Elvis Aaron Presley was an American singer and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is referred to as the "King of Rock and Roll" or "the King". Presley was born in Tupelo and relocated to Memphis, with his family when he was 13 years old, his music career began there in 1954, recording at Sun Records with producer Sam Phillips, who wanted to bring the sound of African-American music to a wider audience. Accompanied by guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black, Presley was a pioneer of rockabilly, an uptempo, backbeat-driven fusion of country music and rhythm and blues. In 1955, drummer D. J. Fontana joined to complete the lineup of Presley's classic quartet and RCA Victor acquired his contract in a deal arranged by Colonel Tom Parker, who would manage him for more than two decades. Presley's first RCA single, "Heartbreak Hotel", was released in January 1956 and became a number-one hit in the United States. With a series of successful network television appearances and chart-topping records, he became the leading figure of the newly popular sound of rock and roll.
His energized interpretations of songs and sexually provocative performance style, combined with a singularly potent mix of influences across color lines during a transformative era in race relations, made him enormously popular—and controversial. In November 1956, Presley made his film debut in Love Me Tender. Drafted into military service in 1958, Presley relaunched his recording career two years with some of his most commercially successful work, he held few concerts however, guided by Parker, proceeded to devote much of the 1960s to making Hollywood films and soundtrack albums, most of them critically derided. In 1968, following a seven-year break from live performances, he returned to the stage in the acclaimed television comeback special Elvis, which led to an extended Las Vegas concert residency and a string of profitable tours. In 1973, Presley gave the first concert by a solo artist to be broadcast around the world, Aloha from Hawaii. Years of prescription drug abuse compromised his health, he died in 1977 at his Graceland estate at the age of 42.
Presley is the best-selling solo artist in the history of recorded music. He was commercially successful in many genres, including pop, country and gospel, he won three competitive Grammys, received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36, has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame. Elvis Presley was born on January 8, 1935, in Tupelo, Mississippi, to Gladys Love Presley in the two-room shotgun house built by his father, Vernon Elvis Presley, in preparation for the birth. Jesse Garon Presley, his identical twin brother, was delivered 35 minutes before stillborn. Presley became close to both parents and formed an close bond with his mother; the family attended an Assembly of God church. On his mother's side Presley's ancestry was Scots-Irish, with some French Norman. Gladys and the rest of the family believed that her great-great-grandmother, Morning Dove White, was Cherokee. Vernon's forebears were of Scottish origin. Gladys was regarded by friends as the dominant member of the small family.
Vernon moved from one odd job to the evincing little ambition. The family relied on help from neighbors and government food assistance. In 1938, they lost their home after Vernon was found guilty of altering a check written by his landowner and sometime employer, he was jailed for eight months, while Elvis moved in with relatives. In September 1941, Presley entered first grade at East Tupelo Consolidated, where his teachers regarded him as "average", he was encouraged to enter a singing contest after impressing his schoolteacher with a rendition of Red Foley's country song "Old Shep" during morning prayers. The contest, held at the Mississippi–Alabama Fair and Dairy Show on October 3, 1945, was his first public performance; the ten-year-old Presley was dressed as a cowboy. He recalled placing fifth. A few months Presley received his first guitar for his birthday. Over the following year, he received basic guitar lessons from two of his uncles and the new pastor at the family's church. Presley recalled, "I took the guitar, I watched people, I learned to play a little bit.
