House of Commons
The House of Commons is the elected lower house of the bicameral parliaments of the United Kingdom and Canada and was the name of the lower houses of the Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Ireland, Northern Ireland, Southern Ireland. Equivalent bodies in other countries which were once part of the British Empire include the United States House of Representatives, the Australian House of Representatives, the New Zealand House of Representatives, India's Lok Sabha. In the UK and Canada, the Commons holds much more legislative power than the respective upper house of parliament; the leader of the majority party in the House of Commons becomes the prime minister. Since 2010 the House of Commons of the United Kingdom has had 650 elected members, since 2015 the House of Commons of Canada has had 338 members; the Commons' functions are to consider through debate new laws and changes to existing ones, authorise taxes, provide scrutiny of the policy and expenditure of the Government.
It has the power to give a Government a vote of no confidence. The House of Commons of the Kingdom of England evolved from an undivided parliament to serve as the voice of the tax-paying subjects of the counties and of the boroughs. Knights of the shire, elected from each county, were landowners, while the borough members were from the merchant classes; these members represented subjects of the Crown who were not Lords Temporal or Spiritual, who themselves sat in the House of Lords. The House of Commons gained its name. Members of the Commons were all elected, while members of the upper house were summoned to parliament by the monarch on the basis of a title which would be inherited after the holder's death, or because they held a position in the realm that warranted special recognition, such as the bishops of the English and Welsh dioceses. After the Reformation, these bishops were those of the Church of England. Since the 19th century, the British and Canadian Houses of Commons have become representative, as suffrage has been extended.
Both bodies are now elected via universal adult suffrage. However, from the Middle Ages until the early 20th century there was a tendency to limit the suffrage in various ways, creating by the 18th century a large number of rotten boroughs. In all countries, the House of Commons now as in the past may be prorogued for an election or some other purpose only by the Crown, represented outside the United Kingdom by the Governor General of each Commonwealth realm; the House of Commons of England sat from 1295 to 1706 The House of Commons of Great Britain 1707 to 1801 The House of Commons of the United Kingdom since 1801 House of Commons of Ireland 1297 to 1801 House of Commons of Southern Ireland 1921 to 1922 House of Commons of Northern Ireland 1921 to 1972 The House of Commons of Canada on Parliament Hill, in Ottawa, Ontario since 1867 The lower house of the General Assembly of North Carolina was known as the House of Commons between 1760 and 1868. The House of Commons was the lower house of the 8-month Second Republic of South Korea House of Lords Lower House House of Assembly Legislative Assembly National Assembly Lok Sabha House of Representatives
Privy Council of the United Kingdom
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council known as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords; the Privy Council formally advises the sovereign on the exercise of the Royal Prerogative, corporately it issues executive instruments known as Orders in Council, which among other powers enact Acts of Parliament. The Council holds the delegated authority to issue Orders of Council used to regulate certain public institutions; the Council advises the sovereign on the issuing of Royal Charters, which are used to grant special status to incorporated bodies, city or borough status to local authorities. Otherwise, the Privy Council's powers have now been replaced by its executive committee, the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. Certain judicial functions are performed by the Queen-in-Council, although in practice its actual work of hearing and deciding upon cases is carried out day-to-day by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
The Judicial Committee consists of senior judges appointed as Privy Counsellors: predominantly Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and senior judges from the Commonwealth. The Privy Council acted as the High Court of Appeal for the entire British Empire, continues to hear appeals from the Crown Dependencies, the British Overseas Territories, some independent Commonwealth states; the Privy Council of the United Kingdom was preceded by the Privy Council of Scotland and the Privy Council of England. The key events in the formation of the modern Privy Council are given below: In Anglo-Saxon England, Witenagemot was an early equivalent to the Privy Council of England. During the reigns of the Norman monarchs, the English Crown was advised by a royal court or curia regis, which consisted of magnates and high officials; the body concerned itself with advising the sovereign on legislation and justice. Different bodies assuming distinct functions evolved from the court; the courts of law took over the business of dispensing justice, while Parliament became the supreme legislature of the kingdom.
