The Kensington System was a strict and elaborate set of rules designed by Victoria, Duchess of Kent, along with her attendant, Sir John Conroy, concerning the upbringing of the Duchess's daughter, the future Queen Victoria. It is named after Kensington Palace in London, where they resided prior to Queen Victoria's accession to the throne; the System was aimed at rendering the young Princess Victoria weak and dependent, thus unlikely to adhere to her other relatives in the House of Hanover against her mother and Conroy. Young Victoria was never allowed to be apart from either her mother, her tutor, or her governesses, Baroness Lehzen and the Duchess of Northumberland, she was kept isolated from other children. Victoria had only two playmates during her adolescence: her half sister, Princess Feodora of Leiningen, Conroy's daughter, Victoire. Only occasional trips were made outside the palace grounds; when it became clear that Victoria would inherit the throne, they tried to induce Victoria to appoint Conroy her personal secretary and treasurer via a long series of threats and browbeating, to no avail.
The Duchess of Kent instituted a strict daily schedule for Victoria's education. Morning lessons began at 9:30 sharp with a break at 11:30. Lessons would resume for the afternoon at 3:00 and would last until 5:00. Victoria's education began at the age of five, her first teacher, Reverend George Davys, Dean of Chester, instructed her on scripture. The Duchess of Kent would drill her daughter after each lesson. At eight years old, Victoria began learning decorum and writing from Baroness Lehzen, she studied Greek, Italian and German, which she used to converse with Prince Albert when they began their courtship in 1839. The system was endorsed by Queen Victoria's half-brother, Carl, 3rd Prince of Leiningen, who supported his mother's ambitions for a regency. In 1841, after Victoria had become queen and made her displeasure with the Kensington System known, Carl attempted to justify it in his book A Complete History of the Policy Followed at Kensington, Under Sir John Conroy's Guidance; the Kensington System was an utter failure and backfired spectacularly: Victoria grew to hate her mother and her mother's lady-in-waiting, Lady Flora Hastings, over the system.
Her first two requests, upon her accession, were that she should be allowed an hour by herself, that her bed should be removed from her mother's room. Among Victoria's first acts upon her accession to the throne at the age of 18 was to ban Conroy from her apartments permanently. After a brief engagement, Victoria married Prince Albert in 1840, thus was no longer conventionally required to live with her mother. At the conclusion of her wedding ceremony, she only shook hands with the Duchess, she soon thereafter evicted her mother from the palace and visited her, remaining cold and distant from her until the birth of her first child. "Queen Victoria: the original people's princess" The Daily Telegraph
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is one of the United Kingdom's most notable religious buildings and the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and British monarchs; the building itself was a Benedictine monastic church until the monastery was dissolved in 1539. Between 1540 and 1556, the abbey had the status of a cathedral. Since 1560, the building is no longer an abbey or a cathedral, having instead the status of a Church of England "Royal Peculiar"—a church responsible directly to the sovereign. According to a tradition first reported by Sulcard in about 1080, a church was founded at the site in the seventh century, at the time of Mellitus, a Bishop of London. Construction of the present church began in 1245, on the orders of King Henry III. Since the coronation of William the Conqueror in 1066, all coronations of English and British monarchs have been in Westminster Abbey.
There have been 16 royal weddings at the abbey since 1100. As the burial site of more than 3,300 persons of predominant prominence in British history, Westminster Abbey is sometimes described as'Britain's Valhalla', after the iconic burial hall of Norse mythology. A late tradition claims that Aldrich, a young fisherman on the River Thames, had a vision of Saint Peter near the site; this seems to have been quoted as the origin of the salmon that Thames fishermen offered to the abbey in years – a custom still observed annually by the Fishmongers' Company. The recorded origins of the Abbey date to the 960s or early 970s, when Saint Dunstan and King Edgar installed a community of Benedictine monks on the site. Between 1042 and 1052, King Edward the Confessor began rebuilding St Peter's Abbey to provide himself with a royal burial church, it was the first church in England built in the Romanesque style. The building was completed around 1060 and was consecrated on 28 December 1065, only a week before Edward's death on 5 January 1066.
