Distributed Proofreaders Canada
Distributed Proofreaders Canada is a volunteer organization that converts books into digital format and releases them as public domain books in formats readable by electronic devices. It as of 2018 has published about 4,200 books. Books that are released are stored on a book archive called Faded Page. While its focus is on Canadian publications and preserving Canadiana, it includes books from other countries as well, it is modelled after Distributed Proofreaders, performs the same function as similar projects in other parts of the world such as Project Gutenberg in the United States and Project Gutenberg Australia. Distributed Proofreaders Canada was launched in December 2007 by Michael Shepard. Although it was established by members of the original Distributed Proofreaders site, it is a separate entity, it is a volunteer based non-profit organization. All the administrative and management costs are borne by its members; the software used by DP Canada was downloaded from SourceForge but has been modified since then.
In addition to preserving Canadiana, DP Canada is notable because it is one of the first major efforts to take advantage of Canada's copyright laws which allows more works to be preserved. Unlike copyright law in other countries, Canada has a "life plus 50" copyright term. Works by authors who died more than fifty years ago may be made publicly available in Canada. Other countries have differing copyright laws. Although files available through DP Canada are publicly available in other countries, the onus is on the reader to ensure that they only download material, not in copyright in their country of residence. Notable Canadian authors whose books have been published include Stephen Leacock, L. M. Montgomery, E. T. Seton and Mazo de la Roche. Authors whose works have been released in Canada but not other parts of the world include A. A. Milne, C. S. Lewis, Winston Churchill, E. E. Smith and Amy Carmichael. Eligible books are chosen by members for publication based on personal access. Books are scanned electronically and each page is uploaded to the proofreading website.
A project is made available to the proofreading members. Each book is proofread in three stages called'P1','P2' and'P3'. During the first stage, errors in scanning and other minor errors are corrected. Once all pages in the book have been edited the book pages are promoted to the next stage, P2; the proofreading is repeated and again in stage P3 to ensure no errors make it to the final publication. Once stage P3 is finished the book moves to a set of two formatting stages called'F1', and'F2'. In these stages the book text is changed into a format that allows it to be presented to the reader in a style that resembles the original book as as possible. For example, text appearing in Italic type is placed within formatting tags <i>this text is in italics</i>; when formatted the text appears as this text is in italics. When the formatting stages are complete, a post-processing stage brings all the files together to publish the books in five electronic formats; these include mobi, HTML, PDF and plain text.
The HTML version is made available as a Zip file. Before the books are added to the Faded Page book archive, the books are placed in a final round called'Smooth Reading'. While in this phase, members of DP Canada are encouraged to read them. While the books are in this phase, comments about the book for possible improvements can be sent to the post processor. Once past the Smooth Reading process, the publication is posted on Faded Page; the books that are published by DP Canada in the public domain are made available through the Faded Page book archive. Some of the publications released are posted to the Project Gutenberg Canada website. PG Canada is a book archive. List of digital library projects Distributed Proofreaders Canada Faded Page Book Archive
Thomas Hughes was an English lawyer, judge and author. He is most famous for his novel Tom Brown's School Days, a semi-autobiographical work set at Rugby School, which Hughes had attended, it had Tom Brown at Oxford. Hughes had numerous other interests, in particular as a Member of Parliament, in the British co-operative movement, in a settlement in Tennessee reflecting his values. Hughes was the second son of John Hughes, editor of the Boscobel Tracts and was born in Uffington, Berkshire, he had six brothers, one sister, Jane Senior who became Britain's first female civil servant. At the age of eight he was sent to Twyford School, a preparatory public school near Winchester, where he remained until the age of eleven. In February 1834 he went to Rugby School, under the celebrated Thomas Arnold, a contemporary of his father at Oriel College, Oxford. Hughes excelled at sports rather than in scholarship, his school career culminated in a cricket match at Lord's Cricket Ground. In 1842 he went on to Oriel College, graduated B.
