London School of Economics
The London School of Economics is a public research university located in London, a constituent college of the federal University of London. Founded in 1895 by Fabian Society members Sidney Webb, Beatrice Webb, Graham Wallas, George Bernard Shaw for the betterment of society, LSE joined the University of London in 1900 and established its first degree courses under the auspices of the University in 1901; the LSE started awarding its own degrees in 2008, prior to which it awarded degrees of the University of London. LSE is located near the boundary between Covent Garden and Holborn; the area is known as Clare Market. The LSE has more than 11,000 students and 3,300 staff, just under half of whom come from outside the UK, it had an income of £ 354.3 million in 2017/18. One hundred and fifty-five nationalities are represented amongst LSE's student body and the school has the second highest percentage of international students of all world universities. Despite its name, the school is organised into 25 academic departments and institutes which conduct teaching and research across a range of legal studies and social sciences.
LSE is a member of the Russell Group, Association of Commonwealth Universities, European University Association and is sometimes considered a part of the "Golden Triangle" of universities in south-east England. For the subject area of social science, LSE places second in the world in the QS Rankings, tenth in THE Rankings, eighth in the Academic Ranking of World Universities. LSE is ranked among the top fifteen universities nationally by all three UK tables, while internationally LSE is ranked in the top 50 by two of the three major global rankings. In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, the School had the highest proportion of world-leading research among research submitted of any British non-specialist university. LSE has produced many notable alumni in the fields of law, economics, psychology, literature and politics. Alumni and staff include 53 past or present heads of state or government, 20 members of the current British House of Commons and 18 Nobel laureates; as of 2017, 26% of all the Nobel Prizes in Economics have been awarded or jointly awarded to LSE alumni, current staff or former staff, making up 16% of all laureates.
LSE alumni and staff have won 3 Nobel Peace Prizes and 2 Nobel Prizes in Literature. Out of all European universities, LSE has educated the most billionaires according to a 2014 global census of U. S dollar billionaires; the London School of Economics was founded in 1895 by Beatrice and Sidney Webb funded by a bequest of £20,000 from the estate of Henry Hunt Hutchinson. Hutchinson, a lawyer and member of the Fabian Society, left the money in trust, to be put "towards advancing its objects in any way they deem advisable"; the five trustees were Sidney Webb, Edward Pease, Constance Hutchinson, William de Mattos and William Clark. LSE records that the proposal to establish the school was conceived during a breakfast meeting on 4 August 1894, between the Webbs, Louis Flood and George Bernard Shaw; the proposal was accepted by the trustees in February 1895 and LSE held its first classes in October of that year, in rooms at 9 John Street, Adelphi, in the City of Westminster. The School joined the federal University of London in 1900, was recognised as a Faculty of Economics of the university.
The University of London degrees of BSc and DSc were established in 1901, the first university degrees dedicated to the social sciences. Expanding over the following years, the school moved to the nearby 10 Adelphi Terrace to Clare Market and Houghton Street; the foundation stone of the Old Building, on Houghton Street, was laid by King George V in 1920. The 1930s economic debate between LSE and Cambridge is well known in academic circles. Rivalry between academic opinion at LSE and Cambridge goes back to the school's roots when LSE's Edwin Cannan, Professor of Economics, Cambridge's Professor of Political Economy, Alfred Marshall, the leading economist of the day, argued about the bedrock matter of economics and whether the subject should be considered as an organic whole.. The dispute concerned the question of the economist's role, whether this should be as a detached expert or a practical adviser. Despite the traditional view that the LSE and Cambridge were fierce rivals through the 1920s and 30s, they worked together in the 1920s on the London and Cambridge Economic Service.