A week he was buried in the church. His successor, Harold II, was crowned in the abbey, although the first documented coronation is that of William the Conqueror the same year; the only extant depiction of Edward's abbey, together with the adjacent Palace of Westminster, is in the Bayeux Tapestry. Some of the lower parts of the monastic dormitory, an extension of the South Transept, survive in the Norman Undercroft of the Great School, including a door said to come from the previous Saxon abbey. Increased endowments supported a community increased from a dozen monks in Dunstan's original foundation, up to a maximum about eighty monks; the abbot and monks, in proximity to the royal Palace of Westminster, the seat of government from the 13th century, became a powerful force in the centuries after the Norman Conquest. The Abbot of Westminster was employed on royal service and in due course took his place in the House of Lords as of right. Released from the burdens of spiritual leadership, which passed to the reformed Cluniac movement after the mid-10th century, occupied with the administration of great landed properties, some of which lay far from Westminster, "the Benedictines achieved a remarkable degree of identification with the secular life of their times, with upper-class life", Barbara Harvey concludes, to the extent that her depiction of daily life provides a wider view of the concerns of the English gentry in the High and Late Middle Ages.
The proximity of the Palace of Westminster did not extend to providing monks or abbots with high royal connections. The abbot remained Lord of the Manor of Westminster as a town of two to three thousand persons grew around it: as a consumer and employer on a grand scale the monastery helped fuel the town economy, relations with the town remained unusually cordial, but no enfranchising charter was issued during the Middle Ages; the abbey became the coronation site of Norman kings. None were buried there until Henry III, intensely devoted to the cult of the Confessor, rebuilt the abbey in Anglo-French Gothic style as a shrine to venerate King Edward the Confessor and as a suitably regal setting for Henry's own tomb, under the highest Gothic nave in England; the Confessor's shrine subsequently played a great part in his canonization. Construction of the present church began in 1245 by Henry III; the first building stage included the entire eastern end, the transepts, the easternmost bay of the nave.
The Lady Chapel built from around 1220 at the extreme eastern end was incorporated into the chevet of the new building, but was replaced. This work must have been completed by 1258-60, when the second stage was begun; this carried the nave on an additional five bays. Here construction stopped in about 1269, a consecration ceremony being held on 13 October of that year, because of Henry's death did not resume; the old Romanesque nave remained attached to the new building for over a century, until it was pulled down in the late 14th century and rebuilt from 1376 following the original design. Construction was finished by the architect Henry Yevele in the reign of Richard II. Henry III commissioned the unique Cosmati pavement in front of the High Altar (the pavement has undergone a major cleani
Hugh Percy, 3rd Duke of Northumberland
Hugh Percy, 3rd Duke of Northumberland, styled Earl Percy until 1817, was a British aristocrat and Tory politician who served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland under the Duke of Wellington from 1829 to 1830. Northumberland was the son of Hugh Percy, 2nd Duke of Northumberland, Frances Julia, daughter of Peter Burrell, he was educated at the University of Cambridge. Northumberland entered parliament as the member for Buckingham in July 1806. In September of that year he was elected member for the City of Westminster, on the death of Charles James Fox, he declined to fight the seat at the general election two months instead being returned for Launceston. In 1807 he offered himself as a candidate for the county of Northumberland in opposition to Charles, Lord Howick, who declined to contest the seat. Percy was returned unopposed, continued to sit until 1812, when he was called to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration by the title Baron Percy. In 1817 he succeeded his father as Duke of Northumberland.
