Andrew Lang was a Scottish poet, literary critic, contributor to the field of anthropology. He is best known as a collector of fairy tales; the Andrew Lang lectures at the University of St Andrews are named after him. Lang was born on 31 March 1844 in Selkirk, he was the eldest of the eight children born to John Lang, the town clerk of Selkirk, his wife Jane Plenderleath Sellar, the daughter of Patrick Sellar, factor to the first duke of Sutherland. On 17 April 1875, he married Leonora Blanche Alleyne, youngest daughter of C. T. Alleyne of Clifton and Barbados, she was variously credited as author, collaborator, or translator of Lang's Color/Rainbow Fairy Books which he edited. He was educated at Selkirk Grammar School, Loretto School, the Edinburgh Academy, as well as the University of St Andrews and Balliol College, where he took a first class in the final classical schools in 1868, becoming a fellow and subsequently honorary fellow of Merton College, he soon made a reputation as one of the most able and versatile writers of the day as a journalist, poet and historian.
In 1906, he was elected FBA. He died of angina pectoris on 20 July 1912 at the Tor-na-Coille Hotel in Banchory, survived by his wife, he was buried in the cathedral precincts at St Andrews, where a monument can be visited in the south-east corner of the 19th century section. Lang is now chiefly known for his publications on folklore and religion; the interest in folklore was from early life. Tylor; the earliest of his publications is Myth. In Myth and Religion he explained the "irrational" elements of mythology as survivals from more primitive forms. Lang's Making of Religion was influenced by the 18th century idea of the "noble savage": in it, he maintained the existence of high spiritual ideas among so-called "savage" races, drawing parallels with the contemporary interest in occult phenomena in England, his Blue Fairy Book was a beautifully produced and illustrated edition of fairy tales that has become a classic. This was followed by many other collections of fairy tales, collectively known as Andrew Lang's Fairy Books.
In the preface of the Lilac Fairy Book he credits his wife with translating and transcribing most of the stories in the collections. Lang examined the origins of totemism in Social Origins. Lang was one of the founders of "psychical research" and his other writings on anthropology include The Book of Dreams and Ghosts and Religion and The Secret of the Totem, he served as President of the Society for Psychical Research in 1911. Lang extensively cited nineteenth- and twentieth-century European spiritualism to challenge the idea of his teacher, that belief in spirits and animism were inherently irrational. Lang used Tyler's work and his own psychical research in an effort to posit an anthropological critique of materialism, he collaborated with S. H. Butcher in a prose translation of Homer's Odyssey, with E. Myers and Walter Leaf in a prose version of the Iliad, both still noted for their archaic but attractive style, he was a Homeric scholar of conservative views. Other works include Homer and the Study of Greek found in Essays in Little and the Epic.
Lang's writings on Scottish history are characterised by a scholarly care for detail, a piquant literary style, a gift for disentangling complicated questions. The Mystery of Mary Stuart was a consideration of the fresh light thrown on Mary, Queen of Scots, by the Lennox manuscripts in the University Library, approving of her and criticising her accusers, he wrote monographs on The Portraits and Jewels of Mary Stuart and James VI and the Gowrie Mystery. The somewhat unfavourable view of John Knox presented in his book John Knox and the Reformation aroused considerable controversy, he gave new information about the continental career of the Young Pretender in Pickle the Spy, an account of Alestair Ruadh MacDonnell, whom he identified with Pickle, a notorious Hanoverian spy. This was followed by a monograph on Prince Charles Edward. In 1900 he began a History of Scotland from the Roman Occupation; the Valet's Tragedy, which takes its title from an essay on Dumas's Man in the Iron Mask, collects twelve papers on historical mysteries, A Monk of Fife is a fictitious narrative purporting to be written by a young Scot in France in 1429–1431.
