A chaser bin called grain cart or auger wagon, is a trailer towed by a tractor with a built-in auger conveyor system with a large capacity. The typical setup of a chaser bin is a cross auger, which feeds the folding unload auger, which in turn empties the contents into waiting Grain hopper trailers or mother bins; the bins range from 12T to 38T in most cases. Single axle bins can only handle a maximum of 20T of grain, with excess weight placing undue strain on the axle causing failure on rough terrain. Bins above a capacity of 20T, tend to feature a "walking beam" chassis; this chassis design features an independent axle setup, allowing the bin to smoothly travel across ditches and divets, as well as more access fields where the road is higher than the field level. It allows the load to be evenly distributed along the length of the chassis, further reducing the risk of axle failure when traveling over rough terrain with a full bin; the design of the bins follows the same pattern regardless of capacity, with smooth flowing curves to allow the grain to unload via the cross auger.
This helps prevent the grain sticking to the walls of the bin, preventing corrosion. The cross auger is smaller than the main unload auger, which allows the unload auger to expel the grain at a constant rate; the bins can feature cross auger cut-offs, which allow the operator to choke the feed rate to the unload auger if it starts struggling. Unload augers can empty a full bin in a matter of minutes, with 15" augers unloading at a rate of 6T per minute, 19" augers unloading at 10T per minute. Chaser bins are used to transport harvested grain or corn over fields from a header to a road train or other hauling device, used to cover larger distances over roads; the use of a chaser bin allows the harvester to operate continuously, eliminating the need to stop and unload. These bins require tractors with large power outputs and are popular on the larger and more open fields of the United States and Australia, though usage in Europe is increasing. Mother bins known as "field bins" in Queensland, offer the farmer a convenient storage location while harvesting.
They offer a large storage capacity ranging from 55T to 130T. They are located on a paddock road at the entrance to the paddock being harvested, allowing chaser bins to unload into them and offering truck drivers a more convenient location to fill grain into their semi-trailers; this assists in reducing unnecessary soil compaction, by reducing the number of road trains on a given paddock. Mother bins are not to be confused with chaser bins. Although they both hold and unload grain in the same manner, mother bins, are not designed to be used as chaser bins, they are only to be moved if needed at a maximum of 25 % full on smooth terrain only. They are designed to be a static collection point only. Media related to Auger wagons at Wikimedia Commons
The modern combine harvester, or combine, is a versatile machine designed to efficiently harvest a variety of grain crops. The name derives from its combining three separate harvesting operations—reaping and winnowing—into a single process. Among the crops harvested with a combine are wheat, rye, corn, soybeans, flax and canola; the separated straw, left lying on the field, comprises the stems and any remaining leaves of the crop with limited nutrients left in it: the straw is either chopped, spread on the field and ploughed back in or baled for bedding and limited-feed for livestock. Combine harvesters are one of the most economically important labour saving inventions reducing the fraction of the population engaged in agriculture. In 1826 in Scotland, the inventor Reverend Patrick Bell designed a reaper machine, which used the scissors principle of plant cutting – a principle, still used today; the Bell machine was pushed by horses. A few Bell machines were available in the United States. In 1835, in the United States, Hiram Moore built and patented the first combine harvester, capable of reaping and winnowing cereal grain.
Early versions were pulled by mule or ox teams. In 1835, Moore built a full-scale version with a length of 5.2 m, cut width of 4.57 m and by 1839, over 20 ha of crops were harvested. This combine harvester was pulled by 20 horses handled by farmhands. By 1860, combine harvesters with a cutting, or swathe, width of several metres were used on American farms. A parallel development in Australia saw the development of the stripper based on the Gallic stripper, by John Ridley and others in South Australia by 1843; the stripper only gathered the heads. The stripper and headers had the advantage of less moving parts and only collecting heads, requiring less power to operate. Refinements by Hugh Victor McKay produced a commercially successful combine harvester in 1885, the Sunshine Header-Harvester. Combines, some of them quite large, were drawn by mule or horse teams and used a bullwheel to provide power. Steam power was used, George Stockton Berry integrated the combine with a steam engine using straw to heat the boiler.
At the turn of the twentieth century, horse drawn combines were starting to be used on the American plains and Idaho. In 1911, the Holt Manufacturing Company of California produced a self-propelled harvester. In Australia in 1923, the patented Sunshine Auto Header was one of the first center-feeding self-propelled harvesters. In 1923 in Kansas, the Baldwin brothers and their Gleaner Manufacturing Company patented a self-propelled harvester that included several other modern improvements in grain handling. Both the Gleaner and the Sunshine used Fordson engines. In 1929, Alfredo Rotania of Argentina patented a self-propelled harvester. International Harvester started making horse-pulled combines in 1915. At the time, horse powered stand alone threshing machines were more common. In the 1920s, Case Corporation and John Deere made combines and these were starting to be tractor pulled with a second engine aboard the combine to power its workings; the world economic collapse in the 1930s stopped farm equipment purchases, for this reason, people retained the older method of harvesting.