He served as Ambassador Extraordinary at the coronation of Charles X of France in 1825, defraying the expenses thereof himself, he "astonished the continental nobility of the magnitude of his retinue, the gorgeousness of his equippage, the profuseness of his liberality". In March 1829 he was appointed Lord-Lieutenant of a post he held until the following year, he was thus in office when the Catholic Emancipation Act was passed, was pronounced by Robert Peel "the best chief governor that presided over the affairs of Ireland." In November 1834 Northumberland was elected high Steward of the university of Cambridge, holding that honour until 1840 when he was made Chancellor of the University. He played a prominent role in the establishment of the Church Building Society responsible for building the so-called "Waterloo churches" during the early 19th century, he proposed the CBS's formation at a meeting in the Freemasons' Hall, London on 6 February 1818, chaired by the Archbishop of Canterbury. The Society lobbied parliament to provide funding for a church building programme, parliament subsequently passed the Church Building Act, voting £l,000,000 to the cause.
He played a part in the development of football in a time when it was a controversial game by providing a field for the annual Alnwick Shrove Tuesday game and presenting the ball before the match—a ritual that continues to this day. Between 1817 and 1847 he held the honorary post of Lord Lieutenant of Northumberland. Northumberland married Lady Charlotte Clive on 29 April 1817 at Northumberland House, they had no children. Northumberland died at Alnwick in February 1847, aged 61, his remains were transported to London by train on 19 February, were interred in the Northumberland Vault within Westminster Abbey, on 23 February. He was succeeded by Lord Prudhoe. In August 1851, an altar monument to the Duke was placed in Alnwick. Syon House Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Duke of Northumberland
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland was the title of the chief governor of Ireland from the Williamite Wars of 1690 until the Partition of Ireland in 1922. This spanned the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the office, under its various names, was more known as the viceroy, his wife was known as the vicereine. The government of Ireland in practice was in the hands of the Lord Deputy up to the 17th century, of the Chief Secretary for Ireland. Although in the Middle Ages some Lords Deputy were Irish noblemen, only men from Great Britain peers, were appointed to the office of Lord Lieutenant; the Lord Lieutenant possessed a number of overlapping roles. He was the representative of the King. Grand Master of the Order of St. PatrickPrior to the Act of Union 1800 which abolished the Irish parliament, the Lord Lieutenant formally delivered the Speech from the Throne outlining his Government's policies, his Government exercised effective control of parliament through the extensive exercise of the powers of patronage, namely the awarding of peerages and state honours.
Critics accused successive viceroys of using their patronage power as a corrupt means of controlling parliament. On one day in July 1777, Lord Buckinghamshire as Lord Lieutenant promoted 5 viscounts to earls, 7 barons to viscounts, created 18 new barons; the power of patronage was used to bribe MPs and peers into supporting the Act of Union 1800, with many of those who changed sides and supported the Union in Parliament awarded peerages and honours for doing so. The Lord Lieutenant was advised in the governance by the Irish Privy Council, a body of appointed figures and hereditary title holders, which met in the Council Chamber in Dublin Castle and on occasion in other locations; the chief constitutional figures in the viceregal court were: Chief Secretary for Ireland: From 1660 the chief administrator, but by the end of the 19th century the prime minister in the administration, with the Lord Lieutenant becoming a form of constitutional monarch. Under-Secretary for Ireland: The head of the civil service in Ireland.
Lord Justices: Three office-holders who acted in the Lord Lieutenant's stead during his absence. The Lord Justices were before 1800 the Lord Chancellor of Ireland, the Speaker of the Irish House of Commons, the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh as Primate of All Ireland. Lords Lieutenant were appointed for no set term but served for "His/Her Majesty's pleasure"; when a ministry fell, the Lord Lieutenant was replaced by a supporter of the new ministry. Until the 16th century, Irish or Anglo-Irish noblemen such as the 8th Earl of Kildare and the 9th Earl of Kildare traditionally held the post of Justiciar or Lord Deputy. Following the plantations, noblemen from Great Britain were given the post; the last Irish Catholic to hold the position was Lord Tyrconnell from 1685–91, during the brief Catholic Ascendancy in the reign of James II, ended by the Williamite war in Ireland. Until 1767 none of the latter lived full-time in Ireland. Instead they resided in Ireland during meetings of the Irish Parliament.