Lang's earliest publication was a volume of metrical experiments, The Ballads and Lyrics of Old France, this was followed at intervals by other volumes of dainty verse, Ballades in Blue China and Verses Vain, selected by Mr Austin Dobson. Lang was active as a journalist in various ways, ranging from sparkling "leaders" for the Daily News to miscellaneous articles for the Morning Post, for many years he was literary editor of Longman's Magazine, he edited The Poems and Songs of Robert Burns, was responsible for the Life and Letters of JG Lockhart, The Life and Diaries of Sir Stafford Northcote, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh. Lang discussed lite
Oak Island is a 57-hectare owned island in Lunenburg County on the south shore of Nova Scotia, Canada. The tree-covered island is one of about 360 small islands in Mahone Bay and rises to a maximum of 11 metres above sea level; the island is connected to the mainland by a causeway and gate. The nearest community is the rural community of Western Shore which faces the island, while the nearest village is Chester; the island is best known for various theories about possible buried treasure or historical artifacts, the associated exploration. The majority of Nova Scotia is a Humid continental climate with hot and humid summers, cold or frigid winters. While there are no weather station on the island, or along Mahone Bay, there is one towards the west in the town of Bridgewater; the average annual temperature given in Bridgewater is 7.1 °C, while the precipitation runs at 1,536.7 millimetres. The ocean has an effect on Oak Island in terms of visibility, as the southern coasts of Nova Scotia can be hidden in fog for as many as 90 days a year.
These coasts are vulnerable to powerful storms which include nor'easters and hurricanes. Oak Island is made up of a temperate broadleaf and mixed forest, known regionally as the New England/Acadian forests. Wildlife in the Mahone Bay area include great blue herons, black guillemots, leach's storm petrels, razorbills. In addition, non-specific eagles and puffins are mentioned. On a particular note is the Roseate tern, considered an endangered species in the area, protected by the Canadian government. Efforts to restore their habitat such as curbing the population of other bird species have been undertaken; the geology of Oak Island was first mapped in 1924, which found a composite of four drumlins forming the Island. These drumlins are "elongated hills" which consist of multiple layers of till resting on bedrock, are from different phases of glacial advance that span the past 75,000 years; the layers on top of the bedrock are made up of "Lawrencetown" and slate till. The former of these two is considered a type of clay till, made up of 50% sand, 30% silt, 20% clay.
In the main area, searched for treasure along with the till lie bits of Anhydrite, which become more competent deeper down. Researchers Les MacPhie, John Wonnacott concluded that the deep deposits at the east end of the Island make up the drumlin formations. There are two types of bedrock. Oak Island and the area, now Mahone Bay was once a lagoon 8,000 years BP, before the tide rose with the melting glaciers; the first major indigenous people to Nova Scotia were the Mi'kmaq, who formed an Indian nation in present day Canada several thousand years ago. The area that encompasses Oak Island was once known as the "Segepenegatig" region. While it is unknown when Oak Island was first discovered, the tribe had a presence in the overall area which included the entire island of Newfoundland; the earliest confirmed European residents date back to the 1750s in the form of French fishermen, who had by this time built a few houses on the future site of the nearby village of Chester, Nova Scotia. Following the Expulsion of the Acadians during the Seven Years' War, the British government of Nova Scotia enacted a series of measures to encourage settlement of the area by the European-descended New Englanders.
Land was made available to settlers in 1759 through the Shorham grant, Chester was founded that same year. The first major group of settlers arrived in the Chester area from Massachusetts in 1761, Oak Island was surveyed and divided into 32 four-acre lots in the following year. A large part of island was owned at the time by the Monro, Lynch and Young families, granted the land in 1759. In the early days of British settlement, the Island was known locally as "Smith's Island," after an early settler of the area named Edward Smith. Cartographer Joseph Frederick Wallet DesBarres renamed the Island "Gloucester Isle" in 1778. Shortly thereafter, the locally used name "Oak Island" was adopted for the Island. Early residents included Edward Smith in the 1760s and Anthony Vaughn Sr. in the early 1770s. In 1784, the government made additional land grants, this time to former soldiers, which included parts of Oak Island, it wasn't until July 6, 1818 that the original lot owners' names were mapped for the Nova Scotia Crown Lands office.
Oak Island has been intermittently owned by treasure hunters since early settler stories started appearing in the late 1700s. The hunt for treasure got so extensive that in 1965 a causeway was built from the western end of the island to Crandall's Point on the mainland, two hundred metres away in order to bring heavy machinery on the island. Oak Island has had several different recent owners which include a treasure hunter named Dan Blankenship, who partnered with "Oak Island Tours Inc." run by David Tobias. Oak Island Tours dissolved, in February 2019, it was announced that a new partnership had been formed with a company called the "Michigan Group"; this group consists of brothers Rick and Marty Lagina, Craig Tester, Alan Kostrzewa, purchasing lots from Tobias. It is unclear, involved to what degree as Blankenship only revealed Kostrzewa's name to the press saying he was "on board". Blankenship owned 78% of the island with the Michigan Group, until his death on March 17, 2019 at the age of 95.
Oak Island is privately owned by seasonal residents, who make up the remain
Brian Dunning (author)
Brian Andrew Dunning is an American writer and producer who focuses on science and skepticism. He has hosted a weekly podcast, since 2006, he is an author of a series of books on the subject of scientific skepticism, some of which are based on the podcast. Skeptoid has been the recipient of several podcast awards such as the Parsec Award. Dunning has created the Skeptoid.org spin-off video series, inFact, The Feeding Tube both available on YouTube. Dunning has produced two educational films on the subject of critical thinking, Here be Dragons in 2008, Principles of Curiosity in 2017. Dunning co-founded Buylink, a business-to-business service provider, in 1996, served at the company until 2002, he became eBay's second biggest affiliate marketer. In August 2014, he was sentenced to 15 months in prison, to be followed by three years of supervised release for the company obtaining between $200,000 and $400,000 through wire fraud. In 1996 Dunning was chief technology officer for Buylink Corporation.
Buylink received venture capital funding from Hummer Winblad Venture Partners. In 2000 he participated in a presentation on Buylink at The Berkeley Entrepreneurs Forum called Bricks to Clicks in the New Internet Reality, he discussed the company on CNNfn's Market Call, in Rhonda Schaffler's Maverick of the Morning segment. In 2002, Dunning left his position as CTO of BuyLink. Between 1997 and 2005 he was technical editor for FileMaker Advisor Magazine, contributing editor of ISO FileMaker Magazine, 1996–2002, winning one of the FileMaker Excellence Awards at the 2001 FileMaker Developers Conference. Beginning in 2006, Dunning hosted and produced Skeptoid, a weekly audio podcast dedicated "to furthering knowledge by blasting away the widespread pseudosciences that infect popular culture, replacing them with way cooler reality." He is the author of the book of the same title and a sequel. Beginning in 2007, Dunning periodically released video episodes of his InFact series; each episode is under four minutes long and covers issues similar to those explored in more depth in the Skeptoid podcast, but is intended to reach a wider audience due to its brevity and availability on YouTube.
In 2008 Dunning produced Here Be Dragons, a free 40 minute video introduction to critical thinking intended for general audiences, received an award from the Portland Humanist Film Festival for this in November 2011. In 2010 Dunning was awarded the Parsec Award for "Best Fact Behind the Fiction Podcast". In August 2010 he received an award recognizing his contributions in the skeptical field from the Independent Investigations Group during its 10th Anniversary Gala. In June 2017 Dunning's second film, Principles of Curiosity, was released. According to Dunning, this "presents a general introduction to the foundations of scientific skepticism and critical thinking... It is nonprofit and licensed for free public and private screenings, it is provided with free educational materials for teachers, designed for high school through college. It is suitable for all audiences, its 40-minute runtime should fit into most classes."Dunning has written articles for Skepticblog.org, published by The Skeptics Society, was an executive producer for the unreleased network television pilot The Skeptologists.
He is a member of the National Association of Science Writers, is the "Chancellor" of the non-accredited "Thunderwood College", a parody of unaccredited institutions of higher learning which offer "degrees" in a variety of subjects. In August 2008, eBay filed suit against Dunning, accusing him of defrauding eBay and eBay affiliates in a cookie stuffing scheme for his company, Kessler's Flying Circus. In June 2010, based on the same allegations and following an investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, a grand jury indicted Dunning on charges of wire fraud. On April 15, 2013, in the San Jose, California, U. S. District Court, as part of a plea agreement, Dunning pleaded guilty to wire fraud. From an agreement of the parties, the eBay civil suit was dismissed in May 2014 and Dunning was sentenced in August 2014 to fifteen months in prison for the company receiving between $200,000 and $400,000 in fraudulent commissions from eBay. Skeptoid is Dunning's weekly podcast; the show follows an audio essay format, is dedicated to the critical examination of pseudoscience and the paranormal.
In May 2012, Skeptoid Media became a 501 educational nonprofit. Along with themed Point of Inquiry, Skepticality: The Official Podcast of Skeptic Magazine, The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe, it is listed on an iTunes web page of popular science and medicine podcasts. In May 2014, Skeptoid's website reported; each ten-minute Skeptoid episode focuses on a single issue, pseudoscientific in nature. Transcriptions of the episodes are available on line, fall into one of four categories: Quackery medical modalities: such as homeopathy, detoxification, or chiropractic Popular cultural misconceptions: such as organic foods, SUVs, global warming Urban legends: such as crop circles, the Amityville Horror, the Phoenix Lights, or the Philadelphia Experiment Religion and mythology: such as creation legends, New Age religions, concepts of sinBeginning in 2007, Dunning authored a series of books based upon the Skeptoid podcast episodes. Despite his shift away from the technology industry, Dunning continues to do computer programming, does web development for his Skeptoid website.
Skeptoid was a 2009 Podcast Awards finalist in the Education category. In 2010, Skeptoid won the Parsec Award for "Best Fact Behind the Fiction" podcast. In 2
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients. The degrees of Freemasonry retain the three grades of medieval craft guilds, those of Apprentice, Journeyman or fellow, Master Mason; the candidate of these three degrees is progressively taught the meanings of the symbols of Freemasonry, entrusted with grips and words to signify to other members that he has been so initiated. The initiations are part allegorical morality part lecture; the three degrees are offered by Craft Freemasonry. Members of these organisations are known as Masons. There are additional degrees, which vary with locality and jurisdiction, are administered by their own bodies; the basic, local organisational unit of Freemasonry is the Lodge. The Lodges are supervised and governed at the regional level by a Grand Lodge or Grand Orient.
There is no worldwide Grand Lodge that supervises all of Freemasonry. Modern Freemasonry broadly consists of two main recognition groups. Regular Freemasonry insists that a volume of scripture is open in a working lodge, that every member profess belief in a Supreme Being, that no women are admitted, that the discussion of religion and politics is banned. Continental Freemasonry is now the general term for the jurisdictions which have removed some, or all, of these restrictions; the Masonic lodge is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry. The Lodge meets to conduct the usual formal business of any small organisation. In addition to business, the meeting may perform a ceremony to confer a Masonic degree or receive a lecture, on some aspect of Masonic history or ritual. At the conclusion of the meeting, the Lodge might adjourn for a formal dinner, or festive board, sometimes involving toasting and song; the bulk of Masonic ritual consists of degree ceremonies. Candidates for Freemasonry are progressively initiated into Freemasonry, first in the degree of Entered Apprentice.
Some time in a separate ceremony, they will be passed to the degree of Fellowcraft, they will be raised to the degree of Master Mason. In all of these ceremonies, the candidate is entrusted with passwords and grips peculiar to his new rank. Another ceremony is officers of the Lodge. In some jurisdictions Installed Master is valued as a separate rank, with its own secrets to distinguish its members. In other jurisdictions, the grade is not recognised, no inner ceremony conveys new secrets during the installation of a new Master of the Lodge. Most Lodges have some sort of social calendar, allowing Masons and their partners to meet in a less ritualised environment. Coupled with these events is the obligation placed on every Mason to contribute to charity; this occurs at both Grand Lodge level. Masonic charities contribute to many fields, such as disaster relief; these private local Lodges form the backbone of Freemasonry, a Freemason will have been initiated into one of these. There exist specialist Lodges where Masons meet to celebrate events, such as sport or Masonic research.
The rank of Master Mason entitles a Freemason to explore Masonry further through other degrees, administered separately from the Craft, or "Blue Lodge" degrees described here, but having a similar format to their meetings. There is little consistency in Freemasonry; because each Masonic jurisdiction is independent, each sets its own procedures. The wording of the ritual, the number of officers present, the layout of the meeting room, etc. varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. The officers of the Lodge are appointed annually; every Masonic Lodge has two Wardens, a secretary and a treasurer. There is a Tyler, or outer guard, always present outside the door of a working Lodge. Other offices vary between jurisdictions; each Masonic Lodge exists and operates according to a set of ancient principles known as the Landmarks of Freemasonry. These principles have thus far eluded any universally accepted definition. Candidates for Freemasonry will have met most active members of the Lodge they are joining before they are initiated.
The process varies between jurisdictions, but the candidate will have been introduced by a friend at a Lodge social function, or at some form of open evening in the Lodge. In modern times, interested people track down a local Lodge through the Internet; the onus is on candidates to ask to join. Once the initial inquiry is made, an interview follows to determine the candidate's suitability. If the candidate decides to proceed from here, the Lodge ballots on the application before he can be accepted; the absolute minimum requirement of any body of Freemasons is that the candidate must be free, considered to be of good character. There is an age requirement, varying between Grand Lodges, capable of being overridden by a dispensation from the Grand Lodge; the underlying assumption is that the candidate should
Stapleton Cotton, 1st Viscount Combermere
Field Marshal Stapleton Cotton, 1st Viscount Combermere, was a British Army officer and politician. As a junior officer he took part in the Flanders Campaign, in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War and in the suppression of Robert Emmet's insurrection in 1803, he commanded a cavalry brigade in Sir Arthur Wellesley's Army before being given overall command of the cavalry in the latter stages of the Peninsular War. He went on to be Commander-in-Chief and Commander-in-Chief, India. In the latter role he stormed Bharatpur—a fort, deemed impregnable. Cotton was born at Lleweni Hall in Denbighshire, the second surviving son of Sir Robert Salusbury Cotton, 5th Baronet and Frances Cotton; when he was eight, Cotton was sent to board at the grammar school in Audlem some 8 miles from the family's estate at Combermere Abbey, where he was tutored by the headmaster, the Reverend William Salmon, chaplain of the private Cotton chapel outside the estate gates. A quick, lively boy, he was known by his family as ‘Young Rapid,’ and was continually in scrapes.
After three years in Audlem, he continued his education at Westminster School where he joined the fourth form under Dr. Dodd and his contemporaries included future soldiers Jack Byng, Robert Wilson and the poet Robert Southey, he was sent to Norwood House, a private military academy in Bayswater, run by a Shropshire militiaman, Major Reynolds, an acquaintance of his father's. On 26 February 1790, Cotton's father obtained for him a second-lieutenancy, without purchase, in the 23rd Regiment of Foot or Royal Welch Fusiliers, which he joined in Dublin in 1791, he was promoted to lieutenant in the 77th Regiment of Foot on 9 April 1791 and, having transferred back to the 23rd Regiment of Foot on 13 April 1791, he was promoted to captain in the 6th Dragoon Guards on 28 February 1793. He served with his regiment at the Siege of Dunkirk in August 1793 and at the Battle of Beaumont in April 1794 under the Duke of York during the Flanders Campaign, he became a major in the 59th Regiment of Foot on 28 April 1794 and commanding officer of the 25th Light Dragoons with the rank of lieutenant colonel on 27 September 1794.