A. in 1845. At Oxford, he played cricket for the university team in the annual University Match against Cambridge University at Lord's, a match, still now regarded as first-class cricket. Hughes was called to the bar in 1848, became Queen's Counsel in 1869 and a bencher in 1870, he was appointed to a county court judgeship in the Chester district in July 1882. A committed social reformer, Hughes became involved in the Christian socialism movement led by Frederick Maurice, which he joined in 1848. In January 1854 he was one of the founders of the Working Men's College in Great Ormond Street, was the College's principal from 1872 to 1883. Hughes gave evidence in 1850 to a House of Commons committee on savings. In so doing he participated in a Christian Socialist initiative, which led shortly to the Industrial and Provident Societies Partnership Act 1852, the emergence of the industrial and provident society; the Act was the work of Robert Aglionby Slaney. Hughes was involved in the formation of some early trade unions, helped finance the printing of Liberal publications.
He invested with William Romaine Callender in co-operative mills, in 1866. Hughes was elected to Parliament as a Liberal for Lambeth, for Frome, he stood as candidate in 1874 for Marylebone in 1874, but dropped out just before the election, despite support from Octavia Hill. The context for the end of his political career was the unpopularity with Hughes's Frome constituents of his support for the Elementary Education Act 1870; as an MP Hughes worked on trade union legislation, but was not in a position to have major changes passed. He had greater success in improving the legal position of co-operatives, which in particular became able to operate as a limited company; the issue of legal obstacles to the operation of labour unions was topical, in 1867 Hughes was made a member of a Royal Commission set up to consider the matter. He was the only one on the committee sympathetic to the union point of view. Hughes worked with Harrison and Robert Applegarth to diminish the effect of some of the testimony from employers.
The outcome of this Commission was that Harrison and Lord Lichfield produced a minority report, recommending that all the legal restrictions should be dropped. The matter was raised again in a second Commission, at the end of Hughes's time in Parliament. At that point Alexander Macdonald used a minority report to refer back to Hughes's earlier view, it advocated amendment of the Master and Servant Act 1867, but little substantive change to the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1871 and the law of conspiracy. In 1878–9 Hughes began writing The Manual for Co-operators, with Vansittart Neale, for the Co-operative Congress; as a side-product he developed an interest in the model village. In 1880, he acquired the ownership of Franklin W. Smith's Plateau City and founded a settlement in America—Rugby, Tennessee—which was designed as an experiment in utopian living for the younger sons of the English gentry, it followed on the failed colony Buckthorn, established by another Englishman Charles Lempriere, in western Virginia.
Rugby was unsuccessful on its own terms, but it still exists and is listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places. Hughes was a prominent figure in the anti-opium movement, a member of the Society for the Suppression of the Opium Trade. At the end of the 1880s Hughes clashed with John Thomas Whitehead Mitchell of the Co-operative Wholesale Society, over the vertical integration Mitchell favoured for the Society. Hughes died in 1896 aged 73, at Brighton, of heart failure, was buried there. While living at Wimbledon, Hughes wrote his famous story Tom Brown's School Days, published in April 1857, he is associated with the novelists of the "muscular school", a loose classification but centred on the fiction of the Crimean War period. Although Hughes had never been a member of the sixth form at Rugby, his impressions of the headmaster Thomas Arnold were reverent. Hughes wrote The Scouring of the White Horse, Tom Brown at Oxford, Religio Laici, Life of Alfred the Great and the Memoir of a Brother.
His brother, George Hughes, was the model for the T
The Punjab spelled Panjab, is a geopolitical and historical region in South Asia in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. The boundaries of the region focus on historical accounts; until the Partition of Punjab in 1947, the British Punjab Province encompassed the present-day Indian states and union territories of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi. It bordered the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, Rajasthan and Sindh to the south; the people of the Punjab today are called Panjabis, their principal language is Punjabi. The main religions of the Indian Punjab region are Hinduism; the main religions of the Pakistani Punjab region is Islam. Other religious groups are Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Ravidassia; the Punjab region has been inhabited by the Indus Valley Civilisation, Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-Scythians, has seen numerous invasions by the Persians, Kushans, Timurids, Pashtuns and others.
