Queen Street, Brisbane
Queen Street is the main street of Brisbane, the capital of Queensland, Australia. It is named after Victoria of the United Kingdom; the western part of the street is covered by a new plaza at the base of Brisbane Square and underneath part of the western half is the Queen Street bus station. Queen Street is built up with arcades, hotels and apartment high-rises such as MacArthur Central, Brisbane Square, Central Plaza, Aurora Tower, Treasury Casino, Broadway on the Mall, The Myer Centre and QueensPlaza. Queen Street is the location of Brisbane's General Post Office. Queen Street is the city's central road covered by a pedestrian mall called the Queen Street Mall, it is bounded by two of the Brisbane River's central reaches. Uptown at the top of the mall is George Street; the next street parallel to the south is Elizabeth Street, while Adelaide Street is the next parallel street to the north. Before 1842 and free settlement, Queen Street was a track leading from the main section of the early Moreton Bay Penal Colony, crossing a stream known as Wheat Creek with a deviation going up to the Windmill.
In early 1840, a surveyor named Dixon drew up a survey for the central Brisbane streets with all streets 66 feet wide. Changes were made to this plan with square blocks flattened into a rectangular grid with streets becoming 1.4 chains. On Governor Gipps' visit to Brisbane Town in March 1842, Gipps remarked that Brisbane Town was "simply an ordinary provincial settlement", which would need no grand avenues; as a result, Gipps moved the planned width of Queen Street, along with other streets, back to 66 feet, arguing that this change would mean that buildings could be kept out of the sun. There was compromise with the main street that would be known as Queen Street, with the western boundary's width changed to 1.2 chains. The first sitting of Legislative Assembly of Queensland in May 1860 occurred in the old converted convict barracks on Queen Street. In 1864, there were two significant fires along the street; the September 1864 fire started in the Little Wonder store on Edward Street which destroyed 14 shops in Queen Street.
This event became known as Bulcock's Fire. On 1 December 1864, the Great Fire of Brisbane started within the cellar of a Queen Street drapery store which burnt down buildings bordering Queen Street, as well as Albert Street, Edward Street, George Street and Elizabeth Street. Brisbane Courier described the fire as "the whole of the business premises and private residences...were, in a couple of hours, reduced to a heap of ruins". On 9 December 1882, a demonstration of electricity was conducted with eight arc lights along Queen Street. Power was supplied by a 10 hp generator driven by a small engine in a foundry in Adelaide Street; this was Australia's first recorded use of electricity for public purposes. In 1902, part of Queen Street was not paved or sealed although stormwater drainage was well maintained. Queen Street is significant as it contains MacArthur Central, the building in which the American General Douglas MacArthur had his South West Pacific headquarters during World War II and directed the Allied Forces campaign.
The former AMP building was renamed MacArthur Central as a tribute to General MacArthur. Tram services along Queen Street were converted to buses on 14 April 1969. There are many heritage-listed buildings in Queen Street, including: 21 Queen Street: Treasury Building 33 Queen Street: Bank of New South Wales Building 43 Queen Street: Trustees Chambers 62 Queen Street: Colonial Mutual Chambers 86 Queen Street: Palings Building 110 Queen Street: Allan and Stark Building 114 Queen Street: Gardams Building 116 Queen Street: Hardy Brothers Building 120 Queen Street: Edwards and Chapman Building 160 Queen Street: Brisbane Arcade 167 Queen Street: Regent Theatre 180 Queen Street: National Australia Bank 196 Queen Street: Finney Isles & Co Building 229 Queen Street: MacArthur Chambers 270 Queen Street: Sir William Glasgow Memorial 289 Queen Street: Newspaper House 299 Queen Street: National Mutual Life Building 308 Queen Street: National Australia Bank and its First World War Honour Board 424–426 Queen Street: Queensland Country Life Building facade 427 Queen Street: former Brisbane Customs House 443–501 Queen Street: Petrie Bight Retaining Wall 560 Queen Street: Orient Hotel North Quay / William Street George Street Albert Street Edward Street Creek Street Wharf Street / Eagle Street Adelaide Street Ann Street Road transport in Brisbane Media related to Queen Street, Brisbane at Wikimedia Commons
A parking lot or car park known as a car lot, is a cleared area, intended for parking vehicles. The term refers to a dedicated area, provided with a durable or semi-durable surface. In most countries where cars are the dominant mode of transportation, parking lots are a feature of every city and suburban area. Shopping malls, sports stadiums and similar venues feature parking lots of immense area. See multistorey car park. Parking lots tend to be sources of water pollution because of their extensive impervious surfaces. Most existing lots have limited or no facilities to control runoff. Many areas today require minimum landscaping in parking lots to provide shade and help mitigate the extent of which their paved surfaces contribute to heat islands. Many municipalities require a minimum number of parking spaces, depending on the floor area in a store or the number of bedrooms in an apartment complex. In the United States, each state's Department of Transportation sets the proper ratio for disabled spaces for private business and public parking lots.