But I would never sing in public. I was shy about it."In September 1946, Presley entered a new school, for sixth grade. The following year, he began bringing his guitar to school on a daily basis, he played and sang during lunchtime, was teased as a "trashy" kid who played hillbilly music. By the family was living in a Black neighborhood. Presley was a devotee of Mississippi Slim's show on the Tupelo radio station WELO, he was described as "crazy about music" by Slim's younger brother, one of Presley's classmates and took him into the station. Slim supplemented Presley's guitar tuition by demonstrating chord techniques; when his protégé was twelve years old, Slim scheduled him for two on-air performances. Presley was succeeded in performing the following week. In November 1948, the family moved to Tennessee. After residing for nearly a year in rooming houses, they were granted a two-bedroom apartment in the public housing complex known as the Lauderdale Courts. Enrolled at L. C. Humes Hig
Elvis Presley on film and television
Elvis Presley was an American entertainer who achieved initial success as a singer, expressing an early career goal of following in the footsteps of his role models James Dean and Marlon Brando to become a top dramatic actor. His manager Colonel Tom Parker's persistent lobbying of William Morris Agency president Abe Lastfogel for a Presley screen test paid off on March 26, 1956, when the singer auditioned at Paramount for a supporting role in The Rainmaker. Although not chosen for the part, he signed a contract with Paramount producer Hal Wallis on April 25 that allowed him to make films with other studios, his feature debut was in Love Me Tender for 20th Century Fox, with the commercial success of the soundtrack EP being a bellwether for the next three Presley films. Loving You, Jailhouse Rock and King Creole were dramatic storylines written around Presley in the role of a musical entertainer, he would state that King Creole was his favorite of all his films. Flaming Star and Wild in the Country were rarities in his career, non-musicals focused on dramatic storylines.
According to music historian Peter Guralnick, the sluggish financial returns of those two films became the justification for ignoring Presley's wishes and limiting him to the more profitable musical format.. It was a single shot of Flaming Star, when silkscreened by Andy Warhol which garnered, since 1998, more than a quarter of a billion dollars for auction houses and in private sales, most notably those entitled "Double Elvis", Triple Elvis and Eight Elvises. In 1963, again as these silkscreens were being printed and shown at a Warhol exhibit in Los Angeles, Presley became bitter that his hopes for dramatic roles were not coming to fruition, stating that Clambake was his worst film, he began to complain about the deteriorating quality of the films and his belief that his manager's objectives were more monetary than anything else. At the expiration of all studio contracts, he returned to live entertaining; the two concert documentaries Elvis: That's the Way It Is in 1970 and Elvis on Tour in 1972 were the final theatrical releases for Presley.
Ellroy, James. The Best American Noir of the Century. New York, NY: Mariner Books. ISBN 978-0-547-57744-9. Guralnick, Peter. Last train to Memphis: The Rise of Elvis Presley. Boston, MA: Little and Company. ISBN 978-0-316-33220-0. Guralnick, Peter. Careless Love: The Unmaking of Elvis Presley. Boston, MA: Little and Company. ISBN 0-316-33222-4. Guralnick, Peter. Elvis Day by Day: The Definitive Record of His Life and Music. New York, NY: Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-42089-3. Jorgensen, Ernst. Elvis Presley: A Live in Music: The Complete Recording Sessions. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-18572-5. Lisanti, Tom. Fantasy Femmes of 60's Cinema: Interviews with 20 Actresses from Biker and Elvis Movies. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-0868-9. Lisanti, Tom. Hollywood Surf and Beach Movies The First Wave, 1959–1969. McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-7297-0. Marsh, Dave. Elvis. New York, NY: Time Books. ISBN 0-8129-0947-X. Neibaur, James L.. The Elvis Movies. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
ISBN 978-1-4422-3073-6. Rose, Frank; the Agency: William Morris and the Hidden History of Show Business. New York, NY: HarperBusiness. ISBN 978-0-88730-807-9. Templeton, Steve. Elvis Presley: Silver Screen Icon: A Collection of Movie Posters. Johnson City, TN: Overmountain Press. ISBN 978-1-57072-232-5.http://www.archive.org/stream/broadcastingtele51unse_0#page/n553/mode/2up
Charles Marquis Warren
Charles Marquis Warren was an American motion picture and television writer and director who specialized in Westerns. Among his notable career achievements were his involvement in creating the television series Rawhide and his work in adapting the radio series Gunsmoke for television. Warren was born in Baltimore and was the son of a real estate broker and the godson of American writer F. Scott Fitzgerald, he was educated at Baltimore City College. During his college years, he developed an interest in writing, resulting in a play entitled No Sun, No Moon, staged at Princeton University. Warren decided to go to Hollywood in 1933. With the help of his godfather, Warren secured a position as a staff writer for the studio, his early assignments included working on the scripts for Mutiny on the Bounty starring Charles Laughton and Clark Gable, Top Hat with Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers. He made the latter film on loan out to RKO Radio Pictures. Warren left Hollywood for New York where he found success as a fiction writer for various pulp magazines.
