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Charter Oath

The Charter Oath was promulgated at the enthronement of Emperor Meiji of Japan on 6 April 1868 in Kyoto Imperial Palace. The Oath outlined the main aims and the course of action to be followed during Emperor Meiji's reign, setting the legal stage for Japan's modernization; this set up a process of urbanization as people of all classes were free to move jobs so people went to the city for better work. It remained influential, if less for governing than inspiring, throughout the Meiji era and into the twentieth century, can be considered the first constitution of modern Japan; as the name implies, the text of the Oath consists of five clauses: By this oath, we set up as our aim the establishment of the national wealth on a broad basis and the framing of a constitution and laws. Deliberative assemblies shall be established and all matters decided by open discussion. All classes and low, shall be united in vigorously carrying out the administration of affairs of state; the common people, no less than the civil and military officials, shall all be allowed to pursue their own calling so that there may be no discontent.

Evil customs of the past shall be broken off and everything based upon the just laws of Nature. Knowledge shall be sought throughout the world so as to strengthen the foundation of imperial rule; the first draft of the Oath was written by junior councilor Yuri Kimimasa in January 1868, containing progressive language that spoke to the frustrations that the radical but modestly born Meiji leaders had experienced in "service to hereditary incompetents." Yuri's language was moderated by his colleague Fukuoka Takachika in February to be "less alarming," and Kido Takayoshi prepared the final form of the Oath, employing "language broad enough to embrace both readings." The Oath was read aloud by Sanjō Sanetomi in the main ceremonial hall of the Kyoto Imperial Palace in the presence of the Emperor and more than 400 officials. After the reading, the nobles and daimyōs present signed their names to a document praising the Oath, swearing to do their utmost to uphold and implement it; those not able to attend the formal reading afterwards visited the palace to sign their names, bringing the total number of signatures to 767.

The purpose of the oath was both to issue a statement of policy to be followed by the post-Tokugawa shogunate government in the Meiji period, to offer hope of inclusion in the next regime to pro-Tokugawa domains. This second motivation was important in the early stages of the Restoration as a means to keep domains from joining the Tokugawa remnant in the Boshin War. Military victory "made it safe to begin to push court nobles and daimyō figureheads out of the way"; the promise of reform in the document went unfulfilled: in particular, a parliament with real power was not established until 1890, the Meiji oligarchy from Satsuma, Chōshū, Tosa and Hizen retained political and military control well into the 20th century. In general, the Oath was purposely phrased in broad terms to minimize resistance from the daimyōs and to provide "a promise of gradualism and equity": "Deliberative councils" and "public discourse" were, after all, terms, applied to cooperation between lords of great domains; that "all classes" were to unite indicated that there would continue to be classes.

"commoners" were to be treated decently by "civil and military" officers, the privileged ranks of the recent past. No one was to be in favor of the retention of "evil customs". Only in the promise to "seek knowledge throughout the world" was there a specific indication of change. Moreover the search would be selective and purposeful, designed to "strengthen the foundations of imperial rule"; the Oath was reiterated as the first article of the constitution promulgated in June 1868, the subsequent articles of that constitution expand the policies outlined in the Oath. Eighty years in the wake of the Second World War, Emperor Hirohito paid homage to the Oath and reaffirmed it as the basis of "national polity" in his Humanity Declaration; the ostensible purpose of the rescript was to appease the American occupiers with a renunciation of imperial divinity, but the emperor himself saw it as a statement of the existence of democracy in Meiji era. Five Public Notices Seventeen-article constitution De Bary, William.

Sources of Japanese Tradition, Vol. II: 1600 to 2000. New York: Columbia. ISBN 0-231-12984-X. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Dower, John W.. Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-04686-9. Jansen, Marius B.. The Making of Modern Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674003347. Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World, 1852-1912. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-12340-2. Japanese Government Documents. Bethesda, Md.: University Publications of America. ISBN 0-313-26912-2. Akamatsu, Paul. Meiji 1868: Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Japan. Miriam Kochan. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-010044-3. Akita, George. Foundations of Constitutional Government in Modern Japan 1868-1900. Cambridge: Harvard. ISBN 0-674-31250-3. Beasley, William G.. The Rise of Modern Japan: Political and Social Change Since 1850. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-23373-6. Breen, John, "The Imperial Oath of April 1868: ritual and politics in Restoration Japan," Monum

