Margaret Stewart, Dauphine of France
Margaret of Scotland was a Princess of Scotland and the Dauphine of France. She was the child of King James I of Scotland. She married the eldest son of the king of France, Dauphin of France and their marriage was unhappy, and she died childless at age 20, apparently of a fever. She was born in Perth, Scotland to James I of Scotland and Joan Beaufort, Margaret was the first of six daughters and twin sons born to her parents. Margaret was Charles VII of Frances diplomatic choice for daughter-in-law, the marriage was forced upon Charless thirteen-year-old son, which did not help their relationship. However, royal marriages in the 15th century were always political, there are no direct accounts from Louis or Margaret of their first impressions of each other, and it is mere speculation to say whether or not they actually had negative feelings for each other. Several historians think that Louis had an attitude to hate his wife. Margaret and Louis marriage shows both the nature of medieval royal diplomacy and the position of the French monarchy.
The marriage took place 25 June 1436 in the afternoon in the chapel of the castle of Tours and was presided by the Archbishop of Reims, by the standards of the time, it was a very plain wedding. Louis, looked more mature than his bride. Margaret looked like a beautiful “doll, ” perhaps because she was treated as such by her in-laws, Charles wore “grey riding pants” and “did not even bother to remove his spurs. ”The Scottish guests were quickly hustled out after the wedding reception. This was seen as something of a scandal by the Scots, King Charles’ attire and the speed with which the guests were hustled out was considered an insult to Scotland, which was an important ally in Frances war with the English. However, this spoke to the nature of the French court at this time. They simply could not afford an extravagant ceremony or to host their Scottish guests for any longer than they did, following the ceremony, “doctors advised against consummation” because of the relative immaturity of the bride and bridegroom.
Margaret continued her studies and Louis went on tour with Charles to loyal areas of the kingdom, even at this time, Charles was taken aback by the intelligence and temper of his son. During this tour, Louis was named Dauphin by Charles, as is traditional for the eldest son of the king and she was very interested in the French courts social and gallant life. She was a favourite of her father-in-law Charles VII of France, she felt herself alien amongst the French court and became depressed. She had a relationship with her husband, the future king of France
James I, Count of La Marche
James I of Bourbon was the son of Louis I, Duke of Bourbon and Mary of Avesnes. He was Count of Ponthieu from 1351 to 1360, and Count of La Marche from 1356 to his death and he took part in several campaigns of the Hundred Years War. In June 1347 he commanded an army on the Flemish border together with the Marshal Robert de Waurin and they marched to Béthune, the chief city of north-eastern Artois, which was still in French hands, though the countryside had been overrun by the Flemish. On 13 June they attacked the Flemish camp at night, however the Flemings managed to regroup and launch a counter-attack before slipping across the border. In 1349, he was created Captain-General of Languedoc, in early 1350 James was given command of an army mustering at Moissac on the borders of Agenais. There, he almost immediately entered into negotiations with Lancaster with two papal legates acting as mediators, the result was a truce, at first limited to Languedoc and the other provinces where James was Lieutenant, but in April it was extended to the rest of France.
In 1354 he was appointed Constable of France, in January and February 1355 as Constable, he took part in planning the resumption of the war with England. However the war became a matter of secondary importance as the French government became embroiled in the intrigues of Charles II of Navarre. In May 1355 it became apparent that war was about to begin between the King of France and a King of Navarre allied to England. James belonged to the party fronted by the queens and Blanche dÉvreux. In the end, John gave way and on 31 May agreed to pardon Charles, however, by the time John IIs letters reached Pamplona, the capital of Navarre and his army had already embarked with a course for the Cotentin Peninsula in Normandy. When the news reached Paris on 4 June it therefore became necessary to prepare the defences of Normandy, the largest, of which the Constable was given command, was to be stationed at Caen. He was appointed one of three conciliators who were to meet with Charles of Navarre as soon as he landed and explain the new position.