Historic foreign invasions targeted the most productive central region of the Punjab known as the Majha region, the bedrock of Punjabi culture and traditions. The Punjab region is referred to as the breadbasket in both India and Pakistan; the region was called Sapta Sindhu, the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean. The origin of the word Punjab can be traced to the Sanskrit "pancha-nada", which means "five rivers", is used as the name of a region in the Mahabharata; the name of the region, Punjab, is a compound of two Persian words, Panj and āb, introduced to the region by the Turko-Persian conquerors of India, more formally popularised during the Mughal Empire. Punjab thus means "The Land of Five Waters", referring to the rivers Jhelum, Ravi and Beas. All are tributaries of the Sutlej being the largest; the Greeks referred to the region as Pentapotamia. There are two main definitions of the Punjab region: the 1947 definition and the older 1846–1849 definition. A third definition incorporates both the 1947 and the older definitions but includes northern Rajasthan on a linguistic basis and ancient river movements.
The 1947 definition defines the Punjab region with reference to the dissolution of British India whereby the British Punjab Province was partitioned between India and Pakistan. In Pakistan, the region now includes Islamabad Capital Territory. In India, it includes the Punjab state, Chandigarh and Himachal Pradesh. Using the 1947 definition, the Punjab borders the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, Rajasthan and Sindh to the south. Accordingly, the Punjab region is diverse and stretches from the hills of the Kangra Valley to the plains and to the Cholistan Desert. Using the 1947 definition of the Punjab region, some of the major cities of the area include Lahore and Ludhiana; the older definition of the Punjab region focuses on the collapse of the Sikh Empire and the creation of the British Punjab province between 1846 and 1849. According to this definition, the Punjab region incorporates, in Pakistan, Azad Kashmir including Bhimber and Mirpur and parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
In India the wider definition includes parts of Jammu Division. Using the older definition of the Punjab region, the Punjab region covers a large territory and can be divided into five natural areas: the eastern mountainous region including Jammu Division and Azad Kashmir; the formation of the Himalayan Range of mountains to the east and north-east of the Punjab is the result of a collision between the north-moving Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The plates are still moving together, the Himalayas are rising by about 5 millimetres per year; the upper regions are snow-covered the whole year. Lower ranges of hills run parallel to the mountains; the Lower Himalayan Range runs from north of Rawalpindi through Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and further south. The mountains are young, are eroding rapidly; the Indus and the five rivers of the Punjab have their sources in the mountain range and carry loam and silt down to the rich alluvial plains, which are fertile. According to the older definition, some of the major cities include Jammu and parts of Delhi.
The third definition of the Punjab region adds to the definitions cited above and includes parts of Rajasthan on linguistic lines and takes into consideration the location of the Punjab rivers in ancient times. In particular, the Sri Ganganagar and Hanumangarh districts are included in the Punjab region; the climate is a factor contributing to the economy of the Punjab. It is not uniform over the whole region, with the sections adjacent to the Himalayas receiving heavier rainfall than those at a distance. There are two transitional periods. During the hot season from mid-April to the end of June, the temperature may reach 49 °C; the monsoon season, from July to September, is a period of heavy rainfall, providing
John Richard Jefferies was an English nature writer, noted for his depiction of English rural life in essays, books of natural history, novels. His childhood on a small Wiltshire farm had a great influence on him and provides the background to all his major works of fiction. Jefferies's corpus of writings includes a diversity of genres and topics, including Bevis, a classic children's book, After London, an early work of science fiction. For much of his adult life, he suffered from tuberculosis, his struggles with the illness and with poverty play a role in his writing. Jefferies valued and cultivated an intensity of feeling in his experience of the world around him, a cultivation that he describes in detail in The Story of My Heart; this work, an introspective depiction of his thoughts and feelings on the world, gained him the reputation of a nature mystic at the time. But it is his success in conveying his awareness of nature and people within it, both in his fiction and in essay collections such as The Amateur Poacher and Round About a Great Estate, that has drawn most admirers.