However the British cabinet decided in 1765 that full-time residency should be required to enable the Lord Lieutenant to keep a full-time eye on public affairs in Ireland. In addition to the restriction that only English or British noblemen could be appointed to the viceroyalty, a further restriction following the Glorious Revolution excluded Roman Catholics, though it was the faith of the overwhelming majority on the island of Ireland, from holding the office; the office was restricted to members of the Anglican faith. The first Catholic appointed to the post since the reign of the Catholic King James II was in fact the last viceroy, Lord FitzAlan of Derwent, in April 1921, his appointment was possible because the Government of Ireland Act 1920 ended the prohibition on Catholics being appointed to the position. FitzAlan was the only Lord Lieutenant of Ireland to hold office when Ireland was partitioned into Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland; the post ebbed and flowed in importance, being used on occasion as a form of exile for prominent British politicians who had fallen afoul of the Court of St. James's or Westminster.
On other occasions it was a stepping stone to a future career. Two Lords Lieutenant, Lord Hartington and the Duke of Portland, went from Dublin Castle to 10 Downing Street as Prime Minister of Great Britain, in 1756 and 1783 respectively. By the mid-to-late 19th century the post had declined from being a powerful political office to that of being a symbolic quasi-monarchical figure who reigned, not ruled, over the Irish administration. Instead it was the Chief Secretary for Ireland who became central, with he, not the Lord Lieutenant, sitting on occasion in the British cabinet; the official residence of the Lord Lieutenant was the Viceregal Apartments in Dublin Castle, where the Viceregal Court was based. Other summer or alternative residences used by Lord Lieutenant or Lords Deputy included Abbeville in Kinsealy, Chapelizod House, in which the Lord Lieutenant lived while Dublin Castle was being rebuilt following a fire but which he left due to the building being haunted, Leixlip Castle and St. Wolstan's in Celbridge.
The Geraldine Lords Deputy, the 8th Earl of Kildare and the 9th Earl of Kildare, being native Irish, both lived in, among other locations, their castl
Hackpen White Horse
Hackpen White Horse is a chalk hill figure of a white horse on Hackpen Hill, located below The Ridgeway on the edge of the Marlborough Downs, two miles south east of Broad Hinton, England. It is one of nine white horse hill figures located in Wiltshire, it is known as the Broad Hinton White Horse due to its near location to Broad Hinton. Cut by local parish clerk Henry Eatwell in 1838 to commemorate the coronation of Queen Victoria, the horse is 90' square feet and is said to be best viewed from B4041 road; the horse is scoured and maintained. The origin of the horse is uncertain, is sometimes said to be the only 19th century white horse to have little of its history known, it is regarded that the horse was cut in 1838 by Henry Eatwell, a parish clerk of Broad Hinton, assisted by a local pub landlord. It is said to commemorate the coronation of Queen Victoria; the horse is cut of chalk, is 90' square feet, making it the only square-dimension horse in England, faces WNW. Although the hill it resides on, Hackpen Hill, is high, it is a gentle slope when compared to the hills of most other Wiltshire horses.
Because the hill is gentle, the horse is banked up and raised from the surrounding grass to make it more visible. The head was elevated to help with the foreshortening; the best view of the horse is said to be from the nearby B4041 road, whilst the A361 road near Broad Hinton provides a clear view. At the top of the hill is a car park where the Ridgeway crosses the B4041 road, a footpath stretches from there down to the horse, making the horse accessible to the public. Many real horses roam the field, it has been suggested that the stones for Stonehenge and Avebury may have come from a field of sarsen stones just to the south east of its location. The expression "as different as chalk and cheese" is sometimes believed to refer to the land divided by Hackpen Hill; the hill forms the boundary between the high chalk downs to the south of it and the clay cattle country to the north, where cheese is a product of the milk from the cattle, so the two areas "are as different as chalk and cheese." Hackpen White Horse was not the only hillside shape cut to commemorate Queen Victoria.