However, the 1930s brought a return to disputes as economists at the two universities argued over how best to address the economic problems caused by the Great Depression. The main figures in this debate were John Maynard Keynes from Cambridge and the LSE's Friedrich Hayek; the LSE Economist Lionel Robbins was heavily involved. Starting off as a disagreement over whether demand management or deflation was the better solution to the economic problems of the time, it embraced much wider concepts of economics and macroeconomics. Keynes put forward the theories now known as Keynesian economics, involving the active participation of the state and public sector, while Hayek and Robbins followed the Austrian School, which emphasised free trade and opposed state involvement. During World War II, the School decamped from London to the University of Cambridge, occupying buildings belonging to Peterhouse; the School's arms, including its mo
Augustana College (Illinois)
Augustana College is a private liberal arts college in Rock Island, United States. The college enrolls 2,500 students. Covering 115 acres of hilly, wooded land, Augustana is adjacent to the Mississippi River. Augustana College was founded as Augustana College and Theological Seminary in 1860 by the Scandinavian Evangelical Lutheran Augustana Synod. Located first in Chicago, it moved to Paxton, Illinois, in 1863 and to Rock Island, its current home, in 1875. After 1890 an large Swedish American community in America promoted a new institutional structure, including a lively Swedish-language press, many new churches, several colleges, a network of ethnic organizations; the result was to foster with pride a sense of Swedishness in the United States. Thereby there emerged a self-confident Americanized generation. Augustana College put itself in the lead of the movement to affirm Swedish American identity. Early on all the students had been born in Sweden but by 1890 the second generation of American-born students predominated.
They had white-collar or professional backgrounds. These middle class youth developed an idealized view of Sweden, characterized by romanticism and idealism, just like their counterparts across the Atlantic; the new generation was proud of the Swedish contributions to American democracy and the creation of a republic that promised liberty and destroyed the menace of slavery. The college grew by donation of 5 acres on the south in 1886 and purchase, enabled by donation of C. J. A. Ericson, of 10–12 acres to the north in 1899. In 1947, when Conrad Bergendoff was college president, the Augustana Seminary formally separated from Augustana College and became an independent body, it remained on the Rock Island campus until the 1960s. It merged with other Lutheran seminaries to form the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago. Augustana ranks among the top 40 U. S. liberal arts colleges in the sciences, based on the number of graduates earning Ph. D.s. Students accepted to Augustana rank in the top 20% of their high school classes.
The middle 50 percent of enrolled students for the class of 2012 scored 26–30 on the ACT, well above the national averages. Augustana College is considered selective. 73% of Augustana students graduate in four years and 78% graduate in six years. The services offered through CORE afford students an advantage in graduate school placement and the job market. Three distinguishing opportunities are: Augie Choice: $2000 offered to every student to support hands-on learning through research, an internship or international study. Academic programsAugustana has nearly 90 academic programs and fields of study including nine pre-professional and eight interdisciplinary programs: ranging from Accounting to World Literature. Old Main was constructed between 1884 and 1893, it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. On August 2, 2010, the New Science Building was named the Robert A. and Patricia K. Hanson Hall of Science after Robert Hanson, a former John Deere CEO. Hanson, who donated $8 million to the college, credits his success in life to his time spent at Augustana.
The science building, dedicated in 1998, is the largest academic building serving 700 students in 17 majors and concentrations. The Hanson Hall of Science's facilities and resources include seven classrooms, 35 laboratories, a 400 MHz liquid-and solid-state NMR spectrometer, scanning electron microscope, instrumentation for X-ray powder crystallography and a functioning 40-foot greenhouse. Augustana has five traditional residence halls: Andreen Hall, Erickson Residence Center, Seminary Hall, Swanson Commons, Westerlin Residence Center. All five of these residence halls are coeducational; the majority of first-year and sophomore-year students reside in one of these five residence halls. For upperclassmen, Augustana offers Transitional Living Areas, apartment-like complexes or traditional off-campus houses administered by the college's Office of Residential Life, in which Augustana students live; the school takes care of basic maintenance in these areas, some of which are House on the Hill and Arbaugh Apartments.