Various forms of technology are used to charge motorists for the use of a parking lot. Modern parking lots use a variety of technologies to help motorists find unoccupied parking spaces, retrieve their vehicles, improve their experience. In North America, parking minimums are requirements, as dictated by a municipality's zoning ordinance, for all new developments to provide a set number off-street parking spots; these minimums look to cover the demand for parking generated by said development at the peak times. Thus different land uses, whether they be commercial, residential or industrial, have different requirements to meet when deriving the number of parking spots needed. U. S. urban planners use Parking Generation Rates, a guidebook of statistical data from the Institution of Transportation Engineers, to source parking minimums. In these reports, the ITE define a type of land use's Parking Generation through an observational study. Parking Generation is statistically found by land use's, average generation rate, the range of generation rates, the subsequent standard deviation, the total number of studies.
To determine the parking generation rate of a building the ITE divides the peak parking observed by the floor area per 1000 square feet. This process is done by various studies to find the range. In the case of ITE studies, the observation of a single site multiple times is considered a stand-alone study; the average of the range is used to determine the average parking generation rate of a land use. This handbook is updated every 5 years to determine the demand for parking for specific land uses. Parking Generation Rates provided by the ITE doesn’t explicitly state what parking minimums should be, but rather is just a collection of statistical data for urban planners to interpret and use for at their own volition. Regardless, ITE's Parking Generation has been an influential factor In most North American cities in the adoption parking ratios, according to land use, to determine the minimum spots required by new developments. Parking Generation, regardless of its widespread use in North American cities, is disputed as a tool to determine parking minimums due to its questionable statistical validity.
Statistical significance is a major qualm with Parking Generations due to the oversimplification of how the parking generation rate is derived. Peak parking observed by ITE doesn’t take into account the price of parking in relation to the number of parked cars, thus the demand at any given time for parking is always high because it is oversupplied and underpriced. Thus the calculation for the parking generation rate of a land use. Adoption of parking minimums by municipalities, base on ratios from Parking Generation had a substantial effect on urban form; this can be seen in the lack of density characterized by the suburbanization of North America post-World War II. The growth of the car industry and car culture, in general, has much to do with the mass movement of the middle-class away from urban centers and exterior of the city in single family detached homes; as populations grew and density dissipated automobiles became the main mode of transportation. Thus insuring that new developments insured off-street park became a necessity.
Parking minimums are set for parallel, pull-in, or diagonal parking, depending on what types of vehicles are allowed to park in the lot or a particular section of it. Parking minimums took hold in the middle of the last century, as a way to ensure that traffic to new developments wouldn't use up existing spaces. Big cars may not fit properly in assigned parking spaces, creating issues with entering or leaving the car or blocking adjacent parking spaces. In Europe, parking maximums are more common; as a condition of planning permission for a new development, the development must be designed so that a minimum percentage of visitors arrive by public transport. The number of parking places in the development is limited to a number less than the expected number of visitors; the effect of large scale parking in-city has long been contentious. Elimination of historic structures in favor of garages or lots led to historical preservation movements in many cities; the acreage devoted to parking is seen as disrupting a walkable urban fabric, maximizing convenience to each individual building, but eliminating foot traffic among them.