The Council retained the power to hear legal disputes, either in the first instance or on appeal. Furthermore, laws made by the sovereign on the advice of the Council, rather than on the advice of Parliament, were accepted as valid. Powerful sovereigns used the body to circumvent the Courts and Parliament. For example, a committee of the Council—which became the Court of the Star Chamber—was during the 15th century permitted to inflict any punishment except death, without being bound by normal court procedure. During Henry VIII's reign, the sovereign, on the advice of the Council, was allowed to enact laws by mere proclamation; the legislative pre-eminence of Parliament was not restored until after Henry VIII's death. Though the royal Council retained legislative and judicial responsibilities, it became a administrative body; the Council consisted of forty members in 1553, but the sovereign relied on a smaller committee, which evolved into the modern Cabinet. By the end of the English Civil War, the monarchy, House of Lords, Privy Council had been abolished.
The remaining parliamentary chamber, the House of Commons, instituted a Council of State to execute laws and to direct administrative policy. The forty-one members of the Council were elected by the House of Commons. In 1653, Cromwell became Lord Protector, the Council was reduced to between thirteen and twenty-one members, all elected by the Commons. In 1657, the Commons granted Cromwell greater powers, some of which were reminiscent of those enjoyed by monarchs; the Council became known as the Protector's Privy Council. In 1659, shortly before the restoration of the monarchy, the Protector's Council was abolished. Charles II restored the Royal Privy Council, but he, like previous Stuart monarchs, chose to rely on a small group of advisers. Under George I more power transferred to this committee, it now began to meet in the absence of the sovereign, communicating its decisions to him after the fact. Thus, the British Privy Council, as a whole, ceased to be a body of important confidential advisers to the sovereign.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the definition of the word privy in Privy Council is an obsolete meaning "of or pertaining to a particular person or persons, one's own". It is related to the word private, derives from the French word privé; the sovereign, when acting on the Council's advice, is known as the King-in-Council or Queen-in-Council. The members of the Council are collectively known as The Lords of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council; the chief officer of the body is the Lord President of the Council, the fourth highest Great Officer of State, a Cabinet member and either the Leader of the House of Lords or of the House of Commons. Another important official is the Clerk, whose signature is appended to all orders made in the Council. Both Privy Counsellor and Privy Councillor may be used to refer to a member of the Council; the former, however, is preferred by the Privy Council Office, emphasising English usage of the term Counsellor a
The European Commission is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU. Commissioners swear an oath at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg City, pledging to respect the treaties and to be independent in carrying out their duties during their mandate. Unlike in the Council of the European Union, where members are directly and indirectly elected, the European Parliament, where members are directly elected, the Commissioners are proposed by the Council of the European Union, on the basis of suggestions made by the national governments, appointed by the European Council after the approval of the European Parliament; the Commission operates with 28 members of the Commission. There is one member per member state, but members are bound by their oath of office to represent the general interest of the EU as a whole rather than their home state. One of the 28 is the Commission President proposed by the European Council and elected by the European Parliament.
The Council of the European Union nominates the other 27 members of the Commission in agreement with the nominated President, the 28 members as a single body are subject to a vote of approval by the European Parliament. The current Commission is the Juncker Commission, which took office in late 2014, following the European Parliament elections in May of the same year; the term Commission is variously used, either in the narrow sense of the 28-member College of Commissioners or to include the administrative body of about 32,000 European civil servants who are split into departments called directorates-general and services. The procedural languages of the Commission are English and German; the Members of the Commission and their "cabinets" are based in the Berlaymont building in Brussels. The European Commission derives from one of the five key institutions created in the supranational European Community system, following the proposal of Robert Schuman, French Foreign Minister, on 9 May 1950.
Originating in 1951 as the High Authority in the European Coal and Steel Community, the Commission has undergone numerous changes in power and composition under various presidents, involving three Communities. The first Commission originated in 1951 as the nine-member "High Authority" under President Jean Monnet; the High Authority was the supranational administrative executive of the new European Coal and Steel Community. It took office first on 10 August 1952 in Luxembourg City. In 1958, the Treaties of Rome had established two new communities alongside the ECSC: the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community; however their executives were called "Commissions" rather than "High Authorities". The reason for the change in name was the new relationship between the Council; some states, such as France, expressed reservations over the power of the High Authority, wished to limit it by giving more power to the Council rather than the new executives. Louis Armand led the first Commission of Euratom.