The horse ties "neck-and-neck" with Broad Town White Horse as the closest white horse to Swindon. The horse is scoured. In either May or June 2000, John Wain cleaned it single-handedly, he flew David Brewer over the area to photograph the village of Broad Hinton and the white horse for brewers's book Images of a Wiltshire Downland Village: Broad Hinton and Uffcott. Wain cleaned it annually until Bevan Pope cleaned the horse single-handedly on 23 September 2004. Wain cleaned the horse again with the help of a group of friends on 1 February 2011 and 4 February 2012. On both occasions, they illuminated the newly cleaned horse. Although to illuminate a white horse has been sporadic tradition for other horses in Wiltshire, those occasions marked the first times it had been done for Hackpen White Horse. In March 2009, the horse was transformed into a "red horse" for the Comic Relief charity's Red Nose Day campaign; the White Horse pub, located half a mile away in Winterbourne Bassett, features an illustration resembling the horse as its logo.
The pub itself was named after the eight horses in Wiltshire. The horse has featured in several artworks, including a stained glass window made by Berry Stained Glass, Benoit Philppe's The Hackpen White Horse oil on canvas painting, a silver necklace created in 2015 by Devizes-based jeweller Daniel Pike. In 2005, the horse appeared in episode 1 of series 6 of Top Gear, and, in 2012, for a Pukka Pies sponsorship advert for ITV travel series Ade in Britain, Pukka Pies modified a photograph of the location to include a hill figure of one of their pies instead of the horse. Wiltshire white horsesWestbury White Horse Pewsey White Horse Devizes White Horse Broad Town White Horse Cherhill White Horse Marlborough White Horse Alton Barnes White HorseOther white horsesUffington White Horse Osmington White Horse Kilburn White Horse Woolbury White Horse
William Oakley Burgess
William Oakley Burgess was an English mezzotint engraver. Burgess was the son of Mary Oakley and Dr. Joseph Henry Burgess, the surgeon to the parish of St Giles in the Fields, where Burgess was baptised on 21 May 1816, he became a pupil of mezzotint engraver Thomas Goff Lupton and remained under his tuition until the age of 20. Some of his best productions are plates after the works of Sir Thomas Lawrence, published in the "Lawrence Gallery", he engraved a large plate after Lawrence's portrait of the Duke of Wellington, remarkable for its admirably graduated tones, the last works on which he was employed were three other portraits after Lawrence — Sir John Moore, the Duchess of Northumberland, the Archbishop of Canterbury. The extraordinary delicacy which characterizes the work of this artist must have acquired for him the highest reputation in his art, had his life been spared, his death on 24 December 1844, at the age of 28, was caused by an abscess in the head, said to have arisen from a blow of a skittle-ball some years before.
Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Graves, Robert Edmund. "Burgess, William Oakley". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 7. London: Smith, Elder & Co. "Deaths". The Gentleman's Magazine. 177: 447. April 1845. "Biographical details". British Museum. Retrieved 25 October 2012. "William Oakley Burgess". National Portrait Gallery
Kate Williams (historian)
Kate Williams is a British author and television presenter. She is a professor of history at the University of Reading. Williams grew up in Stourbridge, her father Gwyn was a solicitor and her mother Margaret was a teacher. Her paternal grandparents are from the Conwy Valley, she was educated at Edgbaston High School for Birmingham. She has a BA and DPhil from Somerville College, where she started as a College Scholar and received the Violet Vaughan Morgan University Scholarship, she has MAs from University of London and Royal Holloway, University of London. She began researching Emma Hamilton while studying for her doctorate. Williams has lectured MA degree studies in Creative Writing at University of London. In the summer of 2015, Williams took up a role as Professor of Public Engagement with History at the University of Reading. Williams has had academic essays published in various journals and books: "The Force of Language and the Sweets of Love: Eliza Haywood and the Erotics of Reading in Samuel Richardson's Clarissa" in Lumen.
