A warehouse is a building for storing goods. Warehouses are used by manufacturers, exporters, transport businesses, etc, they are large plain buildings in industrial parks on the outskirts of cities, towns or villages. They have loading docks to load and unload goods from trucks. Sometimes warehouses are designed for the loading and unloading of goods directly from railways, airports, or seaports, they have cranes and forklifts for moving goods, which are placed on ISO standard pallets loaded into pallet racks. Stored goods can include any raw materials, packing materials, spare parts, components, or finished goods associated with agriculture and production. In India, a warehouse may be referred to as a godown. A warehouse can be defined functionally as a building in which to store bulk produce or goods for commercial purposes; the built form of warehouse structures throughout time depends on many contexts: materials, technologies and cultures. In this sense, the warehouse postdates the need for communal or state-based mass storage of surplus food.
Prehistoric civilizations relied on family- or community-owned storage pits, or ‘palace’ storerooms, such as at Knossos, to protect surplus food. The archaeologist Colin Renfrew argued that gathering and storing agricultural surpluses in Bronze Age Minoan ‘palaces’ was a critical ingredient in the formation of proto-state power; the need for warehouses developed in societies in which trade reached a critical mass requiring storage at some point in the exchange process. This was evident in ancient Rome, where the horreum became a standard building form; the most studied examples are in the port city that served Rome. The Horrea Galbae, a warehouse complex on the road towards Ostia, demonstrates that these buildings could be substantial by modern standards. Galba’s horrea complex contained 140 rooms on the ground floor alone, covering an area of some 225,000 square feet; as a point of reference, less than half of U. S. warehouses today are larger than 100,000 square feet. The need for a warehouse implies having quantities of goods too big to be stored in a domestic storeroom.
But as attested by legislation concerning the levy of duties, some medieval merchants across Europe kept goods in their large household storerooms on the ground floor or cellars. An example is the Fondaco dei Tedeschi, the substantial quarters of German traders in Venice, which combined a dwelling, warehouse and quarters for travellers. From the middle ages on, dedicated warehouses were constructed around ports and other commercial hubs to facilitate large-scale trade; the warehouses of the trading port Bryggen in Bergen, demonstrate characteristic European gabled timber forms dating from the late middle ages, though what remains today was rebuilt in the same traditional style following great fires in 1702 and 1955. During the industrial revolution, the function of warehouses became more specialised. Always a building of function, in the past few decades warehouses have adapted to standardisation, technological innovation and changes in supply chain methods; the mass production of goods launched by the industrial revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries fuelled the development of larger and more specialised warehouses located close to transport hubs on canals, at railways and portside.
Specialisation of tasks is characteristic of the factory system, which developed in British textile mills and potteries in the mid-late 1700s. Factory processes speeded up deskilled labour, bringing new profits to capital investment. Warehouses fulfill a range of commercial functions besides simple storage, exemplified by Manchester’s cotton warehouses and Australian wool stores: receiving and despatching goods; the utilitarian architecture of warehouses responded fast to emerging technologies. Before and into the nineteenth century, the basic European warehouse was built of load-bearing masonry walls or heavy-framed timber with a suitable external cladding. Inside, heavy timber posts supported timber beams and joists for the upper levels more than four to five stories high. A gabled roof was conventional, with a gate in the gable facing the street, rail lines or port for a crane to hoist goods into the window-gates on each floor below. Convenient access for road transport was built-in via large doors on the ground floor.
If not in a separate building and display spaces were located on the ground or first floor. Technological innovations of the early 19th century changed the shape of warehouses and the work performed inside them: cast iron columns and moulded steel posts. All were adopted and were in common use by the middle of the 19th century. 1. Strong, slender cast iron columns began to replace masonry piers or timber posts to carry levels above the ground floor; as modern steel framing developed in the late 19th century, its strength and constructability enabled the first skyscrapers. Steel girders replaced timber beams, increasing the span of internal bays in the warehouse.2. The saw-tooth roof brought natural light to the top story of the warehouse, it transformed the shape of the warehouse, from the traditional peaked hip or gable to an flat roof form, hidden behind a parapet. Warehouse buildings now became horizontal. Inside the top floor, the vertical glazed pane of each saw-tooth enabled natural lighting over displayed goods, improving buyer inspection.3.
Hoists and cranes
North Shore (Pittsburgh)
The North Shore is a neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania's North Side. It has a zip code of 15212, has representation on Pittsburgh City Council by both the council members for District 1 and 6; the neighborhood is home to PNC Park and The Andy Warhol Museum. It is developing around and between the two stadiums. Two new light rail stations opened in the spring of 2012; the North Side station is located beside PNC Park and near the north portal of the Allegheny River Tunnel. Allegheny station is located by Heinz Field, is the current western terminus of the line. In October 2014 two 11-story office skyscrapers were proposed for the area by local parking lot manager Alco Parking; the project is to move forward, as soon as an anchor tenant can be found. The North Shore runs along the Allegheny River and its confluence with the Monongahela River to form the Ohio River, it is bordered by Chateau to the west, Allegheny West to the northwest, Allegheny Center to the north, East Allegheny to the northeast and Troy Hill to the east.