Walter Hallstein led the first Commission of the EEC, holding the first formal meeting on 16 January 1958 at the Château of Val-Duchesse. It achieved agreement on a contentious cereal price accord, as well as making a positive impression upon third countries when it made its international debut at the Kennedy Round of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade negotiations. Hallstein notably began the consolidation of European law and started to have a notable impact on national legislation. Little heed was taken of his administration at first but, with help from the European Court of Justice, his Commission stamped its authority solidly enough to allow future Commissions to be taken more seriously. In 1965, accumulating differences between the French government of Charles de Gaulle and the other member states on various subjects triggered the "empty chair" crisis, ostensibly over proposals for the Common Agricultural Policy. Although the institutional crisis was solved the following year, it cost Etienne Hirsch his presidency of Euratom and Walter Hallstein the EEC presidency, despite his otherwise being viewed as the most'dynamic' leader until Jacques Delors.
The three bodies, collectively named the European Executives, co-existed until 1 July 1967 when, under the Merger Treaty, they were combined into a single administration under President Jean Rey. Owing to the merger, the Rey Commission saw a temporary increase to 14 members—although subsequent Commissions were reduced back to nine, following the formula of one member for small states and two for larger states; the Rey Commission completed the Community's customs union in 1968, campaigned for a more powerful, European Parliament. Despite Rey being the first President of the combined communities, Hallstein is seen as the first President of the modern Commission; the Malfatti and Mansholt Commissions followed with work on monetary co-operation and the first enlargement to the north in 1973. With that enlargement, the Commission's membership increased to thirteen under the Ortoli Commission, which dealt with the enlarged community during economic and international instability at that time; the external representation of the Community took a step forward when President Roy Jenkins, recruited to the presidency in January 1977 from his role as Home Secretary of the United Kingdom's Labour government, became the first President to att
Institute of Physics
The Institute of Physics is a scientific charity that works to advance physics education and application. It was founded in 1874 and has a worldwide membership of over 50,000; the IOP supports physics in education and industry. In addition to this, the IOP provides services to its members including careers advice and professional development and grants the professional qualification of Chartered Physicist, as well as Chartered Engineer as a nominated body of the Engineering Council; the IOP's publishing company, IOP Publishing, publishes more than 70 academic journals and magazines. The Institute of Physics was formed in 1960 from the merger of the Physical Society, founded as the Physical Society of London in 1874, the Institute of Physics, founded in 1918; the Physical Society of London had been formed on 14 February 1874 by Frederick Guthrie, following the canvassing of opinion of Fellows of the Royal Society by William Barrett at the British Association for the Advancement of Science meeting in Bradford in 1873, with John Hall Gladstone as its first president.
From its beginning, the society held open meetings and demonstrations and published Proceedings of the Physical Society. Meetings were held every two weeks at Imperial College London; the first Guthrie lecture, now known as the Faraday Medal and Prize, was delivered in 1914. In the early part of the 20th century, the profession of "physicist" emerged as a result of the increased demand for scientists during World War I. In 1917, following discussions between William Eccles and William Duddell, the Council of the Physical Society, along with the Faraday Society, the Optical Society, the Roentgen Society, started to explore ways of improving the professional status of physicists. and in 1918 the Institute of Physics was created at a meeting of the four societies held at King's College London. In 1919 Sir Richard Glazebrook was elected first president of the institute, and in 1920, the Institute of Physics was incorporated under special license from the Board of Trade. The inaugural meeting of the Institute took place in 1921.