These areas have 2–6 students who share a bathroom, a kitchen, other living spaces. Th Fryxell Geology Museum, named after Augustana geologist Fritiof Fryxell, features a large collection of dinosaurs and fossils and mineral specimens. Displays include a complete skeleton of a Platecarpus "sea serpent", skulls of Parasaurolophus, Apatosaurus and Tyrannosaurus rex and a 2-billion-year-old fossil. There is a complete 22-foot long skeleton of Cryolophosaurus, a large crested carnivorous dinosaur discovered in Antarctica in 1991 by Augustana paleontologist William Hammer; the museum is open during the academic year. Admission is free. Organizations Since 1950, Augustana has had a chapter of the Phi Beta Kappa honor society; the college has non-"Greek" collegiate fraternal organizations, including Epsilon Tau Pi, Alpha Phi Omega, Sigma Alpha Iota, Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia, Epsilon Sigma Alpha, Alpha Psi Omega, others. The Omicron chapter of Phrateres, a non-exclusive, non-profit social-service club, was in
MacArthur Fellows Program
The MacArthur Fellows Program, MacArthur Fellowship but unofficially known as a "Genius Grant", is a prize awarded annually by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation to between 20 and 30 individuals, working in any field, who have shown "extraordinary originality and dedication in their creative pursuits and a marked capacity for self-direction" and are citizens or residents of the United States. According to the Foundation's website, "the fellowship is not a reward for past accomplishment, but rather an investment in a person's originality and potential"; the current prize is $625,000 paid over five years in quarterly installments. This figure was increased from $500,000 in 2013 with the release of a review of the MacArthur Fellows Program. Since 1981, 942 people have been named MacArthur Fellows, ranging in age from 18 to 82; the award has been called "one of the most significant awards, truly'no strings attached'". The program allows no applications. Anonymous and confidential nominations are invited by the Foundation and reviewed by an anonymous and confidential selection committee of about a dozen people.
The committee reviews all nominees and recommends recipients to the president and board of directors. Most new Fellows first learn of their nomination and award upon receiving a congratulatory phone call. MacArthur Fellow Jim Collins described this experience in an editorial column of The New York Times. Cecilia Conrad is the managing director leading the MacArthur Fellows Program. In the 2008 Charlie Kaufman film Synecdoche, New York, The main character Caden Cotard was a recipient of the Grant, used it to fund his immersive play. Guggenheim Fellowship Thomas J. Watson Fellowship MacArthur Fellows Program website
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
T. S. Ashton
Thomas Southcliffe Ashton was an English economic historian. He was professor of economic history at the London School of Economics at the University of London from 1944 until 1954, Emeritus Professor until his death in 1968, his best known work is the 1948 textbook The Industrial Revolution, which put forth a positive view on the benefits of the era. He donated money to provide the T. S. Ashton Prize, an annual award from the Economic History Society; the prize is £750 and is awarded at every other annual conference to the author of the best article accepted for publication in the Economic History Review in the previous two calendar years. Following a BBC Freedom of Information request in January 2012, it was revealed that Ashton turned down a knighthood in 1957. Ashton was educated at Manchester University, his academic career was focused on public finance. Ashton was Assistant Lecturer in Economics at the Sheffield University from 1912 to 1919, from 1919 to 1921, he was Lecturer and Tutor at Birmingham University.
In 1921, he was appointed Senior Lecturer in Economics at Manchester University. He became Dean of the Faculty of Commerce and Administration and served in this capacity from 1938 to 1944, he became professor of economic history at the London School of Economics where he served from 1944 to 1954. He was president of both the Economic History Society, his publications cover the economy of the 18th century and include the iron and coal industries: Iron and Steel in the Industrial Revolution The Coal Industry Economic and Social Investigations in Manchester 1833–1933 An Eighteenth-Century Industrialist: Peter Stubs of Warrington 1756 – 1806 The Industrial Revolution online edition An Economic History of England: the Eighteenth Century online edition Economic Fluctuations in England 1700–1800 English Overseas Trade Statistics 1697–1808, by E. B. Schumpeter, edited by T. S. Ashton Economic History Society
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012