Charles of Navarre arrived at Cherbourg 5 July and the negotiations opened soon after, the result was the Treaty of Valognes sealed on 10 September. Included among the provisions of the treaty was that seven of Charles walled towns, when the Prince of Wales struck in October it was further south than expected, in the County of Armagnac, rather than the Garonne valley. The three French commanders hurried south to Toulouse, where they prepared themselves for a siege, on 28 October the Prince crossed the Garonne and the Ariège, at places never before forded by horses, and marched north to within a few miles of Toulouse. Thinking the English might attempt to invest the city from both sides, the Constable left for Montauban to hold the crossings of the Tarn and the Garonne, the Prince continued eastward into lands previously untouched by the war and largely undefended. On 8 November he took Narbonne, but was now far away from home territory
Hugh IV of Cyprus
Hugh IV was King of Cyprus from 31 March 1324 to his abdication, on 24 November 1358 and, King of Jerusalem, as Hugh II, until his death. He was a member of the House of Lusignan, Hugh appears to have been content to rule Cyprus, as he prevented his son, Peter I, from going to Western Europe to recruit support for a new crusade to recover their Kingdom of Jerusalem. In 1344, he joined a league with Venice and the Knights Hospitaller which burnt a Turkish fleet in Smyrna and captured the city. In 1345 the allies defeated the Turks at Imbros by land and sea and he was crowned as King of Cyprus at Saint Sophia Cathedral, Nicosia, on 15 April or 25 April 1324. In the same year, on 13 May, he was crowned at Saint Nicholas Cathedral, as a leader, King Hugh signed an agreement with Venice, which had to do with the activities of the Venician merchants who were settling in Cyprus. That caused problems with the Republic of Genoa who were rivals of the Venetians, the Genoese demanded that Hugh pay the debit of his uncle Henry II.
During his reign, he was strict about issues relating to justice and he managed to bring back his two sons and he imprisoned them. Other sources show that he was educated and had an interest in art, literature. He owned a villa in Lapithos and organised philosophical meetings. The Italian writer Boccaccio, wrote Genealogia Deorum Gentilium at the request of Hugh IV, Hugh resigned the crown to his son, Peter I in 1358, and died on 10 October 1359 in Nicosia. Hugh was married twice, both times to ladies of the House of Ibelin, whose fathers were both named Guy of Ibelin, one being Count of Jaffa and the other Seneschal of Cyprus. Hughs first marriage was in 1307/1310 to Marie dIbelin, daughter of Guy of Ibelin, Count of Jaffa and they had at least one son, Guy of Lusignan, Constable of Cyprus and Titular Prince of Galilee ca. Children with Alice were, Eschiva of Lusignan, married after 5 March 1337/1339, separated since 22 April 1341, Infante Fernando of Majorca, Peter I of Lusignan, succeeded him as King of Cyprus and Jerusalem
Bonne of Luxembourg
Bonne of Luxemburg or Jutta of Luxemburg, was born Jutta, the second daughter of John the Blind, king of Bohemia, and his first wife, Elisabeth of Bohemia. She was the first wife of King John II of France, however, as she died a year prior to his accession, Jutta was referred to in French historiography as Bonne de Luxembourg. She was a member of the House of Luxembourg, among her children were Charles V of France, Philip II, Duke of Burgundy, and Joan, Queen of Navarre. In 1326, Jutta was originally betrothed to Henry of Bar, however this arrangement was broken and she stayed at the abbey of Saint-Esprit until her marriage to John, Jutta was married to John, Duke of Normandy on 28 July 1332 at the church of Notre-Dame in Melun. She was 17 years old, and the king was 13. Her name Jutta, translatable into English as Good, was changed by the time of her marriage to Bonne or Bona, upon marriage, Bonne was the wife of the heir to the French throne, becoming Duchess of Normandy, and Countess of Anjou and of Maine.