As with the Physical Society, dissemination of knowledge was fundamental to the institute, which began publication of the Journal of Scientific Instruments in 1922. The annual Reports on Progress in Physics is still published today. In 1952, the institute began the "Graduateship" course and examination, which ran until 1984 when the expansion of access to universities removed demand. In 1932 the Physical Society of London merged with the Optical Society to create the Physical Society. In 1960, the Physical Society and the Institute of Physics merged, creating a single organization with the unwieldy name The Institute of Physics and the Physical Society, with John Cockcroft elected at its first president; the new society combined the learned society tradition of the Physical Society with the professional body tradition of the Institute of Physics. Under the leadership of Thomas E. Nevin an Irish branch of the Institute of Physics was formed in 1964. Upon being granted a royal charter in 1970, the organization was renamed as the Institute of Physics.
There are four grades of membership: Associate Member, Fellow of the Institute of Physics and Honorary Fellow. Undergraduates and trainees can become Associate Members, qualification for MInstP is by completion of an undergraduate degree, "recognised" by the institute – this covers all UK physics degrees. A MInstP can become an FInstP by making "an outstanding contribution to the profession." These four grades of membership replaced the previous seven grades in January 2018. Associate members are now voting members; the institute grants academic dress to the various grades of membership. Those who have passed the institute's graduateeship examination are entitled to a violet damask Oxford burgon-shaped hood. Corporate members are entitled to wear a hood of Toronto full shape in violet damask, lined in violet and faced on the cowl with 2"/5 cm shot crimson silk; the gown for members and those who have passed the graduateship examination is the same pattern as that used by the University of London for their Bachelor of Arts, but with the sleeves loped by violet cords and buttons, the Fellow's gown follows the pattern of the Doctor's robes of Oxford University in black with 4" cuffs in violet damask, or 15 cm cuffs and 10 cm facings in violet taffeta, the cuffs gathered with red cords and violet buttons.
Fellows wear a doctor's bonnet in black velvet with red tassels, other grades wear a standard black mortarboard with black tassels. The institute grants the professional title of Chartered Physicist under its own charter, Chartered Engineer as a nominated body of the Engineering Council, Registered Scientist and Registered Science Technician as a licensed body of the Science Council; until 1998 CPhys was granted automatically with MInstP, however since it has become a separate qualification, equal in stature to Chartered Engineer. From 2012, it requires re-validation every three years. In order to gain the CPhys qualification, a physicist must be appropriately qualified, have had a minimum of two years of structured training and a minimum of two years responsible work experience, have demonstrated a commitment to c
Institution of Engineering and Technology
The Institution of Engineering and Technology is a multidisciplinary professional engineering institution. The IET was formed in 2006 from two separate institutions: the Institution of Electrical Engineers, dating back to 1871, the Institution of Incorporated Engineers dating back to 1884, its worldwide membership is in excess of 168,000. The IET's main offices are in Savoy Place in London, England and at Michael Faraday House in Stevenage, England. In the United Kingdom, the IET has the authority to establish professional registration for the titles of Chartered Engineer, Incorporated Engineer, Engineering Technician, ICT Technician, as a licensed member institution of the Engineering Council; the IET is registered as a charity in England and Wales, in Scotland. Discussions started in 2004 between the IIE about merging to form a new institution. In September 2005, both institutions held votes of the members voted in favour; this merger needed government approval, so a petition was made to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom for a Supplemental Charter, to allow the creation of the new institution.
This was approved by the Privy Council on December 14, 2005, the new institution emerged on March 31, 2006. The Society of Telegraph Engineers was formed on May 17, 1871, it published the Journal of the Society of Telegraph Engineers from 1872 through 1880. Carl Wilhelm Siemens was first President of IEE in 1872. On December 22, 1880, the STE was renamed as the Society of Telegraph Engineers and of Electricians and, as part of this change, it renamed its journal the Journal of the Society of Telegraph Engineers and of Electricians and the Journal of the Society of Telegraph-Engineers and Electricians. Following a meeting of its Council on 10 November 1887, it was decided to adopt the name of the Institution of Electrical Engineers; the name of the Institution of Electrical Engineers remains engraved in the marble façade of its headquarters at Savoy Place. As part of this change, its Journal was renamed Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers in 1889, it kept this title through 1963.
