University – Purdue University Columbus is located in Columbus. According to the National Association of College and University Business Officers, the value of the endowment of the Indiana University and affiliated foundations in 2016 is over $1.986 billion. The annual budget across all campuses totals over $3 Billion; the Indiana University Research and Technology Corporation is a not-for-profit agency that assists IU faculty and researchers in realizing the commercial potential of their discoveries. Since 1997, university clients have been responsible for more than 1,800 inventions, nearly 500 patents, 38 start-up companies.
In the 2016 Fiscal Year alone, the IURTC was issued 53 U. S. patents and 112 global patents. Richard G. Johnson - Acting Science Adviser to Ronald Reagan, physics professor at University of Bern, manager of the Space Sciences Laboratory of University of California - Berkeley. Trigger Alpert - Jazz bassist for the Glenn Miller Orchestra Joshua Bell - Grammy award-winning violinist and conductor Hoagy Carmichael - Composer, singer and bandleader John T. Chambers - Chairman and former CEO of Cisco Systems Nicole Chevalier - Operatic soprano Alton Dorian Clark - Hip-hop recording artist and record producer Pamela Coburn, soprano Suzanne Collins - Author of The Underland Chronicles and The Hunger Games trilogy Mark Cuban - Owner of the NBA's Dallas Mavericks John Cynn - Professional Poker Player. 2018 World Series of Poker Champion. Mary Czerwinski - Computer scientist at Microsoft Research and Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery Thomas P. Dooley - author and research scientist Judith Lynn Ferguson, author of 65 cookery related books, cookery editor of Woman's Realm women's magazine, Head of Diploma Course at Le Cordon Bleu- London Matt Fields - Fashion Designer - Founder of street wear brand Dope Couture George Goehl - Community organizer and executive director of People's Action Michael D. Higgins - 9th President of Ireland Lissa Hunter - Artist Jamie Hyneman - Host of the television series MythBusters Narendra Jadhav - Economist and writer Jason Jordan - Professional wrestler Nina Kasniunas - Political scientist and professor E.
W. Kelley - Businessman. News Jay Schottenstein - CEO of Schottenstein Stores Kyle Schwarber - Professional baseball player Tavis Smiley - Host of The Tavis Smiley Show. S. Ambassador to Saudi Arabia Brad Stephens - former Austra
Sulfur mustard known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards, which can form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs. They have a long history of use as a blister-agent in warfare and, along with organoarsenic compounds, are the most well-studied of such agents. Related chemical compounds with similar chemical structure and similar properties form a class of compounds known collectively as sulfur mustards or mustard agents. Pure sulfur mustards are colorless, viscous liquids at room temperature; when used in impure form, such as warfare agents, they are yellow-brown and have an odor resembling mustard plants, garlic, or horseradish, hence the name. The common name of "mustard gas" is considered inaccurate because the sulfur mustard is not vaporized, but dispersed as a fine mist of liquid droplets. Sulfur mustard was assigned the name LOST, after the scientists Wilhelm Lommel and Wilhelm Steinkopf, who developed a method of large-scale production for the Imperial German Army in 1916.
Mustard agents are regulated under the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention. Three classes of chemicals are monitored under this Convention, with sulfur and nitrogen mustard grouped in Schedule 1, as substances with no use other than in chemical warfare. Mustard agents could be deployed by means of artillery shells, aerial bombs, rockets, or by spraying from warplanes or other aircraft. Sulfur mustard can be decontaminated through reaction with chloramine-T. Sulfur mustard is the organic compound with formula 2S. In the Depretz method, sulfur mustard is synthesized by treating sulfur dichloride with ethylene: SCl2 + 2 C2H4 → 2SIn the Levinstein process, disulfur dichloride is used instead: 8 S2Cl2 + 16 C2H4 → 8 2S + S8In the Meyer method, thiodiglycol is produced from chloroethanol and potassium sulfide and chlorinated with phosphorus trichloride: 3 2S + 2 PCl3 → 3 2S + 2 P3In the Meyer-Clarke method, concentrated hydrochloric acid instead of PCl3 is used as the chlorinating agent: 2S + 2 HCl → 2S + 2 H2OThionyl chloride and phosgene, the latter of, a choking agent, have been used as chlorinating agents, with the added possibility of both agents producing additional mechanisms of toxicity if they remain as impurities in the finished product.
Sulfur mustard is a viscous liquid at normal temperatures. The pure compound has a melting point of 14 °C and decomposes before boiling at 218 °C. Reaction of sulfur mustard with sodium ethoxide gives divinyl sulfide: 2S + 2 NaOEt → 2S + 2 EtOH + 2 NaCl The compound eliminates a chloride ion by intramolecular nucleophilic substitution to form a cyclic sulfonium ion; this reactive intermediate tends to cause permanent alkylation of the guanine nucleotide in DNA strands, which prevents cellular division and leads directly to programmed cell death, or, if cell death is not immediate, the damaged DNA may lead to the development of cancer. Oxidative stress would be another pathology involved in sulfur mustard toxicity. Sulfur mustard is not soluble in water but is soluble in fat, contributing to its rapid absorption into the skin. In the wider sense, compounds with the structural element BCH2CH2X, where X is any leaving group and B is a Lewis base are known as mustards; such compounds can form cyclic "onium" ions.
Examples are bisether, the amines, sulfur sesquimustard, which has two α-chloroethyl thioether groups connected by an ethylene group. These compounds have a similar ability to alkylate DNA, but their physical properties, e.g. melting points, may vary. Mustard agent has powerful vesicant effects on its victims. In addition, it is mutagenic and carcinogenic, due to its alkylating properties, it is lipophilic. Because people exposed to mustard agent suffer immediate symptoms, mustard-contaminated areas may appear normal, victims can unknowingly receive high dosages. Within 24 hours of exposure to mustard agent, victims experience intense itching and skin irritation, which turns into large blisters filled with yellow fluid wherever the mustard agent contacted the skin; these are chemical burns and are debilitating. Mustard agent vapor penetrates clothing fabrics such as wool or cotton, so it is not only the exposed skin of victims that gets burned. If the victim's eyes were exposed they become sore, starting with conjunctivitis, after which the eyelids swell, resulting in temporary blindness.
In rare cases of extreme ocular exposure to sulfur mustard vapors, corneal ulceration, anterior chamber scarring, neovascularization have occurred. In these severe and infrequent cases, corneal transplantation has been used as a treatment option. Miosis, when the pupil constricts more than usual, may occur, the result of the cholinomimetic activity of mustard. At high concentrations, if inhaled, mustard agent causes bleeding and blistering within the respiratory system, damaging mucous membranes and causing pulmonary edema. Depending on the level of contamination, mustard agent burns can vary between first and second degree burns, though they can be every bit as severe and dangerous as third degree burns. Severe mustard agent burns are fatal, with death occurring after days or weeks have passed. Mild or moderate exposure to mustard agent is unlikely to kill, though victims require