A few farms used Caterpillar tractors to move the outfits. Tractor-drawn combines became common. An example was the All-Crop Harvester series; these combines used a shaker to separate the grain from the chaff and straw-walkers to eject the straw while retaining the grain. Early tractor-drawn combines were powered by a separate gasoline engine, while models were PTO-powered; these machines either put the harvested crop into bags that were loaded onto a wagon or truck, or had a small bin that stored the grain until it was transferred to a truck or wagon with an auger. In the U. S. Allis-Chalmers, Massey-Harris, International Harvester, Gleaner Manufacturing Company, John Deere, Minneapolis Moline are past or present major combine producers. In 1937, the Australian-born Thomas Carroll, working for Massey-Harris in Canada, perfected a self-propelled model and in 1940, a lighter-weight model began to be marketed by the company. Lyle Yost invented an auger that would lift grain out of a combine in 1947, making unloading grain much easier.
In 1952 Claeys launched the first self-propelled combine harvester in Europe. This newer kind of combine is powered by diesel or gasoline engines; until the self-cleaning rotary screen was invented in the mid-1960s combine engines suffered from overheating as the chaff spewed out when harvesting small grains would clog radiators, blocking the airflow needed for cooling. A significant advance in the design of combines was the rotary design; the grain is stripped from the stalk by passing along a helical rotor, instead of passing between rasp bars on the outside of a cylinder and a concave. Rotary combines were first introduced by Sperry-New Holland in 1975. In about the 1980s on-board electronics were introduced to measure threshing efficiency; this new instrumentation allowed operators to get better grain yields by optimizing ground speed and other operating parameters. Combines are equipped with removable heads that are desig
A tractor is an engineering vehicle designed to deliver a high tractive effort at slow speeds, for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used in agriculture or construction. Most the term is used to describe a farm vehicle that provides the power and traction to mechanize agricultural tasks tillage, but nowadays a great variety of tasks. Agricultural implements may be towed behind or mounted on the tractor, the tractor may provide a source of power if the implement is mechanised; the word tractor was taken from Latin, being the agent noun of trahere "to pull". The first recorded use of the word meaning "an engine or vehicle for pulling wagons or ploughs" occurred in 1896, from the earlier term "traction engine". There are many types of tractors, but the main types are rubber wheeled tractors. In the UK, the Republic of Ireland, India, Argentina, Serbia, the Netherlands, Germany, the word "tractor" means "farm tractor", the use of the word "tractor" to mean other types of vehicles is familiar to the vehicle trade, but unfamiliar to much of the general public.
In Canada and the US, the word may refer to the road tractor portion of a tractor trailer truck, but usually refers to the piece of farm equipment. The first powered farm implements in the early 19th century were portable engines – steam engines on wheels that could be used to drive mechanical farm machinery by way of a flexible belt. Richard Trevithick designed the first'semi-portable' stationary steam engine for agricultural use, known as a "barn engine" in 1812, it was used to drive a corn threshing machine; the portable engine was invented in 1839 by William Tuxford of Boston, Lincolnshire who started manufacture of an engine built around a locomotive-style boiler with horizontal smoke tubes. A large flywheel was mounted on the crankshaft, a stout leather belt was used to transfer the drive to the equipment being driven. In the 1850s, John Fowler used a Clayton & Shuttleworth portable engine to drive apparatus in the first public demonstrations of the application of cable haulage to cultivation.
In parallel with the early portable engine development, many engineers attempted to make them self-propelled – the fore-runners of the traction engine. In most cases this was achieved by fitting a sprocket on the end of the crankshaft, running a chain from this to a larger sprocket on the rear axle; these experiments met with mixed success. The first proper traction engine, in the form recognisable today, was developed in 1859 when British engineer Thomas Aveling modified a Clayton & Shuttleworth portable engine, which had to be hauled from job to job by horses, into a self-propelled one; the alteration was made by fitting a long driving chain between the rear axle. The first half of the 1860s was a period of great experimentation but by the end of the decade the standard form of the traction engine had evolved and would change little over the next sixty years, it was adopted for agricultural use. The first tractors were steam-powered plowing engines, they were used in pairs, placed on either side of a field to haul a plow back and forth between them using a wire cable.