Several of his writings were published in The Saturday Evening Post. One of his Post stories, Only the Valiant, the Argosy serial Bugles Are for Soldiers, were published as novels and became best-sellers. Bugles Are for Soldiers book length version was retitled Valley of the Shadow. In 1941, he married Anna Crawford Tootle, they had three daughters, Anne and Victoria. During World War II, Warren joined the United States Navy and served in the Photo Science Laboratory, he rose to the rank of commander and, while serving in the South Pacific in 1944, was wounded by a Japanese grenade. For his wounds and service, he received a Bronze Star and five battle stars. During his recovery at Guadalcanal, his novel Only the Valiant was purchased by Warner Bros. Following his discharge, Warren returned to Hollywood and re-established himself as a screenwriter specializing in westerns, he was the screenwriter for Beyond Glory, starring Alan Ladd. Susanna, with Rod Cameron. Only the Valiant was adapted by other writers for a 1951 film starring Gregory Peck.
In 1951, Warren began directing films as well as writing them, starting with Little Big Horn, a western starring Lloyd Bridges. He followed this with Hellgate, with James Arness and produced by Commander Films Corporation, a company that Warren founded. In 1953, he moved to Paramount, where he wrote the screenplay for Pony Express, starring Charlton Heston as Buffalo Bill. In the same year, he wrote and directed Arrowhead, starring Heston and Jack Palance, the 3-D adventure Flight to Tangier, with Palance and Joan Fontaine. Warren directed Seven Angry Men, an Allied Artists production starring Raymond Massey. In 1955, CBS offered Warren the position of director and producer of Gunsmoke, a new television series based on the popular radio series of the same name and produced by Norman Macdonnell. Interested in only making motion pictures, Warren accepted the offer when CBS agreed to pay him $7000 per week, he directed the first 26 of its 39 episodes. Warren continued as producer for the second season of Gunsmoke but left the series in mid-season due to a difficult professional relationship with Macdonnell, the series' associate producer.
After leaving Gunsmoke, Warren returned to working in the cinema as a writer and producer. He established his own production company, Emirau Productions, named after the Battle in World War Two in which Warren was injured, his films from this era include the horror films Back From the Dead, with Peggie Castle. His westerns include Trooper Hook, featuring Barbara Stanwyck. Warren continued working in television. In 1957, he wrote and directed an episode of the anthology series Playhouse 90 entitled "Without Incident", which starred Errol Flynn. In 1959, he became producer and occasional writer and director for the series Rawhide starring Eric Fleming and Clint Eastwood, he served as producer or executive producer for three other western series, The Iron Horse with Dale Robertson and The Virginian with James Drury. He returned to film as the writer of Day of the Evil Gun, featuring Glenn Ford, as the writer and director of Charro! starring Elvis Presley. Warren died of a heart aneurysm in 1990 at the age of 77, is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
The information in this article was derived from the following sources: "Charles Warren, Creator of TV Westerns". The Seattle Times. Seattle Times Company. 1990. Retrieved January 13, 2010. Barbaras, SuzAnne. Gunsmoke: A Complete History. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 0-89950-418-3. Charles Marquis Warren on IMDb
Elvis for Everyone!