Large paved areas have been called "parking craters", "parking deserts", similar terms, emphasizing their "depopulated" nature and the barriers they can create to walking movement. Due to a recent trend towards more livable and walkable communities, parking minimums (policies requiring each building to have at least a minimum numbe
Charlotte House is a heritage-listed warehouse at 139–145 Charlotte Street, Brisbane CBD, City of Brisbane, Australia. It was built from 1888 to 1889 by James Baker, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992. This four storeyed warehouse was erected in 1888-89. Built for Wallace Warren & Co, importers, bonded warehousemen and shipping agents, Charlotte House was designed by John Joseph Lough. In the early 1880s, Lough had been in partnership with Benjamin Backhouse in Sydney and his unusual choice of Greek and Egyptian motifs for the building reflects similar work by Backhouse in Sydney on a warehouse for Dalton Brothers in the late 1870s; the construction of this warehouse in Charlotte Street reflected the emergence of the immediate area as a warehousing precinct. Known as Frog's Hollow, by the late 1880s, the area was dominated by warehouses and industrial buildings. Between 1889 and 1894, Wallace Warren & Co operated their business from the building but following the depression of the early 1890s, they were declared bankrupt in 1894.
The new owners, the Commercial Banking Company of Sydney, leased the building to various tenants including Crescent Packing Co which processed and packaged coffee and spice bags there, box manufacturers Joyce Brothers, Cecil Edgar Babbidge, a printer and stereotyper. Between 1911 and 1919 the prominent Sydney-based tea merchants, Inglis Ltd, distributors of the Billy Tea brand, occupied part of the building, their distinctive sign covered the entire length of the southern wall. From 1912 to 1963 the building was owned by the ironmongers Robertson Tait & Co by its successor Wilson Tait, wholesale hardware merchants; the new owners in 1963, Charlotte House Pty Ltd, carried out extensive internal alterations in 1964. The building is occupied by a variety of commercial tenants; this timber frame and cement render warehouse with four storeys and basement stands in Charlotte Street. At the north-eastern end of the building a differentiated bay marks a carriage entrance. Large pilasters separate the carriageway bay.
Three of these pilasters mark the ends of the building and the carriageway bay and are distinguished, by greater ornamentation, from the five "minor" pilasters. At basement and ground floors, the pilasters are fluted whilst those at the upper levels carry a Greek linear pattern. Two protruding string courses, one above the ground floor and another above the second floor, define the three sections of the building; the underside of the upper string course carries a row of fine dentils and an inscribed Greek pattern. Fluted brackets mark the ends of the building and the carriageway bay, further distinguished by a richly moulded pediment above the first string course. Above the minor pilasters of the upper floor the painted lettering "Charlotte House" is surmounted by a moulded cornice; the major pilasters extend to fluted brackets and at the roof line, another pediment marked "1886" distinguishes the carriageway bay. The point of this pediment and the line of each of the eight pilasters is accented on the roof by acroteria.
Behind the building is a two-storey brick store, constructed as part of the original project. While substantial internal alterations were carried out on the building in 1964, both the structure and the facade remain intact; the timber framing, floor joists and herringbone strutting are evident on the underside of the first floor carriageway. Charlotte House was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992 having satisfied the following criteria; the place is important in demonstrating the pattern of Queensland's history. Charlotte House is significant as it provides evidence of the emergence of the Frogs Hollow area as a warehousing precinct; the building remains as a reminder of this previous function of the area. The place demonstrates uncommon or endangered aspects of Queensland's cultural heritage. Charlotte House is significant as a rare and good example of a late nineteenth century warehouse, with an intact facade which incorporates Greek and Egyptian motifs; the place is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a particular class of cultural places.