In Britain Mann's and Garrett developed steam tractors for direct ploughing, but the heavy, wet soil of England meant that these designs were less economical than a team of horses. In the United States, where soil conditions permitted, steam tractors were used to direct-haul plows. Steam-powered agricultural engines remained in use well into the 20th century until reliable internal combustion engines had been developed. In 1892, John Froelich invented and built the first gasoline/petrol-powered tractor in Clayton County, Iowa, US. A Van Duzen single-cylinder gasoline engine was mounted on a Robinson engine chassis, which could be controlled and propelled by Froelich's gear box. After receiving a patent, Froelich started up the Waterloo Gasoline Engine Company and invested all of his assets. However, the venture was unsuccessful, by 1895 all was lost and he went out of business. Richard Hornsby & Sons are credited with producing and selling the first oil-engined tractor in Britain invented by Herbert Akroyd Stuart.
The Hornsby-Akroyd Patent Safety Oil Traction Engine was made in 1896 with a 20 hp engine. In 1897, it was bought by Mr. Locke-King, this is the first recorded sale of a tractor in Britain. In that year, the tractor won a Silver Medal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England; that tractor would be returned to the factory and fitted with a caterpillar track. The first commercially successful light-weight petrol-powered general purpose tractor was built by Dan Albone, a British inventor in 1901, he filed for a patent on 15 February 1902 for his tractor design and formed Ivel Agricultural Motors Limited. The other directors were Charles Jarrott, John Hewitt and Lord Willoughby, he called his machine the Ivel Agricultural Motor. The Ivel Agricultural Motor was light and compact, it had one front wheel, with solid rubber tyre, two large rear wheels like a modern tractor. The engine used water cooling, by evaporation, it had one reverse gear. A pulley wheel on the left hand side allowed it to be used as a stationary engine, driving a wide range of agricultural machinery.
The 1903 sale price was £300. His tractor won a medal at the Royal Agricultural Show, in 1903 and 1904. About 500 were built, many were exported all over the world; the original engine was made by Co. of Coventry. After 1906, French Aster engines were used; the first successful American tractor was built by Charles H. Parr, they d
A semi-trailer truck is the combination of a tractor unit and one or more semi-trailers to carry freight. A semi-trailer attaches to the tractor with a fifth-wheel coupling, with much of its weight borne by the tractor; the result is that both the tractor and semi-trailer will have a distinctly different design than a rigid truck and trailer. It is variously known as a transport in Canada; these vehicles have been criticised on safety grounds, including when a study in London found that they caused a disproportionate number of annual cyclist casualties. In North America, the combination vehicles made up of a powered truck and one or more semitrailers are known as "semis", "semitrailers", "tractor-trailers", "big rigs", "semi trucks", "eighteen-wheelers", or "semi-tractor trailers"; the tractor unit has two or three axles. The most common tractor-cab layout has a forward engine, one steering axle, two drive axles; the fifth-wheel trailer coupling on most tractor trucks is movable fore and aft, to allow adjustment in the weight distribution over its rear axle.
Ubiquitous in Europe, but less common in North America since the 1990s, is the cabover engine configuration, where the driver sits next to, or over the engine. With changes in the US to the maximum length of the combined vehicle, the cabover was phased out of North American over-the-road service by 2007. Cabovers were difficult to service; as of 2016, a truck can cost US$100,000. Trucks average from 4 to 8 miles per US gallon, with fuel economy standards requiring better than 7 miles per US gallon efficiency by 2014. Power requirements in standard conditions are 170 hp at 55 mph or 280 hp at 70 mph, somewhat different power usage in other conditions; the cargo trailer has tandem axles at the rear, each of which has dual wheels, or eight tires on the trailer, four per axle. In the US it is common to refer to the number of wheel hubs, rather than the number of tires; the combination of eight tires on the trailer and ten tires on the tractor is what led to the moniker eighteen wheeler, although this term is considered by some truckers to be a misnomer.
Many trailers are equipped with movable tandem axles to allow adjusting the weight distribution. To connect the second of a set of doubles to the first trailer, to support the front half of the second trailer, a converter gear known as a "dolly" is used; this has one or two axles, a fifth-wheel coupling for the rear trailer, a tongue with a ring-hitch coupling for the forward trailer. Individual states may further allow longer vehicles, known as "longer combination vehicles", may allow them to operate on roads other than Interstates. Long combination vehicle types include: Doubles: Two 28.5 ft trailers. Triples: Three 28.5 ft trailers. Turnpike Doubles: Two 48 ft trailers. Rocky Mountain Doubles: One 40 to 53 ft trailer and one 28.5 ft trailer. In Canada, a Turnpike Double is two 53 ft trailers, a Rocky Mountain Double is a 50 ft trailer with a 24 ft "pup". Future long combination vehicles under consideration and study for the U. S. MAP-21 transportation bill are container; these combinations are under study for potential recommendation in November 2014: 40 ft trailer Turnpike Doubles, 148,000 lb GVWR 40 ft and 20 ft trailer Rocky Mountain Doubles, 134,000 lb GVWR Double 20 ft trailers.