Elvis for Everyone! is the eighth studio album by American singer and musician Elvis Presley, issued by RCA Victor in mono and stereo, LPM/LSP 3450, in August 1965. Recording sessions took place over a ten-year span at Sun Studio in Memphis, RCA Studio B in Nashville and Radio Recorders in Hollywood, California, it peaked at number 10 on the Top Pop Albums chart. Sessions in late May 1963 failed to coalesce into his fifth studio album of the 1960s, by 1965 Presley's musical output had been focused on his movie career and soundtrack output, he had not released a proper studio album since Pot Luck in June 1962, although seven non-movie singles had been issued since. RCA Victor invented the concept of an "Anniversary Album" to celebrate Presley's tenth year with the label, which became Elvis For Everyone; the album's cover depicting Presley standing next to the RCA Victor trademark Nipper the dog, sitting atop a cash register. Since May 1963, Presley had only made one non-movie session in January 1964 that yielded a mere three tracks, two of, issued as sides for singles.
Bereft of new material, RCA Victor assembled this album from unused tracks going all the way back to the Sun Records years, from sessions for both soundtracks and regular commercial releases. Owing to its assembly from scraps and rejects, although it made the top ten on the LP chart, it was the first Presley album to sell fewer than 300,000 copies during the decade. Of the tracks on Elvis for Everyone! only "Summer Kisses, Winter Tears," recorded for but not used in the film Flaming Star, had been issued, on the extended play single Elvis by Request: Flaming Star and 3 Other Great Songs. Several tracks had not been issued on record before. "In My Way" had appeared in the 1961 film Wild in the Country, "Sound Advice" in the 1962 film Follow That Dream, the traditional Neapolitan ballad "Santa Lucia" in the 1964 outing Viva Las Vegas. The remaining eight tracks had been unissued in any form; the Sun ballad "Tomorrow Night" had overdubs added for release on this album. RCA had intended to include the unreleased Sun Records track "Tennessee Saturday Night," but withdrew it from the album and replaced it with "Tomorrow Night".
Neither has reference to a Presley Sun recording with this title been mentioned in any other source, nor has a Presley Sun recording with this title been discovered, although a song entitled "Tennessee Saturday Night" was slated for Loving You but not recorded. In its format as a compilation of unissued leftovers from various sessions, given its rather short running time, this album anticipated the Presley budget releases with a similar concept that would appear during the late 1960s and early 1970s on the low priced RCA Camden label. RCA opted not to include it as part of its reissue program, appending its songs as bonus tracks to other albums as appropriate, with the overdubbed version of "Tomorrow Night" being replaced by the original Sun Records master version in general circulation. In 2014 Elvis for Everyone was reissued on the Follow That Dream label in a special 2-disc edition that contained the original album tracks along with numerous alternate takes
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Elvis (1956 album)
Elvis is the second studio album by American rock and roll singer Elvis Presley, released by RCA Victor in October 1956 in mono. Recording sessions took place on September 1, September 2, September 3 at Radio Recorders in Hollywood, with one track left over from the sessions for Presley's debut album at the RCA Victor recording studios on January 30 in New York, it spent four weeks at #1 on the Billboard Top Pop Albums chart that year, making Presley the first recording artist to have both albums go straight to number one in the same year. It was certified Gold on February 17, 1960, Platinum on August 10, 2011, by the Recording Industry Association of America, it was released in UK in 1957 as Elvis Presley No. 2 with a different front cover. It was cataloged as Rock'n' Roll No. 2. RCA Victor producer Steve Sholes had commissioned two new songs for this batch of sessions, "Paralyzed" from Otis Blackwell and "Love Me" from Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller, the authors of both sides of Presley's summer hit of 1956, "Don't Be Cruel" backed with "Hound Dog," the first record to top all three of the Billboard singles charts in existence: pop, R&B, C&W. Presley decided upon three Little Richard covers, selected three new country ballads from regular Everly Brothers writer Boudleaux Bryant and guitarist Chet Atkins, Sun staff musician and engineer Stan Kesler, Aaron Schroeder and Ben Weisman.