Charlotte House is significant as a rare and good example of a late nineteenth century warehouse, with an intact facade which incorporates Greek and Egyptian motifs. The place is important because of its aesthetic significance. Charlotte House is significant as a rare and good example of a late nineteenth century warehouse, with an intact facade which incorporates Greek and Egyptian motifs; this Wikipedia article was based on "The Queensland heritage register" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence. The geo-coordinates were computed from the "Queensland heritage register boundaries" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence. "A NEW WAREHOUSE". The Brisbane Courier. National Library of Australia. 2 September 1889. P. 3. — newspaper description of the building when it opened "Wallace, Warren's Warming". Queensland Figaro and Punch. National Library of Australia. 7 September 1889. P. 10 Supplement: SUPPLEMENT TO QUEENSLAND FIGARO. — description of the opening event
Brisbane central business district
The Brisbane central business district gazetted as the suburb of Brisbane City and colloquially referred to as'the city', is the heart of the state capital of Queensland, Australia. It is located on a point on the northern bank of the Brisbane River; the triangular shaped area is bounded by the Brisbane River to the east and west. The point, known at its tip as Gardens Point, slopes upward to the north-west where the city is bounded by parkland and the inner city suburb of Spring Hill to the north; the CBD is bounded to the north-east by the suburb of Fortitude Valley. To the west the CBD is bounded by Petrie Terrace; the Brisbane central business district is an area of densely concentrated skyscrapers and other buildings, interspersed by several parks such as Roma Street Parklands, City Botanic Gardens and Wickham Park. It occupies an area of 1.367 km². The City is laid out according to a grid pattern surveyed during the city's early colonial days, a feature typical of most Australian street patterns.
As a general rule, the streets aligned northwest-south east are named after male members of the House of Hanover, while the northeast-south west aligned streets are named after female members. Queen Street was the central roadway, turned into a pedestrian mall, it forms the pivotal axis for the grid of roads within the district. The Brisbane central business district was built on a spur of the Taylor Range with the highest spot in the suburb being Wickham Terrace. North Quay is an area in the CBD, a landing point during the first European exploration of the Brisbane River. Petrie Bight is a reach of the Brisbane River, which gives its name to the small pocket of land centred on the area under the Story Bridge's northern point, around the Brisbane River to Admiralty Towers II; the location was known as Petrie Gardens and was an early settlement farm, one of two that provided food for the colony. The site was named after Andrew Petrie and has been the base for water police and in earlier times wharves.
The location of Customs House and the preference for wharves was due to site being directly downstream from the central business district. The Brisbane City Library opened in 1965, moving into Brisbane Square in 2006. Up until 1964, a Brisbane City Council regulation limited building heights to 132 ft; some of the first skyscrapers built in the CBD include the SGIO building in 1970 and AMP Place in 1977. In the last few decades the number of apartment buildings that have been constructed has increased substantially. Brisbane is home to several of Australia's tallest buildings. Brisbane's tallest buildings are Skytower at 270 metres, One William Street at 260 metres, Soleil at 243 metres, Aurora Tower at 207 metres, Riparian Plaza at 200 metres, One One One Eagle Street at 195 metres, Infinity at 249 metres, completed in 2014; the Brisbane CBD is one of the major business hubs in Australia. The City contains many tall office buildings occupied by organisations and all three levels of government that have emerged into a number of precincts.
The areas around the Queen Street Mall and Adelaide Street is a retail precinct. A legal precinct exists around the various court buildings located around the intersections of George Street and Adelaide and Ann Streets; the government precinct is an area centred on the Executive Building that includes many Queensland Government offices. 111 George Street, Mineral House, Education House are located here. The Brisbane CBD has only one third the number of premium hotel rooms that either Sydney or Melbourne's central business districts have; the city is serviced by a number of schools in the surrounding suburbs including the Petrie Terrace State School in Paddington and The Albert Park Flexi School in Petrie Terrace. Like most other Australian capital cities, Brisbane has experienced dramatic rises in rental prices for residential and office space before the global financial crisis. At the beginning of 2008, the Brisbane central business district contained 1.7 million square metres of office space.
High demand in the office market had pushed vacancy rates in the Brisbane CBD to 0.7% by January 2008, the lowest in Australia. Premium grade office space was less vacant with an occupancy rate of 99.9%. By the end of 2009 the situation had reversed. In mid 2013 the market for office space had declined to its worst position in two decades with a vacancy rate of just under 13%. In the CBD there many attractions; the Queens Gardens, Post Office Square, King George Square and the City Botanic Gardens are open public spaces located here. The Brisbane City Council operates a public library in Brisbane Square at 266 George Street. Brisbane has many heritage-listed sites, including: a number of properties in Adelaide Street, Brisbane a number of properties in Albert Street, Brisbane a number of properties in Alice Street, Brisbane a number of properties in Ann Street, Brisbane Boundary Street: Howard Smith Wharves a number of properties in Charlotte Street, Brisbane Coronation Drive: Coronation Drive retaining wall 15 Countess Street: Roma Street railway station a number of properties in Creek Street, Brisbane 118 Eagle Street: Mooney Memorial Fountain 118A Eagle Street: Eagle Street Fig Trees a number of properties in Edward Street, Brisbane a number of properties in Elizabeth Street, Brisbane a number of properties in Margaret Street, Brisbane 20-30 Market Street: Wenley House a number of properties in Mary Street, Brisbane a number of properties in North Quay, Brisb
The Victory Hotel is a historic pub located on the corner of Edward and Charlotte Streets in the Brisbane central business district, Australia. It is listed on the Brisbane Heritage Register; the hotel site totals 924 square metres and consists of two levels, incorporating six bars throughout the venue, deck, pool room, beer garden and gaming room. The Victory Hotel is heritage listed, is the oldest surviving hotel in Brisbane's CBD having been constructed in 1855; the hotel was known as the Prince of Wales Hotel and has been altered since that time, including the removal of its verandahs, but retains the main characteristics of a nineteenth century hotel, such as its prominent corner location. The hotel was acquired by Precision Group for $22 million in 2005 from VH Partnership, is occupied on a long term lease with the Australian Leisure and Hospitality Group. On 27 July 2008 the hotel was extensively damaged by fire, but was rebuilt to be close to its original form and opened again on 9 March 2009.
Ann Street, Brisbane
Ann Street runs parallel to Adelaide Street and is the northern-most street in the Brisbane CBD in Queensland, Australia. It is a major thoroughfare, linking as a four-lane one-way street the suburb of Fortitude Valley in the northeast with the Riverside Expressway in the southwest. Parks and buildings along Ann Street include the State Law Building, Central Railway Station, Brisbane City Hall, King George Square, King George Central, ANZAC Square and the Shrine of Remembrance; the now demolished Canberra Hotel was located on the corner of Edward Streets. Each year, on ANZAC Day, a dawn memorial service is held at the Shrine of Remembrance, with wreaths being laid around the eternal flame in memory of those who died in conflict. There is a memorial service held each year on Armistice Day and wreaths are again laid at the eternal flame; the shrine was dedicated on Armistice Day in 1930. King George Square busway station has entrances from King George Square and is accessible from Ann Street. Ann Street is home to several historic Brisbane churches including St John's Cathedral, Ann Street Church of Christ and St Andrew's Uniting Church.