The US federal government, which only regulates the Interstate Highway System, does not set maximum length requirements, only minimums. Tractors can pull three trailers if the combination is legal in that state. Weight maximums are 20,000 lb on a single axle, 34,000 lb on a tandem, 80,000 lb total for any vehicle or combination. There is a maximum width of no maximum height. Roads other than the Interstates are regulated by the individual states, laws vary widely. Maximum weight varies depending on the combination. Most states restrict operation of larger tandem trailer setups such as triple units, turnpike doubles and Rocky-Mountain doubles. Reasons for limiting the legal trailer configurations include both safety concerns and the impracticality of designing and constructing roads that can accommodate the larger wheelbase of these vehicles and the larger minimum turning radii associated with them. In general, these configurations are restricted to the Interstates. Except for these units, double setups are not restricted to certain roads any more than a single setup.
They are not restricted by weather conditions or "difficulty of operation". The Canadian province of Ontario, does have weather-related operating restrictions for larger tandem trailer setups; the noticeable difference between tractor units in Euro
A screw conveyor or auger conveyor is a mechanism that uses a rotating helical screw blade, called a "flighting" within a tube, to move liquid or granular materials. They are used in many bulk handling industries. Screw conveyors in modern industry are used horizontally or at a slight incline as an efficient way to move semi-solid materials, including food waste, wood chips, cereal grains, animal feed, boiler ash and bone meal, municipal solid waste, many others; the first type of screw conveyor was the Archimedes' screw, used since ancient times to pump irrigation water. They consist of a trough or tube containing either a spiral blade coiled around a shaft, driven at one end and held at the other, or a "shaftless spiral", driven at one end and free at the other; the rate of volume transfer is proportional to the rotation rate of the shaft. In industrial control applications the device is used as a variable rate feeder by varying the rotation rate of the shaft to deliver a measured rate or quantity of material into a process.
A flexible screw conveyor works by using the internal friction within a powder or bulk solid to transfer the forward motion of the powder in contact with the spiral to the whole tube contents. With an angled system, a dynamic equilibrium is set up with the spiral action moving some particles upwards. Screw conveyors can be operated with the flow of material inclined upward; when space allows, this is a economical method of elevating and conveying. As the angle of inclination increases, the capacity of a given unit decreases; the rotating part of the conveyor is sometimes called an auger. The "grain auger" is used in agriculture to move grain from trucks, grain carts or grain trailers into grain storage bins. A grain auger may be powered by an electric motor; the helical rotates inside a long metal tube. On the lower end, a hopper receives grain from the grain cart. A chute on the upper end guides the grain into the destination location; the modern grain auger of today's farming communities was invented by Peter Pakosh.
His grain mover employed a screw-type auger with a minimum of moving parts, a new application for this specific use. At Massey Harris, young Pakosh approached the design department in the 1940s with his auger idea, but was scolded and told that his idea was unimaginable and that once the auger aged and bent that the metal on metal would, according to a head Massey designer, "start fires all across Canada". Pakosh, went on to design and build a first prototype auger in 1945, 8 years start selling tens of thousands under the'Versatile' name, making it the standard for modern grain augers. A specialized form of grain auger is used to transfer grain into a seed drill, is quite a lot smaller in both length and diameter than the augers used to transfer grain to or from a truck, grain cart or bin; this type of auger is known as a "drill fill". Grain augers with a small diameter, regardless of the use they are put to, are called "pencil augers". Various other applications of the screw or auger conveyor include its use in snowblowers, to move snow towards an impeller, where it is thrown into the discharge chute.
Combine harvesters use both enclosed and open augers to move the unthreshed crop into the threshing mechanism and to move the grain into and out of the machine's hopper. Ice resurfacers use augers to remove loose ice particles from the surface of the ice. An auger is a central component of an injection molding machine. An auger is used in some rubbish compactors to push the rubbish into a lowered plate at one end for compaction. Augers are present in food processing, they are a tool of choice in powder processing, when it comes to convey or dose bulk solids. In a conventional meat grinder, chunks of meat are led by the auger through a spinning blade and a holed plate; this method emulsifies the fat in beef to soften hamburger patties, is used to produce a wide variety of sausages and loaves. Augers are used to force food products through dies to produce pellets; these are processed further to produce products such as bran flakes. Augers are used in oil fields as a method of transporting rock cuttings away from the shakers to skips.