The latter two, contracted to Hill and Range, the publishing company of Presley's manager, Colonel Tom Parker, would write dozens of songs for Presley through the 1960s. Included was the song with which Presley won second prize at a fair in Tupelo when he was ten years old, Red Foley's 1941 country song, "Old Shep." With all but one track on the album recorded at a single set of sessions over three days in September and his touring band of Scotty Moore, Bill Black, D. J. Fontana, along with The Jordanaires, managed to recreate the loose feel from Sun Studio days, mixing rhythm and blues and country and western repertoire items as they had on all of his Sun singles, they reinforced this effect by including material echoing his first Sun record: a blues by Arthur Crudup, author of "That's All Right. The sessions were attended by a few outsiders, namely his current girlfriend at the time, actress Natalie Wood and actor Nick Adams, both of whom had starred in Rebel Without a Cause, Presley's favorite James Dean film.
Steve Sholes was the RCA man at the session, handled the paper work and such, but Elvis himself chose the songs, led the session, made all the decisions concerning which take would be the master and so forth. Thus it would be fair to say that for most practical purposes, Elvis himself at this session and throughout his career would continue to do most of the things that a regular record producer would do; the piano player on this album is not registered in the official RCA Victor archives, except for the song "So Glad You're Mine", cut at a previous session in New York. In a 1984 interview conducted by Jan-Erik Kjeseth, Gordon Stoker of the Jordanaires stated that he was the piano player on most of the songs on the album. In an article written by Kjeseth for the Flaming Star magazine, it was argued that the piano player on "Love Me", "Old Shep" and "How's the World Treating You" was Elvis himself. Ernst Jørgensen, writer of Elvis Presley - A Study in Music, seems to be of the same opinion. Kjeseth claims that Elvis played the piano on the single from this session, "Playing for Keeps".
Again, Jørgensen seems to be of the same opinion. Gordon Stoker played the piano on "Rip it Up" and "Anyplace is Paradise". RCA first reissued the original 12 track album on compact disc in 1984; this issue, in reprocessed stereo sound, was withdrawn and the disc was reissued in original monophonic. RCA reissued an expanded edition of the album in 1999, again in 2005. For the 1999 reissue, six bonus tracks were added that were both sides of three singles, altering the running order. Four of the tracks were chart-toppers: "Love Me Tender", "Too Much", the double-sided classic "Hound Dog" and "Don't Be Cruel". Bonus tracks recorded on July 2 at RCA Studios in New York City, in September at Radio Recorders, "Love Me Tender" at 20th Century Fox Stage One during the sessions for Love Me Tender; the 2005 reissue was remastered using DSD technology with the six bonus tracks appended in standard fashion, in the following order: "Playing for Keeps", "Too Much", "Don't Be Cruel", "Hound Dog", "Any Way You Want Me", "Love Me Tender".
This acclaimed latest remaster was the handiwork of audio restorer Kevan Budd, who drew praise for his 2005 remasters of Presley's first and third albums as well as the 2004 upgrade known as Elvis at Sun. These rock-n'roll tapes may have been among those dumped into the Delaware River near RCA Victor's Camden, New Jersey plant in the late 1950s. Elvis Presley – vocals, acoustic guitar, piano on "Old Shep", "Playing For Keeps", "Paralyzed", First In Line, "How's The World Treating You". Scotty Moore – electric guitar Shorty Long – piano on January 30 Gordon Stoker - piano on September 1–3 Bill Black – double bass D. J. Fontana – drums The Jordanaires - backing vocals Notes Chart positions for LPM 1382 from Billboard Top Pop Albums chart. Jorgenson, Ernst. Elvis Presley: A Life In Music - The Complete Recording Sessions, 1998. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-18572-3Miller, Jim, ed; the Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock & Roll, re
Cultural impact of Elvis Presley
Since the beginning of his career, Elvis Presley has had an extensive cultural impact. According to Rolling Stone, "it was Elvis who made rock'n' roll the international language of pop." Rolling Stone encyclopedia of Rock and Roll describes Presley as "an American music giant of the 20th century who single-handedly changed the course of music and culture in the mid-1950s." His recordings, dance moves and clothing came to be seen as embodiments of rock and roll. His music was influenced by African-American blues, Christian gospel, Southern country. In a list of the greatest English language singers, as compiled by Q Magazine, Presley was ranked first, second in the list of greatest singers of 20th century by BBC Radio; some people claim that Presley created a whole new style of music, "it wasn't black, wasn't white, wasn't pop or wasn't country- it was different". He gave teens music to grow up with and listen to, as most singers in his time created music geared for adults. Presley sang both hard driving rockabilly and roll dance songs and ballads, laying a commercial foundation upon which other rock musicians would build their careers.