The wedding was celebrated in the presence of six thousand guests, the festivities were prolonged by a further two months when the young groom was finally knighted at the cathedral of Notre-Dame in Paris. John was solemnly granted the arms of a knight in front of a prestigious audience bringing together the kings of Bohemia and Navarre, and the dukes of Burgundy, Bonne was a patron of the arts, the composer Guillaume de Machaut being one of her favorites. She died on 11 September 1349 of the plague in Maubisson. She was buried in the Abbey of Maubuisson, less than six months after Bonnes death, John married Joan I, Countess of Auvergne
Louis, Duke of Savoy
Louis I was Duke of Savoy from 1440 until his death in 1465. He was born at Geneva the son of Antipope Felix V and Mary of Burgundy, on 1 November 1433, at Chambéry, he married Princess Anne of Cyprus, an heiress of the Kingdom of Cyprus and the defunct Kingdom of Jerusalem. The family lived in Allaman Castle, Vaud/Switzerland and as Count de Vaud, Savoy tried to conquer the Duchy of Milan, under the Repubblica Ambrosiana, in 1453 he received the Shroud of Turin from Margaret de Charny. It was held by the House of Savoy until 1946, at the end of the Kingdom of Italy, Louis died at Lyon in 1465, while returning from France. Louis, Count of Geneva, King of Cyprus, married firstly in December 1458 Giovanni IV Paleologo, Marquis of Montferrat and secondly Pierre II de Luxembourg, Count of St. Pol, of Brienne, de Ligny and Soissons. Janus, Count of Faucigny and Geneva, married Helene of Luxembourg, daughter of Louis de Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, married King Louis XI of France. Agnes, married François dOrléans, Duke of Longueville and their son is Louis I dOrléans, duc de Longueville.
Maria, married Louis of Luxembourg, Count of St. Pol, of Brienne, de Ligny, married Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan. Giacomo, Count of Romont, Lord of Vaud, François, Archbishop of Auch and Bishop of Geneva
Louis II, Count of Flanders
The son of Louis I of Flanders and Margaret I of Burgundy, daughter of king Philip V of France, he was baptised by Bishop Pierre Roger of Arras, the Pope Clement VI. His father arranged his marriage with Margaret of Brabant, daughter of Duke John III, when his father was killed at the Battle of Crécy against the troops of King Edward III of England in 1346, he inherited the French counties of Flanders and Rethel. Louis managed to avoid this by fleeing to the court of King Philip VI of France, in 1347 he married Margaret of Brabant, which sparked a revolt in Ghent. Nevertheless, while the Black Death devastated the county and after Louis came to terms with the English king, in 1350 he gained credence by openly refusing to pay homage to the new Valois king John II of France. By the 1357 Peace of Ath he at least gained the rule over the small Lordship of Mechelen, with regards to his internal policy, his main aim was to prevent the formation of a broad coalition against him, as happened against his father.
Except for his last years, he was successful in preventing this, in 1357 Count Louis II married his seven-year-old daughter Margaret to the minor Duke Philip I of Burgundy, who died from plague four years later. The marriage of Margaret and Philip was celebrated at Saint Bavo Cathedral in Ghent on 19 June 1369, though a capable ruler, Louis lavish lifestyle burdened his countys finances and caused increasing disturbances. However, even in his years he managed to get the support of the Bruges citizens against revolting Ghent. The latter years of his rule were marked by civil strife. In 1379, he obtained aid from his son-in-law, Duke Philip II of Burgundy, the citizens of Ghent continued to resist until after his death in 1384. His mother Margaret had died two years previously, leaving him the County of Artois and the Imperial Free County of Burgundy, in 1347, he married Margaret of Brabant, daughter of John III, Duke of Brabant. Without any surviving sons, on his death, his possessions in the Low Countries were inherited by his daughter Margaret.