In 1796 Cotton went with his regiment to India. En route he took part in operations in Cape Colony, on arrival was present at the Siege of Seringapatam in May 1799 during the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, where he first met Colonel Arthur Wellesley the Duke of Wellington, he became commanding officer of the 16th Light Dragoons based in Brighton, on 18 February 1800. Promoted to colonel on 1 January 1800, he was posted with his regiment to Ireland in 1802 and took part in the suppression of Robert Emmet's insurrection in 1803. Promoted to major general on 2 November 1805, he was given command of a cavalry brigade at Weymouth. Cotton was elected Member of Parliament for Newark in 1806, he was deployed to Portugal in April 1809 and commanded a cavalry brigade in Sir Arthur Wellesley's Army. Cotton was both courageous and splendidly dressed in battle throughout the Peninsular War and was nicknamed the "Lion d' Or", he took part in the Second Battle of Porto in May 1809 and the Battle of Talavera in July 1809 and, having succeeded to his father's baronetcy in August 1809, returned home to view his estate.
He returned to Portugal in May 1810 and, having been promoted to the local rank of lieutenant general and given overall command of the cavalry, fought at the Battle of Bussaco in September 1810 and covered the withdrawal to the Lines of Torres Vedras that year. After fighting at the Battle of Sabugal in April 1811 and the Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro in May 1811, Cotton was promoted to the substantive rank of lieutenant general on 1 January 1812, he took part in the Battle of Salamanca in July 1812. During the engagement he led a cavalry charge against Maucune's division, leading Wellington to exclaim, "By God, Cotton, I never saw anything so beautiful in my life. According to Wellington's subsequent despatch, "Cotton made a most gallant and successful charge against a body of the enemy's infantry which they overthrew and cut to pieces." At the end of the battle he was accidentally shot by a Portuguese sentry. In recognition of his gallantry he was appointed a Knight of the Order of the Bath on 21 August 1812 and an honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Portuguese Military Order of the Tower and Sword on 11 March 1813.
Cotton went on to fight at the Battle of the Pyrenees in July 1813, the Battle of Orthez in February 1814 and the Battle of Toulouse in April 1814. For these services he was raised to the peerage as Baron Combermere in the county palatine of Chester on 3 May 1814 and advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath on 4 January 1815. Cotton was not present at the Battle of Waterloo as the command of the cavalry had been given, at the insistence of the Prince Regent, to Lord Uxbridge, a more senior general; when Uxbridge was wounded Cotton took over his command and served with the Army of Occupation following the cessation of hostilities. Cotton became Governor of Barbados and commander of the West Indian forces in March 1817. In the West Indies, Cotton's aide-de-camp was Thomas Moody, Kt.. Cotton is mentioned in unverified stories of the Chase Vault as being a witness to its "moving coffins" while serving as Governor of Barbados. Between 1814 and 1820, Cotton undertook an extensive remodelling of his home, Combermere Abbey, including Gothic ornamentation of the Abbot's House and the construction of Wellington's Wing to mark Wellington's visit to the house in 1820.