African-American performers like Big Joe Turner, Wynonie Harris and Fats Domino came to national prominence after Presley's acceptance among mass audiences of White American adults. Singers like Jerry Lee Lewis, the Everly Brothers, Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Little Richard, Buddy Holly, Johnny Cash, Roy Orbison and others followed in his wake. John Lennon observed, "Before Elvis, there was nothing."During the post-WWII economic boom of the 1950s, many parents were able to give their teenage children much higher weekly allowances, signaling a shift in the buying power and purchasing habits of American teens. During the 1940s bobby soxers had idolized Frank Sinatra, but the buyers of his records were between the ages of eighteen and twenty-two. Presley triggered a lot of demand for his records by early teens aged ten and up. Along with Presley's "ducktail" haircut, the demand for black slacks and loose, open-necked shirts resulted in new lines of clothing for teenage boys whereas a girl might get a pink portable 45 rpm record player for her bedroom.
Meanwhile, American teenagers began buying newly available portable transistor radios and listened to rock'n' roll on them. Teens were asserting more independence and Presley became a national symbol of their parents' consternation. Presley's impact on the American youth consumer market was noted on the front page of The Wall Street Journal on December 31, 1956 when business journalist Louis M. Kohlmeier wrote, "Elvis Presley today is a business," and reported on the singer's record and merchandise sales. Half a century historian Ian Brailsford commented, "The phenomenal success of Elvis Presley in 1956 convinced many doubters of the financial opportunities existing in the youth market." In spite of the facts that Nat King Cole had the #7 song in 1959, the #1 song in 1961, Chuck Berry had a major hit with "Maybellene" in 1955, in the United States in the 1950s legal segregation and discrimination against African Americans was common in the Deep South. Presley would publicly cite his debt to African American music, pointing to artists such as B. B.
King, Arthur "Big Boy" Crudup, Ivory Joe Hunter, Fats Domino. The reporter who conducted Presley's first interview in New York City in 1956 noted that he named blues singers who "obviously meant a lot to him. Was surprised to hear him talk about the black performers down there and about how he tried to carry on their music." That year in Charlotte, North Carolina, Presley was quoted as saying: "The colored folks been singing it and playing it just like I’m doin' now, for more years than I know. They played it like that in their shanties and in their juke joints and nobody paid it no mind'til I goosed it up. I got it from them. Down in Tupelo, Mississippi, I used to hear old Arthur Crudup bang his box the way I do now and I said if I got to a place I could feel all old Arthur felt, I'd be a music man like nobody saw." Little Richard said of Presley: "He was an integrator. Elvis was a blessing, they wouldn't let black music through. He opened the door for black music." B. B. King said he began to respect Presley after he did Arthur "Big Boy" Crudup material and that after he met him, he thought the singer was something else and was someone whose music was growing all the time right up to his death.
Up to the mid-1950s black artists had sold minuscule amounts of their recorded music relative to the national market potential. Black songwriters had limited horizons and could only eke out a living, but after Presley purchased the music of African American Otis Blackwell and had his "Gladys Music" company hire talented black songwriter Claude Demetrius, the industry underwent a dramatic change. In the spring of 1957 Presley invited African American performer Ivory Joe Hunter to visit Graceland and the two spent the day together, singing "I Almost Lost My Mind" and other songs. Of Presley, Hunter commented, "He showed me every courtesy, I think he's one of the greatest.""Racists attacked rock and roll because of the mingling of black and white people it implied and achieved, because of what they saw as black music's power to corrupt through vulgar and animalistic rhythms.... The popularity of Elvis Presley was founded on his transgressive position with respect to racial and sexual boundaries....
White cover versions of hits by black musicians... outsold the originals.