The main line of the House of Dampierre, originally only counts of Flanders, had through a clever marriage policy managed to inherit the counties of Nevers and Rethel. Through Louis mother, a daughter of King Philip V of France, Louis II arranged the marriage of his daughter and heir, Margret, to the duke of Burgundy, Philip the Bold, leading to the subsequent union of Flanders and Burgundy
Joan of Armagnac
Joan of Armagnac was a French noblewoman of the Armagnac family, being the eldest daughter of Count John I of Armagnac and his wife Beatrice of Clermont. She became Duchess of Berry by her marriage to John, Duke of Berry in 1360 and she married John, Duke of Berry, son of John II of France and his first wife Bonne of Bohemia. Joannas daughter, called Bonne, was the mother of Antipope Felix V. Emmerson, key Figures in Medieval Europe, An Encyclopedia
John II of France
John II, called John the Good, was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1350 until his death. While John was a prisoner in London, his son Charles became regent and faced several rebellions, to liberate his father, he concluded the Treaty of Brétigny, by which France lost many territories and paid an enormous ransom. In an exchange of hostages, which included his second son Louis, Duke of Anjou, when John was informed that Louis had escaped from captivity, he voluntarily returned to England, where he died in 1364. He was succeeded by his son Charles V, John was nine years old when his father had himself crowned as Philip VI of France. Initially a marriage with Eleanor of Woodstock, sister of King Edward III of England, was considered, Bohemia had aspirations to control Lombardy and needed French diplomatic support. The military clauses stipulated that, in the event of war, the political clauses ensured that the Lombard crown would not be disputed if the king of Bohemia managed to obtain it.
Philip selected Bonne of Bohemia as a wife for his son, as she was closer to child-bearing age, and the dowry was fixed at 120,000 florins. John reached the age of majority,13 years and one day, on 27 April 1332, the wedding was celebrated on 28 July at the church of Notre-Dame in Melun in the presence of six thousand guests. The festivities were prolonged by a two months when the young groom was finally knighted at the cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris. Upon his accession as Duke of Normandy in 1332, John had to deal with the reality that most of the Norman nobility was already allied with the English camp, Normandy depended economically more on maritime trade across the English Channel than on river trade on the Seine. The Duchy had not been English for 150 years, but many landowners had holdings across the Channel, consequently, to line up behind one or other sovereign risked confiscation. Therefore, Norman members of the nobility were governed as interdependent clans and it was split into two key camps, the counts of Tancarville and the counts of Harcourt, which had been in conflict for generations.
King Philip, worried about the richest area of the breaking into bloodshed, ordered the bailiffs of Bayeux. Geoffroy dHarcourt raised troops against the king, rallying a number of nobles protective of their autonomy, the rebels demanded that Geoffroy be made duke, thus guaranteeing the autonomy granted by the charter. Royal troops took the castle at Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte and Geoffroy was exiled to Brabant, three of his companions were decapitated in Paris on 3 April 1344. In 1342, John was in Avignon at the coronation of Pope Clement VI, by 1345, increasing numbers of Norman rebels had begun to pay homage to Edward III, constituting a major threat to the legitimacy of the Valois kings. The defeat at the Battle of Crécy on 26 August 1346, defections by the nobility, whose land fell within the broad economic influence of England, particularly in the north and west, increased. Consequently, King Philip VI decided to seek a truce, Duke John met Geoffroy dHarcourt, to whom the king agreed to return all confiscated goods, even appointing him sovereign captain in Normandy
Marie of Anjou
Marie of Anjou was Queen of France as the spouse of King Charles VII from 1422 to 1461. She served as regent and presided over the council of several times during the absence of the king. Marie was the eldest daughter of Louis II of Anjou, titular King of Naples, titular King of Sicily, Marie was betrothed to her second cousin Charles, fifth son of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria, in 1413. The wedding took place in April 1422 at Bourges, the wedding made her Queen of France, but as far as it is known, she was never crowned. Her spouses victory in the Hundred Years War owed a great deal to the support he received from Maries family, notably from her mother Yolande of Aragon. Queen Marie presided over the Council of state several times in the absence of the king, during which she had power of attorney as regent and she made several pilgrimages, such as Puy with the king in 1424, and Mount St Michel by herself in 1447. Robert Blondel composed the allegorical Treatise of the Twelve Perils of Hell for queen Marie in 1455, in 1461, Charles VII died and was succeeded by their son Louis XI, making Marie queen dowager.