Heptanoic acid

Heptanoic acid called enanthic acid, is an organic compound composed of a seven-carbon chain terminating in a carboxylic acid. It is an oily liquid with an rancid odor, it contributes to the odor of some rancid oils. It is soluble in water, but soluble in ethanol and ether; the methyl ester of ricinoleic acid, obtained from castor bean oil, is the main commercial precursor to heptanoic acid. It is pyrolyzed to the methyl ester of 10-undecenoic acid and heptanal, air oxidized to the carboxylic acid. 20,000 tons were consumed in Europe and US in 1980. Heptanoic acid is used in the preparation of esters, such as ethyl heptanoate, which are used in fragrances and as artificial flavors. Heptanoic acid is used to esterify steroids in the preparation of drugs such as testosterone enanthate, trenbolone enanthate, drostanolone enanthate, methenolone enanthate; the triglyceride ester of heptanoic acid is the triheptanoin, used in certain medical conditions as a nutritional supplement. List of saturated fatty acids

Johann Andreas Amon

Johann Andreas Amon was a German virtuoso guitarist, horn player, violist and composer. Amon composed around eighty works, including symphonies, concerti and songs, he wrote two masses, various liturgical works, two operettas. Amon was born at Bamberg, Bavaria in 1763, being first instructed in singing by the court singer Madame Fracassini. During this period he was studying the guitar and the violin under Bauerle, a musician of local repute. Young Amon had the misfortune to lose his voice at a early age and his parents desired him to study the horn, he was placed under Giovanni Punto, one of the most celebrated masters of this instrument, he obtained extraordinary skill upon it. Previous to 1781 he had visited England as a horn player and in that year, when eighteen years of age, he went with his teacher Punto to Paris. After studying with Punto, Amon continued his studies in composition under Antonio Sacchini in 1781. Amon remained in Paris, as a pupil of Sacchini, for the space of two years and toured with his former teacher, Punto.

They travelled throughout France and appeared as a horn duo with great success, in 1784 arrived in Strasburg. He accepted an engagement in Strasburg and remained in that city for some time and undertook another extended tour, which included all the important cities of eastern Europe. Amon traveled with Punto leading his orchestra, until 1789, when he became the musical director at Heilbronn. Amon's excellent playing both of the horn and guitar brought him before the notice of Haydn and many other influential musicians which added to his reputation. In 1789 his health was such that he was compelled to relinquish the playing of the horn, he devoted himself to teaching the guitar and piano; the same year he was engaged as musical director at Heilbronn and on 6 May 1817 he received the appointment of kapellmeister to the Prince of Oettingen-Wallerstein. At his application at the court of Wallerstein, Amon remarked that he had composed more than 80 works, all printed. In August he was awarded the title of "Master for the chapel."

He continued in this position until his death at Wallerstein, Bavaria in 1825. Throughout this period in his life, he was a teacher of the piano, he was popular, the number of celebrated pupils he trained was considerable. At the time of his death he was completing a requiem and mass, the former composition was performed by the members of the Royal Chapel at his funeral obsequies, he was mourned by a daughter and four sons, one of the latter, having published compositions for the flute and orchestra. Amon was a prolific composer and his published works embrace all classes of music, he was the writer of two operas, one of which, The Sultan Wampou, performed in 1791, obtained marked success, numerous symphonies, quartets and solos for the guitar and piano, songs with guitar accompaniment. Upon his early compositions he styles himself "a pupil of Punto." His vocal works with guitar accompaniment were popular in his native land, he published many volumes, each containing six songs. Bone states that Amon's instrumental works are immeasurably superior to his vocal compositions, are compactly and designed.

Concerti and SymphoniesConcerto No. 1 in A major for viola and orchestra, Op. 10. Concerto No. 2 in E major for viola and orchestra. Symphony for orchestra, Op. 30 Concerto for piano and orchestra, Op. 34 Concerto for flute and orchestra, Op. 44 6 variations for violin and orchestra, Op. 50 Symphony for 2 Violins, 2 Violas, Flute, 2 Oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 Trumpets, Timpani and Bass, Op. 60Chamber music4 Waltzes, 2 Eccosaises, a march for guitar and piano, without opus Serenade for Two Corni in D, Flauto Traverso and Harpe Serenade for Piano and Guitar, Op. 83, by after Leonhard von Call, arranged by Johann Amon Duos for violin and viola, Op. 1 6 Duos for violin and viola, Op. 2 3 String Trios, Op. 8 3 Sonatas for piano and violin, Op. 11 3 Concertante Quartets for solo viola and string trio, Op. 15 Divertissement for guitar, violin and cello, op. 16 3 Quartets for solo viola and string trio, Op. 18 3 Quintets for flute and string trio, Op. 19 3 Quartets for horn, violin and cello, Op. 20 Receuil de vingt-six Cadences ou Points d'Orgue faciles pour la Flûte, Op. 21 Recueil de dix-huit cadences ou points d'orgue faciles pour pianoforté, Op. 22 3 Sonatas for piano and violin.