Augers are used in some types of pellet stoves and barbecue grills, to move fuel from a storage hopper into the firebox in a controlled manner. Augers are used in machining, wherein the machine tools may include an auger to direct the swarf away from the work piece. Screw conveyors can be found in waste water treatment plants to evacuate solid waste from the treatment process; the amphibious infantry fighting vehicle BMP-3 uses an auger-type propulsion unit in water. Ribbon screw conveyors represent a specific type of screw conveyor with a fine outer flighting connected to the central shaft with smaller paddles, which works to both move and to mix product. Used where product either tends to stick or separate during conveying, the screw conveys product on the periphery of the flight; the size of the ribbon depends on the "fall back" or "back mixing" needed while the product both moves and is blended during production. Viscosity or sticky products may tend to stick to a screw at the stem of the flight and will build up from there until the screw becomes impacted with materials.
Ribbon screw conveyors are used in food products such as brewing and wine making. Spiral separator Screw-propelled vehicle Archimedes' screw Wiki on all types of screw c
Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the fields. Reaping is the cutting of grain or pulse for harvest using a scythe, sickle, or reaper. On smaller farms with minimal mechanization, harvesting is the most labor-intensive activity of the growing season. On large mechanized farms, harvesting utilizes the most expensive and sophisticated farm machinery, such as the combine harvester. Process automation has increased the efficiency of both the harvesting process. Specialized harvesting equipment utilizing conveyor belts to mimic gentle gripping and mass transport replaces the manual task of removing each seedling by hand; the term "harvesting" in general usage may include immediate postharvest handling, including cleaning, sorting and cooling. The completion of harvesting marks the end of the growing season, or the growing cycle for a particular crop, the social importance of this event makes it the focus of seasonal celebrations such as harvest festivals, found in many religions.
"Harvest", a noun, came from the Old English word hærf-est meaning "autumn", "harvest-time", or "August". "The harvest" came to mean the activity of reaping and storing grain and other grown products during the autumn, the grain and other grown products themselves. "Harvest" was verbified: "To harvest" means to reap and store the harvest. People who harvest and equipment that harvests are harvesters. Crop failure is an absent or diminished crop yield relative to expectation, caused by the plants being damaged, killed, or destroyed, or affected in some way that they fail to form edible fruit, seeds, or leaves in their expected abundance. Crop failures can be caused by catastrophic events such as plant disease outbreaks, heavy rainfall, volcanic eruptions, floods, or drought, or by slow, cumulative effects of soil degradation, too-high soil salinity, desertification as results of drainage, overfertilization, or overexploitation. In history, crop failures and subsequent famines have triggered rural exodus, etc..
The proliferation of industrial monocultures, with their reduction in crop diversity and dependence on heavy use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides, has led to overexploited soils that are nearly incapable of regeneration. Over years, unsustainable farming of land diminishes crop yield. With a growing world population and local overpopulation slightly diminishing yields are the equivalent to a partial harvest failure. Fertilizers obviate the need for soil regeneration in the first place, international trade prevents local crop failures from developing into famines. Harvesting refers to grain and produce, but has other uses: fishing and logging are referred to as harvesting; the term harvest is used in reference to harvesting grapes for wine. Within the context of irrigation, water harvesting refers to the collection and run-off of rainwater for agricultural or domestic uses. Instead of harvest, the term exploit is used, as in exploiting fisheries or water resources. Energy harvesting is the process of capturing and storing energy that would otherwise go unexploited.
Body harvesting, or cadaver harvesting, is the process of collecting and preparing cadavers for anatomical study. In a similar sense, organ harvesting is the removal of tissues or organs from a donor for purposes of transplanting. Harvesting or Domestic Harvesting in Canada refers to hunting and plant gathering by First Nations, Métis, Inuit in discussions of aboriginal or treaty rights. For example, in the Gwich'in Comprehensive Land Claim Agreement, "Harvesting means gathering, trapping or fishing..." In the Tlicho Land Claim and Self Government Agreement, "'Harvesting' means, in relation to wildlife, trapping or fishing and, in relation to plants or trees, gathering or cutting."In a non-agricultural sense, the word "harvesting" is an economic principle, known as an exit event or liquidity event. For example, if a person or business was to cash out of an ownership position in a company or eliminate their investment in a product, it is known as a harvest strategy. Combine harvester Harvest Harvest festival Overharvesting Threshing Winnowing