He was appointed the last Governor of Sheerness in January 18
James Edward Alexander
General Sir James Edward Alexander was a Scottish traveller and soldier in the British Army. Alexander was the driving force behind the placement of Cleopatra's Needle on the Thames Embankment. Born in Stirling, he was the eldest son of Edward Alexander of Powis and his second wife Catherine Glas, daughter of John Glas, Provost of Stirling; the family purchased Powis House near Stirling in 1808 from James Mayne for £26,500. His father, a banker, had to sell Powis House in 1827 on collapse of the Stirling Banking Company, he received his training in Edinburgh and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. In 1837 he married daughter of Col C. C. Mitchell of the Royal Artillery. In 1853 he obtained Westerton House in Bridge of Allan, built in 1803 by Dr John Henderson of the East India Company. Here he became an elder of Logie Kirk, he died in Ryde on the Isle of Wight but is buried in Old Logie Churchyard just east of his home town of Stirling. The graveyard lies several hundred metres north of the 19th century Logie Kirk.
After his death his trustees sold Westerton House to Edmund Pullar. In 1820, he joined the British East India Company's army, transferring into the British Army in 1825; as aide-de-camp to the British envoy to Persia, he witnessed fighting during the war between Persia and Russia in 1826 and in 1829 was present in the Balkans during the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829. From 1832 to 1834, he witnessed the War of the Two Brothers in Portugal, in 1835 he took part in the 6th Cape Frontier War in South Africa as aide-de-camp and private secretary to Sir Benjamin d'Urban, he was the son-in-law of Charles Collier Michell, having married in Cape Town on 25 October 1837 his daughter Eveline Marie, born 16 April 1821. In 1838, he was made a Knight Bachelor for his services. From 1841, he served among others in the staff of Sir William Rowan. During the Crimean War, he commanded the 14th Regiment of Foot as lieutenant-colonel in the Siege of Sevastopol in 1855 and held an important command during the Land Wars in New Zealand in 1862.
He retired from active service on 1 July 1881 was given the honorary rank of general. On behalf of the Royal Geographical Society, he conducted an exploring expedition into Namaqualand and Damaraland, lasting from 8 September 1836 to 21 September 1837, in the course of which he collected rock specimens, pelts of rare animals, birdskins and implements from the Herero and Nama, as well as drawing maps of the region and making a first list of Herero words. Subsequently, Arrowsmith made use of his data to draw a map accompanying his book of the expedition. Alexander Bay on the Orange River mouth, is named after him. In 1877, he was responsible for the preservation and transfer of Cleopatra's Needle to England. Travels from India to England: comprehending a visit to the Burman empire, a journey through Persia, Asia Minor, European Turkey, &c. In the years 1825-26. – London: Parbury, Allen, & Co, 1827 Travels through Russia and the Crimea. Transatlantic Sketches: comprising visits to the most Interesting Scenes in North & South America & West Indies.
2 vols. – London: Richard Bentley, 1833 Sketches in Portugal during the Civil War of 1834. – London: J. Cochrane & Co, 1835 Narrative of a Voyage of Observation among the Colonies of Western Africa, in the Flag-Ship Thalia. 2 vols. – London: Henry Colburn, 1837 Expedition of discovery into the interior of Africa: Through the Hitherto Undescribed Countries of the Great Namaquas and Hill Damaras, Performed under the Auspices of Her Majesty's Government and the Royal Geographic Society. 2 vols. – London: Henry Colburn, 1838 Life of Field Marshal, His Grace the Duke of Wellington: Embracing His Civil and Political Career to the Present Time. 2 vols. – London: Henry Colbourn, 1839–40 L'Acadie: or Seven Years' Explorations in British America. 2 vols. – London: Henry Colburn, 1849 Passages in the life of a soldier, or, Military service in the East and West. – London: Hurst & Blackett, 1857 Salmon-Fishing in Canada by a Resident. – London und Montreal: Longman, Green and Roberts, 1860 Incidents of the last Maori-War in New Zealand.
– London: Richard Bentley, 1863 The Albatross: record of voyage of the "Great Britain" steam ship from Victoria to England in 1862. – Stirling: C. Rogers & Co. 1863 Bush Fighting. – London: Sampson, Marston, Low & Searle, 1873 Cleopatra's Needle, the obelisk of Alexandria This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Alexander, Sir James Edward". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1. Cambridge University Press