Access to some facilities of All Saints Anglican Church is from Ann Street. Riverside Expressway North Quay George Street Roma Street Albert Street Edward Street Creek Street Wharf Street Queen Street Boundary Street Gipps Street / Kemp Place Brunswick Street East Street / James Street Murri Way / Commercial Road Montpelier Road / Skyring Terrace Ann Street has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 141 Ann Street: Ann Street Presbyterian Church 166 Ann Street: Brisbane School of Arts 255A Ann Street: ANZAC Square Arcade 270 Ann Street: Central Railway Station 301 Ann Street: Shell House 311 Ann Street: Masonic Temple 333 Ann Street: former RS Exton and Co Building 373 Ann Street: St Martin's House 413 Ann Street: St John's Cathedral 417 Ann Street: Church House 417 Ann Street: The Deanery 439 Ann Street: Webber House 501 Ann Street: Queensland Brewery Company Building 547 Ann Street: All Hallows' School Buildings 690 Ann Street: Apothecaries Hall 740 Ann Street: former Fortitude Valley Post Office 131 Creek Street: St Andrews Uniting Church 308 Edward Street: People's Palace 560 Queen Street: Orient Hotel 85 Wickham Street: Centenary Place 160 Ann Street, Brisbane Media related to Ann Street, Brisbane at Wikimedia Commons
Adelaide Street, Brisbane
Adelaide Street is a major street in Brisbane, Australia. It parallel to Queen Street and Ann Street. Under the provisions of the City of Brisbane Improvement Act 1916 and the Local Authorities Act Amendment Act 1923 the Brisbane City Council contributed to the 1920s building boom, with a programme of city beautification and street improvements, including the cutting down and widening of several of the principal thoroughfares. From 1923 to 1928 the Brisbane City Council implemented its most ambitious town improvement scheme to that date: the widening of Adelaide Street by 14 feet along its entire length. Resumptions in Adelaide Street had commenced in the 1910s, but work on the street widening did not take place until the 1920s; the work was undertaken in stages, commencing in 1923 at the southern end where the new Brisbane City Hall was under construction. Some buildings had the front section removed and a contemporary facade installed on the new road alignment. Elsewhere, earlier buildings were demolished and substantial new structures took their place.
At the northern end of Adelaide Street the cutting down of the hill below St John's Cathedral in 1928 facilitated greater access to Petrie Bight, close to new city wharves at the end of Boundary Street, boomed in the 1920s as a warehousing district. In 1975, Adelaide Street was extended from George Street to North Quay as construction on the Brisbane Administration Centre was underway. A number of locations on Adelaide Street are listed on the Queensland Heritage Register, including: 64 Adelaide Street: Brisbane City Hall 228 Adelaide Street: ANZAC Square and South African War Memorial 232 Adelaide Street: Commonwealth Government Offices 418-420 Adelaide Street: former Castlemaine Perkins Building under Adelaide Street: part of former heritage listed Wheat Creek Culvert 160 Queen Street: Brisbane Arcade 255A Ann Street: Anzac Square Building incorporating the ANZAC Square Arcade 325 Edward Street: Rowes Building Notable buildings and parks along Adelaide Street include Brisbane City Hall, King George Square, ANZAC Square with the Shrine of Remembrance, ANZAC Square Arcade, Brisbane Square and Post Office Square.
ANZAC Day parades, in which Australian war veterans march, take place in Adelaide Street, on 25 April every year, Dawn services are held at the Shrine of Remembrance within ANZAC Square at Adelaide Street. Adelaide Street is featured on television every year on ANZAC Day, 25 April, with the ANZAC Day Dawn Service and the ANZAC Day Parade. Adelaide Street bus mall is a hub for Brisbane's buses, with services operated under TransLink. Entrances to King George Square busway station and Central station are accessed from Adelaide Street side of King George Square and Anzac Square. North Quay George Street Albert Street Edward Street Creek Street Wharf Street Queen Street Macrossan Street Boundary Street Australian Roads portal This Wikipedia article incorporates text from "The Queensland heritage register" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence. The geo-coordinates were computed from the "Queensland heritage register boundaries" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence.
Media related to Adelaide Street, Brisbane at Wikimedia Commons