Petri Hiltunen

Petri Hiltunen is a Finnish cartoonist and illustrator. Hiltunen has produced work in a variety of genres, but is most notable for his fantasy and horror work, he has won the prestigious Puupäähattu award in 2002, regarded as the highest honour for Finnish comic artists. He is a well-known figure in Finnish science fiction fandom and a regular panelist and guest of honour at conventions, such as Finncon, his own comic albums include the horror/fantasy tale Laulu yön lapsista, exploring the vampire folklore of 1562 Russia during the reign of Ivan the Terrible, a graphic novel version of Macbeth. The fantasy world of Jaconia, created for his Praedor comics, has been adapted into a role-playing game of the same name, his work has been featured in the science fiction magazine Tähtivaeltaja, the Finnish Conan magazine and twice in the war comics magazine Korkeajännitys: a western story and one story set in the Finnish War. His drawing style is quite detailed with his characters, features heavy lines.

Hiltunen is best known in the Finnish popular consciousness from his much lighter, humorous newspaper comic strip Väinämöisen paluu, published in many major newspapers and as comic books. In it, the Eternal Sage of Kalevala ends his self-imposed exile to find that he might have been gone for too long, he must try to adjust to modern Finland as modern Finland must try to adjust to him As the culture shock faded, the strip became a more character-based comedy but faded in turn

Chris Parr

Chris Parr is a British theatre director and television drama producer and executive. Chris Parr grew up in Sussex, he was educated at Chichester High School for Boys, where his contemporaries included Howard Brenton, David Wood and the late David Horlock, Queen's College,Oxford, to which he won an Open Scholarship to read Classics. However, he left Oxford without a degree but with the intention of making a career in the theatre. From 1969 to 1972, Parr was the first Fellow in Theatre at the University of Bradford. During this period he worked with Bradford University Drama Group, directing or producing new plays by writers, notably Howard Brenton, David Edgar and Richard Crane, who were getting, or were about to get, attention on a national level. From 1975 to 1981 he was Artistic Director of the Traverse Theatre, where he ran the Royal Court Theatre's Sunday Night Programme and developed and directed plays by new and emerging Scottish playwrights. Writers such as John Byrne and Tom McGrath emerged in this time.

In 1994, he was appointed head of drama at BBC Birmingham, in the same year he produced the serial Takin' Over the Asylum, which won a BAFTA award. In 1995 he moved to the BBC's central drama department in London to become Head of Drama Series. By 2002, he had moved to Thames Television as head of drama. Revenge by Howard Brenton Gum and Goo by Howard Brenton, Bradford University Theatre Group, 1969–70 Heads by Howard Brenton, University of Bradford Drama Group, 1969 The Education of Skinny Spew by Howard Brenton, University of Bradford Drama Group, 1969 Triple Bill: Laughs etc, History of a Poor Old Man and The Old Jew Two Kinds of Angels Inquisition A Fart for Europe True-Life New Reekie A&R Rents The Case of David Anderson QC The Long March The Rainbow Heartlanders Kings of the Road The Musical Children of the North You, Me & Marley Martin Chuzzlewit Takin' Over the Asylum Preston Front II The Bill Dangerfield Preston Front Backup Dalziel and Pascoe Cruel Train'New Challenge at BBC' Bradford University News and Views, November 1995.

Retrieved 3 December 2005

Ethan Paquin

Ethan Paquin is an American poet and a native of New Hampshire. A member of the I-90 school of poets, Ethan Paquin grew up in New Hampshire, he earned a BA in English/Writing from Plymouth State University in Plymouth, New Hampshire, his MFA in Creative Writing from the MFA Program for Poets & Writers, University of Massachusetts Amherst. He is founding editor of the online literary journal Slope, which he launched in 1999, co-founded with Christopher Janke the nonprofit poetry press Slope Editions in 2001, he teaches at Plymouth State University and the University of Massachusetts Lowell, has taught at Medaille College in Buffalo, New York, in the writing program at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Cloud vs. Cloud My Thieves The Violence, runner-up for the 2005 Poetry Society of America William Carlos Williams Award Accumulus The Makeshift Deafening Leafening with Matt Hart Nineains His writing has been published in journals including Colorado Review, Verse, The Boston Review, New American Writing, Quarterly West, Esquire and Meanjin.

His literary criticism has appeared in journals including The Boston Review, Canadian Review of Books and Contemporary Poetry Review. Paquin's books have been reviewed in publications including The Times Literary Supplement, Poetry Review, PN Review, New Review of Literature, Publishers Weekly. Paquin's poetry has been included in: Legitimate Dangers: American Poets of the New Century Isn't It Romantic: 100 Love Poems by Younger American Poets French Connections: A Gathering of Franco-American Poets Joyful Noise: An Anthology of American Spiritual Poetry Slope Slope Editions