Walter Besant wrote of his reaction on first reading Jefferies: "Why, we must have been blind all our lives. John Richard Jefferies was born at Coate, in the parish of Chiseldon, near Swindon, the son of a farmer, James Luckett Jefferies, his birthplace and home is now a museum open to the public. James Jefferies had the farm from his father, John Jefferies, a London printer before returning to Swindon to run the family mill and bakery. Richard's mother, Elizabeth Gyde, always called Betsy, was the daughter of John Jefferies's binder and manager; these relationships are mirrored in the characters of Jefferies's late novel Amaryllis at the Fair. James Jefferies, like Iden in Amaryllis, was devoted to his garden, while struggling to make a financial success of the farm; the garden, lovingly recalled in Wood Magic and Amaryllis makes a strong impression on the memories of those who knew the Jefferies at the time. Betsy, like Iden's wife, seems to have been dissatisfied with life on the farm: "a town-bred woman with a beautiful face and a pleasure-loving soul and generous to a fault, but unsuited to a country life."
The farm was small, with 39 acres of pasture. But these difficulties were less evident in Richard's childhood; the situation was much as in After London, where the farming and gardening Baron is again based on James Jefferies: "The whole place was thus falling to decay, while at the same time it seemed to be flowing with milk and honey". One part of the Jefferies family is strikingly missing from the books. In Wood Magic and Amaryllis, the hero has no siblings. James and Elizabeth's first child, had died young. Jefferies spent several of his earlier years, between the ages of four and nine, with his aunt and uncle, the Harrilds, in Sydenham, where he attended a private school, returning to Coate in the holidays, his uncle, Thomas Harrild, was a son of the printing innovator Robert Harrild. Jefferies kept a close friendship with Mrs. Ellen Harrild and his letters to her are an important source for biographers. At Coate, he spent most of his time in the countryside, his father had taken him shooting.
He was soon spending much of his time fishing. He like Bevis, added home-made rigging to a boat to sail on the reservoir. At the same time, he became a keen reader: favourite books included Homer's Odyssey, Percy's Reliques, Don Quixote and James Fenimore Cooper's The Pathfinder, which served as a model for mock battles fought on a field between the farm and the reservoir. In November 1864, at the age of sixteen, he and a cousin, James Cox, ran off to France, intending to walk to Russia. After crossing the channel, they soon found that their schoolboy French was insufficient and returned to England. Before they reached Swindon, they noticed an advertisement for cheap crossings from Liverpool to America and set off in this new direction; the tickets however, did not include the cost of food. Jefferies left school at fifteen and at first continued his habits of solitary wanderings about the local countryside, he allowed his hair to grow down to his collar. This, with his "bent form and long, rapid stride made him an object of wonder in the town of Swindon.
But he was unconscious of this, or indifferent to it." He was regarded as something of an idler. The gun that he always carried drew the suspicion of local landowners – one said, "That young Jefferies is not the sort of fellow you want hanging about in your covers". Early in 1866, he started work as a newspaper reporter
Batala is the eighth largest city and muncipal coproration in the state of Punjab, India in terms of population after Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Bathinda and Hoshiarpur. It is a municipal corporation in Gurdaspur District in the Majha region of the state of Punjab, India, it is located about 32 km from the headquarters of the district. It is a Police District. Batala ranks as the most populated town of the district with 31% of the total population of district, it is the biggest industrial town in the district. It is the centre of the Majha region of Punjab. Batala is important place for Sikh devotees. Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the founder of the Sikh religion was married here to Sulakhni, the daughter of Mul Chand Chauna in 1485. Many temples and gurdwaras related to the guru's marriage attract devotees from far; every year celebrations are conducted on the anniversary of Guru Nanak's marriage. There is a historical gurdwara Satkartarian sahib related to 6th guru of Sikhs Shri Hargobind ji. Batala was once known as the Iron Bird of Asia as it produced the highest amount of C.
