Juan José Haedo
Juan José Haedo is an Argentine former professional road racing cyclist and track cyclist, who rode professionally between 2003 and 2014. He is the brother of Lucas Sebastián Haedo. Haedo started his career on the track before turning professional on the road in 2003 with Colavita-Bolla. After a year in the United Stages with the Toyota - United Pro Cycling Team he joined Team CSC in 2007. Haedo had a successful career with CSC picking up notable stage wins in the Tour of California, Critérium du Dauphiné, Tirreno Adriatico and Vuelta a España, he competed with the team until the end of 2012. After retiring he stayed with the team as an assistant director. Juan José Haedo at Cycling Archives Palmares at Cycling Base
La Nación is an Argentine daily newspaper. As the country's leading conservative paper, La Nación's main competitor is the centrist Clarín; the paper was founded on 4 January 1870, by former Argentine President Bartolomé Mitre and associates. Until 1914, the managing editor was José Luis Murature, Foreign Minister of Argentina from 1914-1916. Enjoying Latin America's largest readership until the 1930s, its daily circulation averaged around 350,000, exceeded only by Crítica, a Buenos Aires tabloid; the 1945 launch of Clarín created a new rival, following the 1962 closure of Crítica, the 1975 suspension of Crónica, La Nación secured its position as the chief market rival of Clarín. Some of the most famous writers in the Spanish-speaking world: José Martí, Miguel de Unamuno, Eduardo Mallea, José Ortega y Gasset, Rubén Darío, Alfonso Reyes, Jorge Luis Borges, Mario Vargas Llosa and Manuel Mujica Láinez have all appeared in its columns. Published in Bartolomé Mitre's home, its offices were moved a number of times until, in 1929, a Plateresque headquarters on Florida Street was inaugurated.
The publishing group today is headquartered in the Bouchard Plaza Tower, a 26-storey Post-modern office building developed between 2000 and 2004 over the news daily's existing, six-storey building. The director of La Nación, Bartolomé Mitre, shares control of ADEPA, the Argentine newspaper industry trade group, of Papel Prensa, the nation's leading newsprint manufacturer, with Grupo Clarín; the newspaper was part of the conflict between Kirchnerism and the media, when Lidia Papaleo denounced, endorsed by the Kirchners, that they would have been forced to sell Papel Prensa under torture during the Dirty War. Judge Julián Ercolini acquited him in 2016, pointing that there was no evidence to support the claim. In early 2012, La Nación bought ImpreMedia, the publisher of El Diario-La Prensa, La Opinión and other US-based Spanish-language newspapers. On October 30, 2016, La Nación announced a change in its printing format, with weekday editions now being printed as tabloids and weekend editions retaining the traditional broadsheet format.
In 2019, the Society for News Design named La Nación as the World's Best Designed Newspaper, sharing the award together with The Sunday Times and The New York Times. La Nación's daily circulation averaged 165,166 in 2012, still represented nearly 20% of the daily newspaper circulation in Buenos Aires. According to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, La Nación's website is the 9th and 17th most visited in Argentina as of August 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the 4th most visited news website in Argentina, attracting 32 million visitors per month. Electronic version: lanacion.com.ar
President of Argentina
The President of Argentina known as the President of the Argentine Republic, is both head of state and head of government of Argentina. Under the national Constitution, the President is the chief executive of the federal government and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. Through Argentine history, the office of the Head of State has undergone many changes, both in its title as in its features and powers. Current President Mauricio Macri was sworn into office on December 10, 2015; the Constitution of Argentina, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements and responsibilities of the president and term of office and the method of election. The origins of Argentina as a nation can be traced to 1776, when it was separated by the Spanish King from the existing Viceroyalty of Peru, creating the new Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata; the Head of State continued to be the King. These Viceroys were natives of the country. By the May Revolution of May 25, 1810, the first Argentine autonomous government, known as the Primera Junta, was formed in Buenos Aires.
It was known as the Junta Grande when representatives from the provinces joined. These early attempts at self-government were succeeded by two Triumvirates and, although the first juntas had presidents, the King of Spain was still regarded as Head of State, the executive power was still not in the hands of a single person; this power was vested in one man when the position of Supreme Director was created by the 1813 National Assembly. The Supreme Directors became Heads of State after Independence was declared on 9 July 1816, but there was not yet a presidential system. In 1816, Congress composed a Constitution; this established an executive figure, named Supreme Director, vested with presidential powers. This constitution gave the Supreme Director the power of appointing Governors of the provinces. Due to political circumstances, this constitution never came into force, the central power was dissolved, leaving the country as a federation of provinces. A new constitution was drafted in 1826; this constitution was the first to create a President, although this office retained the powers described in the 1816 constitution.
This constitution did come into force, resulting in the election of the first President, Bernardino Rivadavia. Because of the Cisplatine War, Rivadavia resigned after a short time, the office was dissolved shortly after. A civil war between unitarios and federalists ensued in the following decades. In this time, there was no central authority, the closest to, the Chairman of Foreign Relations the Governor of the Province of Buenos Aires; the last to bear this title was Juan Manuel de Rosas, who in the last years of his governorship was elected Supreme Chief of the Confederation, gaining effective rule of the rest of the country. In 1852, Rosas was deposed, a constitutional convention was summoned; this constitution, still in force, established a national federal government, with the office of the President. The term was fixed with no possibility of reelection; the first elected President under the constitution was Justo José de Urquiza, but Buenos Aires seceded from the Argentine Confederation as the State of Buenos Aires.
Bartolomé Mitre was the first president of the unified country, when Buenos Aires rejoined the Confederation. Thus, Rivadavia and Mitre are considered the first presidents of Argentina by different historians: Rivadavia for being the first one to use the title, Urquiza for being the first one to rule under the 1853 constitution, Mitre for being the first president of Argentina under its current national limits. In 1930, 1943, 1955, 1962, 1966, 1976, military coups deposed elected Presidents. In 1966 and 1976, the federal government was undertaken by a military junta, where power was shared by the chiefs of the armed forces. In 1962, the President of the Senate ruled, but in the other cases, a military chief assumed the title of President, it is debatable whether these military presidents can properly be called Presidents, as there are issues with the legitimacy of their governments. The position of the current Argentine government is that military Presidents Jorge Rafael Videla and Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri were explicitly not legitimate presidents.
They and their immediate successors were denied the right to a presidential pension after the conclusion of their terms. The status of earlier military presidents, remains more uncertain; the President of the Nation has the following powers: Is the supreme head of the Nation, head of government and is politically responsible for the general administration of the country. Issues the instructions and regulations necessary for the execution of the laws of the nation, without altering their spirit with regulatory exceptions. Participates in the making of laws under the Constitution, has them published; the Executive Power shall in no case under penalty, void, issue legislative provisions. Only when exceptional circumstances make it impossible to follow the ordinary procedures foreseen by this Constitution for the enactment of laws, not try to rules governing criminal matters, electoral or political party regime, may issue decrees on grounds of necessity and urgency, which will be decided by a general agreement of ministers who shall countersign them together with the head of cabinet of ministers.
The head of and within ten days submit the decision to the consideration of the Joint Standing Committee, whose compos
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Lucas Sebastián Haedo
Lucas Sebastián Haedo is an Argentine road racing cyclist from Chascomús, Buenos Aires. He rides for UCI Professional Continental team UnitedHealthcare. For the 2014 season, Haedo rode for the Skydive Dubai Pro Cycling squad. In September 2016 he was named as part of the UnitedHealthcare squad for the 2017 season, he is the younger brother of fellow racing cyclist Juan Jose Haedo. Media related to Lucas Sebastián Haedo at Wikimedia Commons Team Profile
Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway
The Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway was one of the Big Four broad gauge, 5 ft 6 in, British-owned companies that built and operated railway networks in Argentina. The company was founded by Edward Lumb in 1862 and the first general manager was Edward Banfield after whom the Buenos Aires suburban station of Banfield was named, when it opened in 1873. After president Juan Perón nationalised the Argentine railway network in 1948 it became part of the state-owned company Ferrocarril General Roca; the market of Plaza Constitución in Buenos Aires was served by carts coming from the South of the province that crossed the Riachuelo through the "Puente de Gálvez". As this transport was too costly, the products could not be carried on long distances. In 1860, 7,416 carts with wool and leather had arrived to Constitución; the state of passenger transport was similar. The carriages made three trips per month to Lobos, Cañuelas, 25 de Mayo and Dolores, two trips per month to Tandil and Lobería and just one to Bahía Blanca.
The carriages were accompanied by "cuarteadores" that streams. There were intermediate stops such as "La Botica", a pulpería in Lomas de Zamora of Greater Buenos Aires; this form of transport had several disadvantages. The roads were not in good condition and the rivers obligated to passengers to stray dozens of kilometers from the path; the carriages covered an average of 80 km per day. Because of this, Plaza Constitución was the first option to build a terminus station of a great railway that connected the city of Buenos Aires with the south of the province. In August 1861, Edward Lumb, a British entrepreneur, requested the concession of a railway line that would run from Constitución to the city of Chascomús, 120 km from Buenos Aires. Lumb offered $1,000,000 as guarantee to the Government of Buenos Aires. Lumb’s initiative was debated in the Chamber of Deputies, where it was concluded that the railroad was necessary for the development of the Argentinian nation. Juan B. Alberdi stated "The railroad will join the Argentine Republic better than all the congresses... without the'iron road' that connects their extremes, the country will be always divisible and divided against all the Legislative decrees".
On May 27, 1862, the Buenos Aires Legislature promulgated the Law that authorized President of Argentina, Bartolomé Mitre, to enter into a contract with Edward Lumb. The Government demanded an interest rate of 7% on the costs of construction over 40 years. On the other hand, the company was exempt from paying contributions and custom fees; the railway company had to carry the post for free. The Government could expropriate the railway and its assets if the company did not offer an additional 20% of the construction costs as compensation; the rail gauge should be the same as that of the Buenos Aires Western Railway and the company was able to build a tram line to Monserrat and other strategic points in the city of Buenos Aires. The contract was officialized by the Government of Argentina on June 12, 1862. On November 12 the railroad route was approved, according to the maps proposed by the concession; the Government wanted the railway to cross San Vicente but the landscape was unsuitable. The line’s route was moved to La Paz, where the field was more solid to extend the tracks.
The route would extend from La Paz to Samborombón. Lumb tried to get money in Buenos Aires to finance the construction of the railroad, but his attempts were not successful; as a result, he traveled to London, where bankers Baring and David Robertson agreed to give the company credit to finance the construction of the railroad. The limited liability company Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway was established, whose statutes were approved in 1863; the company requested Samuel Petro & E. Ladd to take over the construction of the whole railroad, including lands, stations and rolling stock at a cost of GBP 651,000. For GBP 14,000 the company hired the engineer Thomas Rumball to supervise the works; when the works were about to begin, William Wheelwright tried to boycott the works of BAGSR and refused to cooperate with the other British companies that built competitive railways. He stated that the BAGSR had obtained more benefits than his own company to build the line; the Governor of Buenos Aires refused to sign a contract.
Robertson paid a bribe of GBP 22,000. The terms of the new contract determined that the line would be extended to Azul. On March 7, 1864, works began. A big celebration had been held, with a ceremony attended by President of Argentina Bartolomé Mitre and Governor of Buenos Aires Province, Mariano Saavedra; the first section of the railroad was inaugurated on August 14, 1865. By December it had been extended to Chascomús. A total of 11 estaciones were built on this path: Plaza Constitución, Barracas al Sud, Lomas de Zamora, San Vicente, Ferrari, Facio, Gándara and Chascomús; the rolling stock was composed by 8 locomotives, 38 first and second class wagons, by Brown, Marshalls and Co. Ltd. and 184 wagons for freight transport. The line was single track with the exception of the path between Constitución and Barracas, where a double track was built to facilitate the transit of the trains due to the workshops and rolling stock depots operated in Barracas; as time passed, some station were added, such a
Partidos of Buenos Aires
A partido is the second-level administrative subdivision only in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. They are formally considered to be a single administrative unit contain one or more population centers, are divided into localidades; the subdivision in partidos in Buenos Aires Province is distinct from all other provinces of Argentina, which call their second-level subdivisions departamento and are further subdivided into distinct municipalities. By the end of 17th century the municipal council of Buenos Aires established the first partidos in the countryside: San Isidro del Pago de la Costa in 1779 and San Vicente, Magdalena, La Matanza, Cañada de Morón, Las Conchas and San Pedro in 1784. At the head of every partido, the cabildo appointed a rural judge called Alcalde de la Santa Hermandad; the judge, or alcalde, had the mission to maintain the law and order in the surrounding rural area of Buenos Aires, fighting against cattle raiders. The alcalde was helped by a constabulary called Santa Hermandad created in the late 15th century by the Catholic Monarchs and transplanted to the colonies.
In 1821 the Governor Martín Rodríguez and his minister Bernardino Rivadavia dissolved the cabildo and since was the governor itself who appointed the judge, now called Juez de Paz. In 1856 the office of Juez de Paz was replaced by a Presidente de la Municipalidad, or Municipal President, it was appointed by the Governor from a list of three candidates presented by the Municipales, or Councillors, who were elected by the citizens of the different partidos. Since 1890 the head of the government is called Intendente, or Mayor, it is directly elected by the citizens. On October 24, 1864 the Legislature of the Province of Buenos Aires sanctioned law № 422, dividing the province into 45 partidos: Arrecifes, Barrancas al Sud, Belgrano, Cañuelas, Carmen de Areco, Chascomús, del Pilar, Exaltación de la Cruz, General las Heras, General San Martín, Junín, Las Conchas, Lomas de Zamora, Luján, Mercedes, Monte, Morón, Pergamino, Ramallo, Rivadavia, Salto, San Antonio, San Fernando, San Isidro, San José de Flores, San Nicolás, San Pedro, San Vicente, Viedma and Zárate.
Every partido is administrated by an executive and a legislative branch the mayor and a council, similar to a county council. It is considered a strong mayor-council form of government; the mayor can be reelected for a new term. If they have been re-elected, they can not be re-elected in the same position, but with an interval of one period; the council is a unicameral body, one-half of whose members are elected every two years to serve four-year terms and can be reelected for a new term. If they have been re-elected, they can not be re-elected in the same position, but with an interval of one period; the number of councillors depends on the population of every partido. According to decret-law 6769/58 the number of councillors varies as follows: Buenos Aires Province is divided into 135 partidos. Adolfo Alsina Adolfo Gonzales Chaves Alberti Almirante Brown Arrecifes Avellaneda Ayacucho Azul Bahía Blanca Balcarce Baradero Benito Juárez Berazategui Berisso Bolívar Bragado Brandsen Campana Cañuelas Capitán Sarmiento Carlos Casares Carlos Tejedor Carmen de Areco Castelli Chacabuco Chascomús Chivilcoy Colón Coronel Dorrego Coronel Pringles Coronel Rosales Coronel Suárez Daireaux Dolores Ensenada Escobar Esteban Echeverría Exaltación de la Cruz Ezeiza Florencio Varela Florentino Ameghino General Alvarado General Alvear General Arenales General Belgrano General Guido General La Madrid General Las Heras General Lavalle General Madariaga General Paz General Pinto General Pueyrredón General Rodríguez General San Martín General Viamonte General Villegas Guaminí Hipólito Yrigoyen Hurlingham Ituzaingó José C.
Paz Junín La Costa La Matanza La Plata Lanús Laprida Las Flores Leandro N. Alem Lezama Lincoln Lobería Lobos Lomas de Zamora Luján Magdalena Maipú Malvinas Argentinas Mar Chiquita Marcos Paz Mercedes Merlo Monte Hermoso Moreno Morón Navarro Necochea Nueve de Julio Olavarría Patagones Pehuajó Pellegrini Pergamino Pila Pilar Pinamar Presidente Perón Puán Punta Indio Quilmes (Q