The Roberto Clemente, Andy Warhol and Rachel Carson Bridges provide direct links to Downtown Pittsburgh as do the first southbound exits across the Veterans and Fort Duquesne Bridges. List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods Interactive Pittsburgh Neighborhoods Map
Elliott is a small, hilly neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania's West End Region. Elliott is represented on the Pittsburgh City Council by the council member for District 2, uses the ZIP code 15220. Beginning as a portion of the now-defunct Township of Chartiers and existing for a brief time as an independent borough, Elliott was annexed by the City of Pittsburgh in two pieces. Elliott grew during this time as a dense and thriving residential community, due to its proximity to downtown Pittsburgh and direct access to several arterial roads and streetcar lines. In the latter half of the twentieth century, the neighborhood was affected adversely by industrial decline, economic hardship, mass emigration to Pittsburgh's developing suburbs, as well as numerous other socioeconomic factors that affected the region at that time. Today, the West End Elliott Citizens Council is an active community group located in the heart of the neighborhood and is working to help reverse this deterioration; the Pittsburgh Bureau of Fire houses Truck 30 in Elliott.
Elliott is home to West End Park, voted one of Pittsburgh's best-planned community parks. Elliott contains one of Pittsburgh's most visited attractions, the West End Overlook, which underwent a two-year, $2.1 million renovation. Elliott is home to numerous churches, historic homes, a newly built senior retirement facility, its former community public school, Thaddeus Stevens Elementary, closed in 2012 after 73 years of operation. A notable street in Elliott is called "Rue Grande Vue." It is the address of a group of homes known locally as the "Ten Commandments," that have an impressive view of the skyline of Pittsburgh similar to the West End Overlook. One of the homes has been demolished, so there are only 9 now. According to some older residents of Elliott, the neighborhood was once nicknamed "dogtown" because many of the locals owned dogs as pets. Elliott has five borders with the following Pittsburgh neighborhoods: North – Esplen East – West End Valley South – Westwood West – Crafton Heights North west – Sheraden Elliott is adjacent to the Pittsburgh neighborhood of Chateau across the Ohio River.
List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods Toker, Franklin. Pittsburgh: An Urban Portrait. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-5434-6. Interactive Pittsburgh Neighborhoods Map
Manchester Craftsmen's Guild
Manchester Craftsmen's Guild is a nonprofit art and music organization established in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1968. Courses include ceramics, digital arts, painting to over 500 young people each year and 3,400 additional students in the Pittsburgh Public Schools. Ninety percent of the students receive high school diplomas, eight-five percent of those students enroll in college or some other secondary education; the Guild's programs include MCG Jazz, MCG Youth, the Denali Initiative. MCG Jazz's mission is to preserve and promote jazz. MCG Youth offers art courses to Pittsburgh public school students; the Denali Initiative is a program that teaches nonprofit executive directors how to develop business and financing plans for social enterprises. The organization was conceived by Bill Strickland. In 1987, he expanded MCG with a $7.5 million capital campaign to construct a 62,000-square-foot vocational education and arts center. It includes a 350-seat concert hall, an art gallery and workshops.
MCG Jazz has a recording studio and record label. Strickland, Bill. Make the Impossible Possible: One Man's Crusade to Inspire Others to Dream Bigger and Achieve the Extraordinary. New York: Currency Books of Random House. ISBN 978-0-385-52054-6. Official site MCG Jazz website
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Perry North (Pittsburgh)
Perry North is a neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA's north city area. It lies within zip codes 15212 and 15214, has representation on Pittsburgh City Council by the council member for District 1; the highest elevation in Pittsburgh is 1,370 feet at the Brashear Reservoir at the top of Observatory Hill. The Pittsburgh Bureau of fire houses 34 Engine in Perry North. Observatory Hill was part of Allegheny City. Since Allegheny City's annexation to the city of Pittsburgh in 1907, the Observatory Hill district has expanded and is home to nearly 14,000 residents; the neighborhood has stately homes, a business district, Riverview Park, the Allegheny Observatory. Perry North has six borders, five with the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of Brighton Heights to the west, Summer Hill to the east and northeast, Northview Heights to the southeast, Perry South to the south, Marshall-Shadeland to the southwest; the other border is with Ross Township to the north. Interactive Pittsburgh Neighborhoods Map Observatory Hill community website List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods
West End Bridge (Pittsburgh)
The West End Bridge is a steel bowstring arch bridge over the Ohio River in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania one mile below the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers. The bridge was built from 1930 to 1932 by the American Bridge Company and the Foundation Company and was the world's first to use tied-arch technology on a large scale, it connects the West End to the Chateau neighborhood on the North Side of Pittsburgh. The bridge was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979, the List of Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation Historic Landmarks in 2001; as of 2016, the bridge and its surrounding approaches are undergoing some major reconstruction. The Riverlife Task Force conducted a competition in the spring of 2006 to design a pedestrian bridge across the Ohio attached to the West End Bridge; the goal of the competition was to create an iconic architectural element which ties both shore neighborhoods with the waterfronts while eliminating the need for pedestrians to cross traffic lanes and empty lots.
Photos of the West End Bridge Bridges portal Pennsylvania portal Pittsburgh portal Bridges of Pittsburgh List of bridges documented by the Historic American Engineering Record in Pennsylvania List of crossings of the Ohio River Media related to West End Bridge at Wikimedia Commons Historic American Engineering Record No. PA-96, "West End-North Side Bridge, Spanning Ohio River 1 mile downstream from confluence of Monongahela & Allegheny rivers, Allegheny County, PA", 50 photos, 19 data pages, 5 photo caption pages pghbridges.com