In 1921, the Institution was Incorporated by royal charter and, following mergers with the Institution of Electronic and Radio Engineers in 1988 and the Institution of Manufacturing Engineers in 1990, it had a worldwide membership of around 120,000. The IEE represented the engineering profession, operated Professional Networks, had an educational role including the accreditation of degree courses and operated schemes to provide awards scholarships and prizes, it was well known for publication of the IEE Wiring Regulations which now continue to be written by the IET and to be published by the British Standards Institution as BS 7671. The IET hosts the archive for the Women's Engineering Society and it has provided office space for WES since 2005; the modern Institution of Incorporated Engineers traced its heritage to The Vulcanic Society, founded in 1884 and became the Junior Institution of Engineers in 1902, which became the Institution of General Technician Engineers in 1970. It changed its name in 1976 to the Institution of General Technician Engineers.
At this point it merged with the Institution of Technician Engineers in Mechanical Engineering and formed the Institution of Mechanical Incorporated Engineers in 1988. The Institution of Engineers in Charge, founded in 1895, was merged into the Institution of Mechanical Incorporated Engineers in 1990; the Institution of Electrical and Electronic Technician Engineers, the Society of Electronic and Radio Technicians, the Institute of Practitioners in Radio and Electronics merged in 1990 to form the Institution of Electronics and Electrical Incorporated Engineers. The IIE was formed in April 1998 by the merger of The Institution of Electronic and Electrical Incorporated Engineers, The Institution of Mechanical Incorporated Engineers, The Institute of Engineers and Technicians. In 1999 there was a further merger with The Institution of Incorporated Executive Engineers; the IIE had a worldwide membership of 40,000. The Institution of Manufacturing Engineers the Institution of Production Engineers, was founded following the initiative of one H. E. Honer who wrote to a technical periodical titled ‘Engineering Production’ suggesting that the time was ripe to form an institution for the specialised interests of engineers engaged in manufacture.
As a result of correspondence generated by this letter a meeting was held at Cannon Street Hotel in London on 26 February 1921. At this meeting it was decided to form the IProdE in order to; the term ‘production engineering’ came into use to describe the management of factory production techniques first developed by Henry Ford, which had expanded during the First World War. The IProdE was incorporated in 1931 and was granted its armorial bearings in 1937. From the outset the Institution operated through decentralised branches called local sections wherever a sufficient number of members existed; these local sections elected their own officers. Local sections held monthly meetings at which papers were discussed. Outstanding papers were published in the Instituti
European Engineer is an international professional qualification and title for qualified engineers used in over 32 European countries. The title is pre-nominal, i.e. it is placed before rather than after the name as in the case of a post-nominal title such as that for academic degrees. The title is granted after successful application to a national member of the European Federation of National Engineering Associations which includes representation from many European countries, including much of the European Union, it allows a person who has an engineering degree and an engineering professional qualification in one of the member countries to use the qualification in others, but this depends on local legislation. In providing an acceptable common and professional standard, the European Engineer requires proven experience and competency in the application of scientific knowledge, level of professional skill and environmental consciousness, sense of responsibility and the ability to communicate within the level of supervision received and given.
A minimum total period of seven years formation and practice, consisting of an accredited engineering degree, further advanced training and extensive responsible professional experience, is required by FEANI for the EUR ING title. Recognition of the qualification and title are not incorporated into national law. In all cases approval is only after peer review by the appropriate national engineering society; the EU Directive 89/48/EEC exempts a bearer from additional examination in the European Union. Names are placed on the FEANI EUR ING Register maintained by FEANI in addition to national member registers. Internationally, Canada is one of the countries that offers recognition of the qualification, in particular, for the licensing requirements pertaining to professional Canadian engineers. In Ireland and the United Kingdom, the Chartered Engineer title is a prerequisite requirement for an application for the EUR ING title. In the United Kingdom the Privy Council has approved the use of the title, which can be displayed on a British passport.
Regulation and licensure in engineering British professional qualifications European Chemist European professional qualification directives Professional Engineer FEANI.org EUR ING Professional Engineers group on LinkedIn EUR ING / FEANI group on Xing EUR ING professional registration - Engineering Council UK