"Nelson and Women" in Admiral Lord Nelson: Context & Legacy, ed. David Cannadine. "Reading Tristram Shandy in the Brothel" in The Shandean, 16. "Passion in Translation: 1720s Amatory Writers and the Novel" in Remapping the Rise of the Novel, ed. Jenny Mander. "The Rise of the Novel" in The History of British Women's Writing 1690–1750, ed. Ros Ballaster. Williams writes articles on history for British newspapers including The Daily Telegraph, reviews for BBC History, History Today and the Financial Times. In 2010 she was a judge for the Biographer's Club Tony Lothian First Biography Prize, the Book Drum Tournament 2010, the Litro/IGGY International Young Person's Short Story Award. A short story, "The Weakness of Hearts", was published in issue 104 of Litro literary magazine. England's Mistress, a biography of Emma Hamilton, was published by Random House in the UK and US, it was short-listed for the Marsh/English Speaking Union Prize for the best biography of 2005–06, was selected as a Book of the Year in The Times and The Independent, broadcast as Book of the Week on BBC Radio 4.
A film adaptation is in production with Picture Palace. Becoming Queen, about the youth of Queen Victoria and her cousin, Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales, was published in 2008 and serialised in The Sunday Telegraph; the Times selected it as one of the Top 50 Paperbacks of 2009. Josephine: Desire, Napoleon looks at the life of Joséphine de Beauharnais and was published in 2013. Young Elizabeth: The Making of Our Queen, a biography of the formative years of Queen Elizabeth II, it was published by Weidenfeld & Nicolson in May 2012. The audio book version is read by Williams herself. Rival Queens looks at Mary Queen of Scots; the Ring and the Crown: A History of Royal Weddings 1066–2011, co-authors Alison Weir, Tracy Borman and Sarah Gristwood, published by Random House. Serialised in the Daily Telegraph; the Pleasures of Men, novel about a young girl obsessed with a serial killer in Spitalfields in 1840, was published by Penguin Books in the UK and Disney Hyperion in the US and in Canada, the Netherlands and Brazil, as well as in Serbia by Vulkan izdavaštvo.
The Storms of War, novel published in 2014 by Orion. Set during the First World War, the novel follows the lives of an Anglo-German family struggling to survive the home front. Once popular with their neighbours, they are now shunned by society which affects each member individually. Despite these differences, their effort towards the war on the British side does not waver and through these war experiences they learn some of the most valuable lessons in life and family relationships. A review in The Independent outlines the essence of William's novel, ends with high acclaim for her second piece of fiction; the Edge of the Fall, published in November 2015 by Orion. The House of Shadows, published by Orion on 26 July 2018. Williams appears on radio and TV as a presenter and expert, specialising in social and royal history, she commented extensively on the 2011 Royal Wedding and appears on BBC Breakfast, The Review Show, Sky News, BBC News 24, the Today programme, Broadcasting House, Night Waves, Woman's Hour, Channel Five and various American channels, discussing history and culture and reviewing the news.
She covered the Queen's Address to Parliament on BBC One in 2012 and the Queen's Speech for BBC Parliament. Williams was the social historian on the BBC Two series Restoration Home, which aired from 2011 to 2013, she presented Timewatch: Young Victoria for BBC Two, acclaimed by The Guardian as "telly history at its best" and The Secret History of Edward VII for Channel Five. She appears on documentaries, discussing history and culture, including Faulks on Fiction and all three series of The Great British Bake Off, as well as documentaries on subjects including Queen Victoria, Sherlock Holmes, Jack the Ripper, Nelson's Trafalgar, Elizabeth II and Hidden Killers of the Victorian Home, she wrote and presented the documentary The Grandfather of Self-Help, about Samuel Smiles, for BBC Radio 4. She is the presenter of a Radio 4 documentary on the history of the smile, broadcast in June 2012. Williams was the "Historian in Residence" in Frank Skinner's 2014 radio show. Williams was a regular panellist on The Quizeum, which began airing on BBC4 in spring 2015.
Williams was the winner of Celebrity Mastermind screened on 2 January 2016. She featured on episodes of Insert Name Here broadcast on 4 and 25 of January 2016 on BBC Two, again in four episodes of the second series of Insert Name Here commencing with the Christmas Special on 21 December 2016. Williams appeared