Brunot Island is a 129-acre island in the Ohio River. It is part of the Marshall-Shadeland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania in the United States, it was named for Dr. Felix Brunot; the family entertained the Lewis and Clark expedition on the island in August 1803. The island is home to the Brunot Island Generating Station, a 315 MW fossil fuel power plant; the Ohio Connecting Railroad Bridge crosses the Ohio River at the island. The island does not otherwise connect to the land, all vehicular traffic must use a ferry to access the island; the employees of the power plant use a pedestrian walkway on the railroad bridge to go to work. The walkway is not accessible to the public. From 1903 to 1914, the island was the home of Brunots Island Race Track. Type: Fossil fuel. Airgun Accident
North Shore (Pittsburgh)
The North Shore is a neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania's North Side. It has a zip code of 15212, has representation on Pittsburgh City Council by both the council members for District 1 and 6; the neighborhood is home to PNC Park and The Andy Warhol Museum. It is developing around and between the two stadiums. Two new light rail stations opened in the spring of 2012; the North Side station is located beside PNC Park and near the north portal of the Allegheny River Tunnel. Allegheny station is located by Heinz Field, is the current western terminus of the line. In October 2014 two 11-story office skyscrapers were proposed for the area by local parking lot manager Alco Parking; the project is to move forward, as soon as an anchor tenant can be found. The North Shore runs along the Allegheny River and its confluence with the Monongahela River to form the Ohio River, it is bordered by Chateau to the west, Allegheny West to the northwest, Allegheny Center to the north, East Allegheny to the northeast and Troy Hill to the east.
The Roberto Clemente, Andy Warhol and Rachel Carson Bridges provide direct links to Downtown Pittsburgh as do the first southbound exits across the Veterans and Fort Duquesne Bridges. List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods Interactive Pittsburgh Neighborhoods Map
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
A warehouse is a building for storing goods. Warehouses are used by manufacturers, exporters, transport businesses, etc, they are large plain buildings in industrial parks on the outskirts of cities, towns or villages. They have loading docks to load and unload goods from trucks. Sometimes warehouses are designed for the loading and unloading of goods directly from railways, airports, or seaports, they have cranes and forklifts for moving goods, which are placed on ISO standard pallets loaded into pallet racks. Stored goods can include any raw materials, packing materials, spare parts, components, or finished goods associated with agriculture and production. In India, a warehouse may be referred to as a godown. A warehouse can be defined functionally as a building in which to store bulk produce or goods for commercial purposes; the built form of warehouse structures throughout time depends on many contexts: materials, technologies and cultures. In this sense, the warehouse postdates the need for communal or state-based mass storage of surplus food.
Prehistoric civilizations relied on family- or community-owned storage pits, or ‘palace’ storerooms, such as at Knossos, to protect surplus food. The archaeologist Colin Renfrew argued that gathering and storing agricultural surpluses in Bronze Age Minoan ‘palaces’ was a critical ingredient in the formation of proto-state power; the need for warehouses developed in societies in which trade reached a critical mass requiring storage at some point in the exchange process. This was evident in ancient Rome, where the horreum became a standard building form; the most studied examples are in the port city that served Rome. The Horrea Galbae, a warehouse complex on the road towards Ostia, demonstrates that these buildings could be substantial by modern standards. Galba’s horrea complex contained 140 rooms on the ground floor alone, covering an area of some 225,000 square feet; as a point of reference, less than half of U. S. warehouses today are larger than 100,000 square feet. The need for a warehouse implies having quantities of goods too big to be stored in a domestic storeroom.
But as attested by legislation concerning the levy of duties, some medieval merchants across Europe kept goods in their large household storerooms on the ground floor or cellars. An example is the Fondaco dei Tedeschi, the substantial quarters of German traders in Venice, which combined a dwelling, warehouse and quarters for travellers. From the middle ages on, dedicated warehouses were constructed around ports and other commercial hubs to facilitate large-scale trade; the warehouses of the trading port Bryggen in Bergen, demonstrate characteristic European gabled timber forms dating from the late middle ages, though what remains today was rebuilt in the same traditional style following great fires in 1702 and 1955. During the industrial revolution, the function of warehouses became more specialised. Always a building of function, in the past few decades warehouses have adapted to standardisation, technological innovation and changes in supply chain methods; the mass production of goods launched by the industrial revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries fuelled the development of larger and more specialised warehouses located close to transport hubs on canals, at railways and portside.