She was granted the Chateau of Amboise and the income from Brabant by her son, during the winter of 1462-63, Marie of Anjou made a pilgrimage to St Jacques de Compostela. She died at the age of 59 on 29 November 1463 at the Cistercian Abbaye de Chateliers-en-Poitou on her return and she is buried in the basilica of Saint-Denis alongside her spouse. Marie was the mother of fourteen children
Charles VII of France
Charles VII, called the Victorious or the Well-Served, was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1422 to his death. In the midst of the Hundred Years War, Charles VII inherited the throne of France under desperate circumstances, in addition, his father Charles VI had disinherited him in 1420 and recognized Henry V of England and his heirs as the legitimate successors to the French crown instead. At the same time, a war raged in France between the Armagnacs and the Burgundian party. However, his political and military position improved dramatically with the emergence of Joan of Arc as a leader in France. Joan of Arc and other charismatic figures led French troops to lift the siege of Orléans, as well as other cities on the Loire river. With the local English troops dispersed, the people of Reims switched allegiance and opened their gates and this long-awaited event boosted French morale as hostilities with England resumed. Following the battle of Castillon in 1453, the French had expelled the English from all their continental possessions except for the Pale of Calais, the last years of Charles VII were marked by conflicts with his turbulent son, the future Louis XI of France.
Born at the Hôtel Saint-Pol, the residence in Paris. He was the child and fifth son of Charles VI of France. His four elder brothers, Charles and John had each held the title of Dauphin of France in turn, all died childless, leaving Charles with a rich inheritance of titles. By 1419, Charles had established his own court in Bourges and they decided that a further meeting should take place the following 10 September. On that date, they met on the bridge at Montereau, the Duke assumed that the meeting would be entirely peaceful and diplomatic, thus he brought only a small escort with him. The Dauphins men reacted to the Dukes arrival by attacking and killing him, Charles level of involvement has remained uncertain to this day. Although he claimed to have been unaware of his mens intentions, the assassination marked the end of any attempt of a reconciliation between the two factions Armagnacs and Burgundians, thus playing into the hands of Henry V of England. Charles was required by a treaty with Philip the Good, the son of John the Fearless, to pay penance for the murder, at the death of his father, Charles VI, the succession was cast into doubt.
For those who did not recognize the treaty and believed the Dauphin Charles to be of legitimate birth, for those who did not recognize his legitimacy, the rightful heir was recognized as Charles, Duke of Orléans, cousin of the Dauphin, who was in English captivity. Only the supporters of Henry VI and the Dauphin Charles were able to enlist sufficient military force to press effectively for their candidates, the English, already in control of northern France, were able to enforce the claim of their king in the regions of France that they occupied. Northern France, including Paris, was ruled by an English regent, Henry Vs brother, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford
Frederick II, Elector of Saxony
Frederick II, The Gentle was Elector of Saxony and was Landgrave of Thuringia. Frederick was the eldest of the seven children of Frederick I, Elector of Saxony, after the death of his father in 1428 he took over the government together with his younger brothers William III, Henry and Sigismund. In 1433 the Wettins finally concluded peace with the Hussites and in 1438 Frederick led Saxon forces to victory in the Battle of Sellnitz and that same year it was considered the first federal state parliament of Saxony. The parliament received the right to find together in case of innovations in fiscal matters without summoning by the ruler, after Henrys death in 1435, and Sigismund was forced to renounce and became a bishop in, Frederick and William divided their possessions. In the Division of Altenburg in 1445, William III received the Thuringian and Frankish part, disputes over the distribution led however in 1446 to the Saxon Brother War, which found an end only on 27 January 1451 with the peace of Naumburg.
It belongs therefore to the oldest still existing borders of Europe, after the death of Frederick, both of his sons and Albert, first took over the government together. After Duke William III died in 1482, Thuringia returned to Fredericks line, in Leipzig on 3 June 1431 Frederick married Margaret of Austria, the daughter of Ernest of Austria and Cymburgis of Masovia. They had eight children, married on 21 March 1452 to Louis IX, married on 12 November 1458 to Albert III Achilles, Elector of Brandenburg. Article in the ADB Die Wettiner