I. Casting and mechanical machinery. Batala is still one of the leading cities in Northern India in manufacturing of C. I Casting and mechanical machinery. It's an agricultural marketplace and industrial center. Cotton ginning, sugar refining, rice milling are some of other industries taking place here; the interesting fact about Batala is that this city is called Tehsil but it is more developed than its district Gurdaspur. Nowadays people are protesting and participated in agitations in regard of their long standing demand of district status to Batala; the city was founded in 1465 CE by Raja Ram Deo, a Bhati Rajput, during the reign of Bahlul Lodi on a piece of land given by Tatar Khan, the Governor of Lahore. During the Mughal rule, Akbar gave it in jagir to his foster brother, Shamsher Khan; the city developed under him. Batala was a famous city of the Punjab region, just like Lahore and other major cities in the 16th century, it is 109 years older than Amritsar; the whole city was lying within a fort.
It had 12 gates as entrances and exit. These gates are still known by their old names, e.g. Sheran Wala Gate, Khajuri Gate, Bhandari Gate, Ohri Gate, Thathiari Gate, Hathi Gate, Pahari Gate, etc; some of them still survive. Other historic places in Batala are gurdwaras. There are numerous other gurdwaras of significant importance to Sikhs and therefore attract thousands of Sikhs from around the globe. Batala grew under the Muslim governor. In British India, Batala was the headquarters of a tehsil in the Gurdaspur district of the Punjab province; the allocation of the Gurdaspur district during the Partition of India was contested because it was in central Punjab and had equal proportion of Muslim and non-Muslim populations. Viceroy Lord Wavell allocated three eastern tehsils of the district to India, one western teshil to Pakistan. However, it continued to be contested; the whole district was shown as part of Pakistan in the'notional partition line' in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and the issue was referred to the Punjab Boundary Commission.
The final partition line confirmed Wavell's division of the district, with the result that Batala became part of India. For three days, 14–17 August 1947, Batala was regarded as part of Pakistan added to Indian territory. After the partition line was announced, many Muslims went to Pakistan. Hindus and Sikhs settled there and Batala now has a Hindu majority which holds more than 56% of city's total population. Located in Gurdaspur district, 38 km from Amritsar on the Kashmir Grand Trunk road. One of the older towns in the province of Lahore in earlier times, Batala is home to many monuments of religious and historic importance, such as Hazira Park, Barah Dari, Hakikat Samadh; these monuments are connected with the Mughal period. The city consists of several churches constructed during the British Raj; the Jal Mahal and the palace of Maharaja Sher Singh were built by the Maharaja. The palace is under the control of the authorities of the local Baring Union Christian College; the administrative offices of the college are housed in it.
Jal Mahal is under the control of the Archaeological Survey of India. Jal Mahal and the palace of Maharaja Sher Singh were connected through a tunnel. According to some senior citizens, Shamsher Khan Tank of Jal Mahal used to be filled with water through the tunnel, further connected to a long tunnel to the Beas, near Kahnuwan; the remnants of the tunnel can be seen near Baring Christian College. Maharaja Sher Singh used to hold meetings of his courtiers in Jal Mahal; the water reservoir was built by Shamsher Khan while the beautiful Baradari in the centre of the tank was constructed by Maharaja Sher Singh. It has a square room in the centre of a pavilion with a passageway; the entry to the first floor is by a staircase with concave-shaped steps on the north-eastern canal. Jal Mahal has eight doors in four in the upper storey; the inner wall contained beautiful art glass carvings and wall paintings. However, major parts of the paintings have been damaged; the roof of the pavilion has fallen. The Municipal Council provided a tubewell to fill up the tank till the eighties.
All sides of the reservoir were lined with Nanakshahi bricks. However, with the passage of time the brick lining has been destroyed. Nowadays, on one side of the tank is located a
Andrew Lang was a Scottish poet, literary critic, contributor to the field of anthropology. He is best known as a collector of fairy tales; the Andrew Lang lectures at the University of St Andrews are named after him. Lang was born on 31 March 1844 in Selkirk, he was the eldest of the eight children born to John Lang, the town clerk of Selkirk, his wife Jane Plenderleath Sellar, the daughter of Patrick Sellar, factor to the first duke of Sutherland. On 17 April 1875, he married Leonora Blanche Alleyne, youngest daughter of C. T. Alleyne of Clifton and Barbados, she was variously credited as author, collaborator, or translator of Lang's Color/Rainbow Fairy Books which he edited. He was educated at Selkirk Grammar School, Loretto School, the Edinburgh Academy, as well as the University of St Andrews and Balliol College, where he took a first class in the final classical schools in 1868, becoming a fellow and subsequently honorary fellow of Merton College, he soon made a reputation as one of the most able and versatile writers of the day as a journalist, poet and historian.
In 1906, he was elected FBA. He died of angina pectoris on 20 July 1912 at the Tor-na-Coille Hotel in Banchory, survived by his wife, he was buried in the cathedral precincts at St Andrews, where a monument can be visited in the south-east corner of the 19th century section. Lang is now chiefly known for his publications on folklore and religion; the interest in folklore was from early life. Tylor; the earliest of his publications is Myth. In Myth and Religion he explained the "irrational" elements of mythology as survivals from more primitive forms. Lang's Making of Religion was influenced by the 18th century idea of the "noble savage": in it, he maintained the existence of high spiritual ideas among so-called "savage" races, drawing parallels with the contemporary interest in occult phenomena in England, his Blue Fairy Book was a beautifully produced and illustrated edition of fairy tales that has become a classic. This was followed by many other collections of fairy tales, collectively known as Andrew Lang's Fairy Books.
In the preface of the Lilac Fairy Book he credits his wife with translating and transcribing most of the stories in the collections. Lang examined the origins of totemism in Social Origins. Lang was one of the founders of "psychical research" and his other writings on anthropology include The Book of Dreams and Ghosts and Religion and The Secret of the Totem, he served as President of the Society for Psychical Research in 1911. Lang extensively cited nineteenth- and twentieth-century European spiritualism to challenge the idea of his teacher, that belief in spirits and animism were inherently irrational. Lang used Tyler's work and his own psychical research in an effort to posit an anthropological critique of materialism, he collaborated with S. H. Butcher in a prose translation of Homer's Odyssey, with E. Myers and Walter Leaf in a prose version of the Iliad, both still noted for their archaic but attractive style, he was a Homeric scholar of conservative views. Other works include Homer and the Study of Greek found in Essays in Little and the Epic.
Lang's writings on Scottish history are characterised by a scholarly care for detail, a piquant literary style, a gift for disentangling complicated questions. The Mystery of Mary Stuart was a consideration of the fresh light thrown on Mary, Queen of Scots, by the Lennox manuscripts in the University Library, approving of her and criticising her accusers, he wrote monographs on The Portraits and Jewels of Mary Stuart and James VI and the Gowrie Mystery. The somewhat unfavourable view of John Knox presented in his book John Knox and the Reformation aroused considerable controversy, he gave new information about the continental career of the Young Pretender in Pickle the Spy, an account of Alestair Ruadh MacDonnell, whom he identified with Pickle, a notorious Hanoverian spy. This was followed by a monograph on Prince Charles Edward. In 1900 he began a History of Scotland from the Roman Occupation; the Valet's Tragedy, which takes its title from an essay on Dumas's Man in the Iron Mask, collects twelve papers on historical mysteries, A Monk of Fife is a fictitious narrative purporting to be written by a young Scot in France in 1429–1431.
Lang's earliest publication was a volume of metrical experiments, The Ballads and Lyrics of Old France, this was followed at intervals by other volumes of dainty verse, Ballades in Blue China and Verses Vain, selected by Mr Austin Dobson. Lang was active as a journalist in various ways, ranging from sparkling "leaders" for the Daily News to miscellaneous articles for the Morning Post, for many years he was literary editor of Longman's Magazine, he edited The Poems and Songs of Robert Burns, was responsible for the Life and Letters of JG Lockhart, The Life and Diaries of Sir Stafford Northcote, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh. Lang discussed lite