Specialisation of tasks is characteristic of the factory system, which developed in British textile mills and potteries in the mid-late 1700s. Factory processes speeded up deskilled labour, bringing new profits to capital investment. Warehouses fulfill a range of commercial functions besides simple storage, exemplified by Manchester’s cotton warehouses and Australian wool stores: receiving and despatching goods; the utilitarian architecture of warehouses responded fast to emerging technologies. Before and into the nineteenth century, the basic European warehouse was built of load-bearing masonry walls or heavy-framed timber with a suitable external cladding. Inside, heavy timber posts supported timber beams and joists for the upper levels more than four to five stories high. A gabled roof was conventional, with a gate in the gable facing the street, rail lines or port for a crane to hoist goods into the window-gates on each floor below. Convenient access for road transport was built-in via large doors on the ground floor.
If not in a separate building and display spaces were located on the ground or first floor. Technological innovations of the early 19th century changed the shape of warehouses and the work performed inside them: cast iron columns and moulded steel posts. All were adopted and were in common use by the middle of the 19th century. 1. Strong, slender cast iron columns began to replace masonry piers or timber posts to carry levels above the ground floor; as modern steel framing developed in the late 19th century, its strength and constructability enabled the first skyscrapers. Steel girders replaced timber beams, increasing the span of internal bays in the warehouse.2. The saw-tooth roof brought natural light to the top story of the warehouse, it transformed the shape of the warehouse, from the traditional peaked hip or gable to an flat roof form, hidden behind a parapet. Warehouse buildings now became horizontal. Inside the top floor, the vertical glazed pane of each saw-tooth enabled natural lighting over displayed goods, improving buyer inspection.3.
Hoists and cranes
The U. S. city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania was home to a "small, but busy" Chinatown, located at the intersection of Grant Street and Boulevard of the Allies in Downtown Pittsburgh where only two Chinese restaurants remain. The On Leong Society was located there. According to the article, "... the first Chinese community in Pittsburgh developed around Wylie Avenue above Court Place," according to a 1942 newsletter of the American Service Institute of Allegheny County. The Chinatown spread to Grant Street, "... to Water Street and spread out to Second and Third avenues." The Chinatown grew from waves of Chinese immigrants who came east from California after the 1849 Gold Rush and the transcontinental railroads. The immigrants came from the area around Canton in China. According to the article, the Chinatown was centered on Second Avenue with merchant names such as "Wing Hong Chinese Co. 519 Second Ave" and "Quong Chong Shing, 511 Second Ave", all of whom have been driven out when the Boulevard of the Allies was built forcing demolition of all buildings on Second Avenue, sometime by the 1950s.
By the 1930s, "... the Chinatown was vanishing." Pittsburgh's Chinatown in the 1920s to 1930s could be described as a dangerous place as there were frequent skirmishes between the two warring Chinese gangs, otherwise known as the "Tong Wars", covered by the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette and the Pittsburgh Press. "On Second Avenue there stands the temple, pagoda style, lifting itself three stories, its tiled roof and leaded windows giving it an air of Oriental distinction. Inside is the splendor of embroidery and hangings and mother of pearl, red lacquer and gilt carvings, a carved stone altar for worship, a long table for meetings of the On Leong Merchants Association." Pittsburgh's Chinatown and how it disappeared - The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
Spring Hill–City View (Pittsburgh)
Spring Hill is a neighborhood on Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania's North Side. Spring Hill was named for the abundance of springs near the site. According to a 1977 Neighborhood Atlas, "Germans immigrated there from 1850 to 1920, giving the neighborhood a Bavarian atmosphere. Local street names include Rhine, Haslage and Goehring. In 1959 ACTION-Housing opened Spring Hill Gardens, a moderate rent, racially integrated, 209-unit apartment project at Buente and Rhine Streets. Spring Hill Gardens was Pittsburgh's first multi-family housing project backed by the Federal Housing Authority." The neighborhood's population has changed over time. A 1974 report stated that the neighborhood held 8,000 people around 1970 which included nearby Spring Garden; the Spring Hill neighborhood declined to 4,900 in 1974 and to 2,900 in 2010. Neighborhood residents have been active for decades through the Spring Hill Civic League, first organized to oppose the public housing project in nearby Northview Heights and has remained active since.
This activism has helped the neighborhood to become one of the safest in all of Pittsburgh. Spring Hill-City View has six borders, five with the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of Spring Garden to the east and south, East Allegheny to the southwest and Perry Hilltop to the west, Northview Heights to the northeast; the other border is with Reserve Township to the north. List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods Interactive Pittsburgh Neighborhoods Map Spring Hill Civic League Media related to Spring Hill–City View at Wikimedia Commons
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti