William Douglas Lee
William Douglas Lee was an architect and designer in the early 20th century whose career focused on designing large Neoclassic, Gothic Revival, Renaissance Revival, Beaux-Arts style manufacturing buildings in downtown Los Angeles, as well as other notable works such as the Chateau Marmont and the El Royale apartments. William Douglas Lee's first major industrial and manufacturing facility design was The Catalina Swimwear Building located at 443 South San Pedro Street in Los Angeles; the Catalina Swimwear Building was constructed in 1923, less than two years after Lee began his independent practice, was the headquarters for Catalina Swimwear. The building is of reinforced concrete construction, with a traditional Neoclassic façade sheathed in brick, its construction is documented by City of Los Angeles Building Permit #38140, issued for a six-story building with a concrete frame on the southwest corner of San Pedro and Winston Streets. Lee gained during the 1920s when his idea to transform the city's aesthetic with real estate developer Florence Casler took hold.
Together Lee and Casler erected what Florence termed a "utopian commercial area" centered on Pico Boulevard and Maple Avenue. Between 1924 and 1929 they erected many major specialized industrial buildings including the Textile Center Building, the Allied Crafts Building, the Bendix Building, the Printing Center, the Graphic Arts Building, the Garment Capitol Building, the Elias-Katz Shoe Factory the Furniture Exchange Building, the Merchants Exchange Building. Lee shared Casler's love of modern design enhanced with revival accenting and molding in terra cotta and stone. After their partnership Lee became responsible for designing some of the most iconic buildings in Los Angeles, including the Chateau Marmont and the El Royale apartments. William Douglas Lee and his son, Douglas Everett Lee, were responsible for the design and construction of Lee Tower located at 5455 Wilshire Boulevard. "It was among the first skyscrapers built in Los Angeles after the height limit ordinance of 150 feet was relaxed in 1957..."
Completed in 1961, The Lee Tower introduced the appearance of the modern skyscraper in Los Angeles. The Lee Tower was the first skyscraper to exceed the 150-foot height limit following the repeal of the height restriction by the Los Angeles City Council. Lee far surpassed the limit by constructing 280 feet up, with a total of 21 stories; the Lee Tower's steel-frame, glass-curtain wall design is different from the period-revival designs of Lee's earlier career
Sofia Carmina Coppola is an American screenwriter, director and former actress. The daughter of filmmakers Eleanor and Francis Ford Coppola, she made her film debut as an infant in her father's acclaimed crime drama film, The Godfather, she appeared in a supporting role in Peggy Sue Got Married and portrayed Mary Corleone, the daughter of Michael Corleone, in The Godfather: Part III. Her performance in the latter was criticised, she turned her attention to filmmaking, she made her feature-length debut with the coming-of-age drama The Virgin Suicides, based on the novel of the same name by Jeffery Eugenides. It was the first of her collaborations with actress Kirsten Dunst. In 2004, she received the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay for the comedy-drama Lost in Translation and became the third woman to be nominated for an Academy Award for Best Director. In 2006, Coppola directed the historical drama Marie Antoinette, starring Dunst as the ill-fated French queen. In 2010, with the drama Somewhere, Coppola became the first American woman to win the Golden Lion, the top prize at the Venice Film Festival.
In 2013, she directed the satirical crime film The Bling Ring, based on the crime ring of the same name. At the 2017 Cannes Film Festival, Coppola became the second woman in the festival's history to win the Best Director award, for the drama film The Beguiled. Sofia Carmina Coppola was born in New York City on May 14, 1971, the youngest child and only daughter of documentarian Eleanor Coppola and filmmaker Francis Ford Coppola, she was raised on her parents' farm in Rutherford, California. She graduated from St. Helena High School in 1989, she attended Mills College and the California Institute of the Arts. At 15, she interned with Chanel. After dropping out of college, Coppola started a clothing line called Milkfed, now sold in Japan. Among her extensive Hollywood family are her aunt Talia Shire, her first cousins Nicolas Cage and Jason Schwartzman. Coppola's acting career, marked by frequent criticisms of nepotism and negative reviews, began while she was an infant, as she made background appearances in seven of her father's films.
The best known of these is her appearance in The Godfather as the infant Michael Francis Rizzi, in the baptism scene. Coppola returned to her father's trilogy in both the second and third Godfather films, playing an immigrant child in The Godfather Part II and Michael Corleone's daughter in The Godfather Part III, after the cast actress, Winona Ryder, discontinued her involvement with the film. Coppola responded to a question about her role in The Godfather Part III in a 2013 interview:Let's see. Did I not wanna do it? Um. I was game. I was trying different things, it sounded better than college. I didn't think about the public aspect of it; that took me by surprise. The whole reaction. People felt attached to the Godfather films. I grew up with them and it's no big deal. I mean, I understand they're great films but... I dunno. I'm not surprised, it makes sense that people would have an opinion about it but I got a lot of attention I wasn't expecting. I was going to art school, it was before the Internet so magazines would come out but the next month they were gone.
There wasn't as much paparazzi around back then. It has been suggested that the situation further damaged Francis Ford Coppola's career and ruined Sofia's before it had begun. Coppola has said that she never wanted to act and only did it to help out when her father asked her to. After shooting, she confirmed, it has been suggested that Sofia's role in the film may have contributed to its box office performance, which started strong and began to decline. Coppola has said that her father based a lot of her character on her while writing the script, before she was cast into the role. Sofia had herself worried that she had only been given the role because she was the director's daughter, the role placed a strain on her during the time of shooting that her mother observed in a series of diaries she wrote for Vogue during the filming. Coppola acted in her father's films The Outsiders, in a scene where Matt Dillon, Tommy Howell, Ralph Macchio are eating at a Dairy Queen. Frankenweenie was the first film she performed in, not associated with her father.
The short film, titled Life Without Zoe and released as part of a tripartite anthology film New York Stories, was co-written by a teenage Coppola with her father, who directed the film. After she was critically panned for her performance in The Godfather Part III, for which she was named "Worst Supporting Actress" and "Worst New Star" at the 1990 Golden Raspberry Awards, Coppola ended her acting career, although she appeared in the independent film Inside Monkey Zetterland, as well as in the backgrounds of films by her friends and family: for example, she appeared as Saché, one of Queen Padmé Amidala's five handmaidens in George Lucas' Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace, she has since been quoted as saying that she was not hurt by the criticism from her role in The Godfather Part III, because she never wanted an acting career. Coppola appears in several music videos from the 1990s: The Black Crowes' "Sometim
Ville Hermanni Valo is a Finnish singer and musician, best known as the lead vocalist of the gothic rock band HIM. Influenced by the likes of Black Sabbath and Type O Negative, Valo began his career playing bass and drums in various bands around his hometown of Helsinki. In 1991, he formed HIM, which would go on to become one of the most successful Finnish bands of all time, the first to receive a gold record in the United States. Valo is credited as the creator of the heartagram, the band's trademarked symbol. In 2017, HIM announced their plans to retire following a farewell tour that same year; the band played their final show on New Year's Eve 2017. Outside of HIM, Valo has collaborated with various other bands and artist during his career, including Agents, The 69 Eyes and Apocalyptica. He's made brief appearances in TV and film collaborating with Bam Margera of Jackass fame. Valo received several accolades in the music industry. In 2014, he was found to possess the eighth-highest vocal range of any known singer in popular music by VVN Music.
Ville Hermanni Valo was born on 22 November 1976 in Finland. His mother Anita is from Hungary, she worked at a shoe shop and for of the city of Helsinki. Ville's father Kari worked as a taxi driver, until he left his job and opened a sex shop in Helsinki called Aikuisten lelukauppa, where Ville sometimes worked as a teenager. Ville has a younger brother Jesse, born in 1983. A few months after Ville was born, his family moved from Vallila to Oulunkylä, where he attended comprehensive school. Valo was first introduced to music through his father, who would listen to a variety Finnish folk artists, such as Tuomari Nurmio and Tapio Rautavaara. At the age of eight, Valo bought the album Animalize by Kiss. After second grade, Valo was accepted to music class, where he took up playing the bass guitar, inspired by Gene Simmons, it was during this time that he met future bandmate Mikko "Mige" Paananen. While still in school, Valo formed his first band called B. L. O. O. D. Which played its only show in front of the music class.
Around the age of ten, Valo joined the Eloveena Boys. In seventh grade, Valo met guitarist Mikko "Linde" Lindström and the two began playing together in Aurora, with Valo on the drums. During his time in Aurora, Valo played bass and drums in various other bands and attended the Helsinki Pop & Jazz Conservatory, he applied to the Sibelius Upper Secondary School of music and dance, but was rejected, dropped out of school altogether to concentrate on his music. From 1992 to 1993, Valo played bass in the Donits-Osmo Experience. Valo was permitted not to perform Finland's national military service, due to his asthma. Valo and bassist Mikko "Mige" Paananen first formed the band HIM in 1991; the group broke-up in 1993, but reformed in 1995. Joined by guitarist Mikko "Linde" Lindström, keyboardist Antto Melasniemi and drummer Juhana "Pätkä" Rantala, HIM released their debut album Greatest Lovesongs Vol. 666 in 1997. In 2000, now with drummer Gas Lipstick and keyboardist Juska Salminen, the band released Razorblade Romance, which reached number one in Finland and Germany.
The first single "Join Me in Death" charted at number one in Finland and Germany going platinum in the former. Following the addition of keyboardist Janne "Burton" Puurtinen, HIM released Deep Shadows and Brilliant Highlights and Love Metal in 2001 and 2003, respectively. Both cracked the top ten in several countries, became the band's first albums to chart in the United Kingdom and the United States. In 2005, HIM released Dark Light, which became their most successful album to date, going gold in Germany, the UK, the US, platinum in Finland. In 2007, HIM released Venus Doom, which went gold in Finland and Germany, gave the band their highest US chart position at number twelve. After 2010's Screamworks: Love in Theory and Practice, the band went on hiatus after drummer Gas Lipstick was diagnosed with a repetitive stress injury and nerve damage in his hands. HIM regrouped and released the album Tears on Tape in 2013. In 2015, Gas Lipstick announced his departure from HIM after sixteen years to pursue other musical projects.
He was subsequently replaced by Jukka "Kosmo" Kröger. On 5 March 2017, HIM announced the end of the band following a farewell tour that same year. HIM played its final show on New Year's Eve 2017 as a part of the band's annual Helldone Festival. Valo has collaborated with many different artists during his career under different pseudonyms. Between 1997 and 2004, Valo performed back-up vocals on five albums by The 69 Eyes, appeared in the music video for the song "Wasting the Dawn". In 1999, he sang back-up on Tehosekoitin's album Freak Out, performed three songs with Finnish schlager band Agents. In 2000, Valo contributed a track for the Tuomari Nurmio tribute album Tuomarin todistajat, in 2001, he played drums on Daniel Lioneye's album The King of Rock'n Roll and sang back-up on Five Fifteen's album Death of a Clown. In 2002 and 2004, Valo sang back-up on two albums by The Skreppers. In 2004, he collaborated with Lowe Motor Corporation and Apocalyptica, performing the song "Bittersweet" with the latter, which featured Lauri Ylönen of The Rasmus.
In 2005, Valo was featured on the album Hefty Fine by the Bloodhound Gang, performed at the Roadrunner United concert in New York City. In 2006, Valo played bass and sang back-up on Welcome to Carcass Cuntry by Jeff Walker und Die Fluffers, made guest appearances on albums by Cradle of Filth and Isabelle's Gift, he performed two songs for the Finnish compilation album Sy
Seismic retrofitting is the modification of existing structures to make them more resistant to seismic activity, ground motion, or soil failure due to earthquakes. With better understanding of seismic demand on structures and with our recent experiences with large earthquakes near urban centers, the need of seismic retrofitting is well acknowledged. Prior to the introduction of modern seismic codes in the late 1960s for developed countries and late 1970s for many other parts of the world, many structures were designed without adequate detailing and reinforcement for seismic protection. In view of the imminent problem, various research work has been carried out. State-of-the-art technical guidelines for seismic assessment and rehabilitation have been published around the world – such as the ASCE-SEI 41 and the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering's guidelines; these codes must be updated. The retrofit techniques outlined here are applicable for other natural hazards such as tropical cyclones and severe winds from thunderstorms.
Whilst current practice of seismic retrofitting is predominantly concerned with structural improvements to reduce the seismic hazard of using the structures, it is essential to reduce the hazards and losses from non-structural elements. It is important to keep in mind that there is no such thing as an earthquake-proof structure, although seismic performance can be enhanced through proper initial design or subsequent modifications. Seismic retrofit strategies have been developed in the past few decades following the introduction of new seismic provisions and the availability of advanced materials. Retrofit strategies are different from retrofit techniques, where the former is the basic approach to achieve an overall retrofit performance objective, such as increasing strength, increasing deformability, reducing deformation demands while the latter is the technical methods to achieve that strategy, for example FRP jacketing. Increasing the global capacity; this is done by the addition of cross braces or new structural walls.
Reduction of the seismic demand by means of supplementary damping and/or use of base isolation systems. Increasing the local capacity of structural elements; this strategy recognises the inherent capacity within the existing structures, therefore adopt a more cost-effective approach to selectively upgrade local capacity of individual structural components. Selective weakening retrofit; this is a counter-intuitive strategy to change the inelastic mechanism of the structure, while recognising the inherent capacity of the structure. Allowing sliding connections such as passageway bridges to accommodate additional movement between seismically independent structures. Addition of seismic friction dampers to add damping and a selectable amount of additional stiffness. In the past, seismic retrofit was applied to achieve public safety, with engineering solutions limited by economic and political considerations. However, with the development of Performance-based earthquake engineering, several levels of performance objectives are recognised: Public safety only.
The goal is to protect human life, ensuring that the structure will not collapse upon its occupants or passersby, that the structure can be safely exited. Under severe seismic conditions the structure may be a total economic write-off, requiring tear-down and replacement. Structure survivability; the goal is that the structure, while remaining safe for exit, may require extensive repair before it is useful or considered safe for occupation. This is the lowest level of retrofit applied to bridges. Structure functionality. Primary structure undamaged and the structure is undiminished in utility for its primary application. A high level of retrofit, this ensures that any required repairs are only "cosmetic" – for example, minor cracks in plaster and stucco; this is the minimum acceptable level of retrofit for hospitals. Structure unaffected; this level of retrofit is preferred for historic structures of high cultural significance. Common seismic retrofitting techniques fall into several categories: The use of external post-tensioning for new structural systems have been developed in the past decade.
Under the PRESS, a large-scale U. S./Japan joint research program, unbonded post-tensioning high strength steel tendons have been used to achieve a moment-resisting system that has self-centering capacity. An extension of the same idea for seismic retrofitting has been experimentally tested for seismic retrofit of California bridges under a Caltrans research project and for seismic retrofit of non-ductile reinforced concrete frames. Pre-stressing can increase the capacity of structural elements such as beam and beam-column joints, it should be noted that external pre-stressing has been used for structural upgrade for gravity/live loading since the 1970s. Base isolation is a collection of structural elements of a building that should decouple the building's structure from the shaking ground thus protecting the building's integrity and enhancing its seismic performance; this earthquake engineering technology, a kind of seismic vibration control, can be applied both to a newly designed building and to seismic upgrading of existing structures.
Excavations are made around the building and the building is separated from the foundations. Steel
Anna-Lou "Annie" Leibovitz is an American portrait photographer. She is best known for her engaging portraits—particularly of celebrities—which feature subjects in intimate settings and poses, she photographed John Lennon on the day he was murdered, her work has been used on numerous album covers and magazines. She became the first woman to hold an exhibition at Washington's National Portrait Gallery in 1991. Born in Waterbury, Connecticut, on October 2, 1949, Anna-Lou Leibovitz is the third of six children of Marilyn Edith and Samuel Leibovitz, she is a third-generation American. Her mother was a modern dance instructor of Estonian-Jewish heritage, her father was a lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Air Force; the family moved with her father's duty assignments, she took her first pictures when he was stationed in the Philippines during the Vietnam War. She took photographs of nearby locals. Leibovitz passion of art was born out of her mother's engagement with dance and painting. At Northwood High School in Silver Spring, she became interested in various artistic endeavors and began to write and play music.
Leibovitz attended the San Francisco Art Institute, where she studied painting with the intention of becoming an art teacher. At school, she changed her major after to photography, she was inspired by the work of Robert Frank and Henri Cartier-Bresson, which her school taught about. For several years, she continued to develop her photography skills while holding various jobs, including a stint on a kibbutz in Amir, for several months in 1969; when Leibovitz returned to the United States in 1970, she started her career as staff photographer, working for Rolling Stone magazine. In 1973, publisher Jann Wenner named Leibovitz chief photographer of Rolling Stone, a job she would hold for 10 years. Leibovitz worked for the magazine until 1983, her intimate photographs of celebrities helped define the Rolling Stone look. While working for Rolling Stone, Leibovitz learned that she could work for magazines and still create personal work of her family which for her was the most important. “You don’t get the opportunity to do this kind of intimate work except with the people you love, the people who will put up with you.
They're the people who lives to you. You must take care of them.” She was awarded The Royal Photographic Society's Centenary Medal and Honorary Fellowship in recognition of a sustained, significant contribution to the art of photography in 2009. Leibovitz photographed the Rolling Stones in San Francisco in 1971 and 1972, served as the concert-tour photographer for the Rolling Stones' Tour of the Americas'75, her favorite photo from the tour was a photo of Mick Jagger in an elevator. On December 8, 1980, Leibovitz had a photo shoot with John Lennon for Rolling Stone, she promised him he would make the cover, she had tried to get a picture with just Lennon alone, as Rolling Stone wanted, but Lennon insisted that both he and Yoko Ono be on the cover. Leibovitz tried to re-create something like the kissing scene from the couple's Double Fantasy 1980 album cover, a picture Leibovitz loved, she had John remove his clothes and curl up next to Yoko on the floor. Leibovitz recalls, "What is interesting is she said she'd take her top off and I said,'Leave everything on'—not preconceiving the picture at all.
He curled up next to her and it was very strong. You couldn't help but feel that he was cold and he looked like he was clinging on to her. I think it was amazing to look at the first Polaroid and they were both excited. John said,'You've captured our relationship exactly. Promise me it'll be on the cover.' I looked him in the eye and we shook on it." Leibovitz was the last person to professionally photograph Lennon—he was shot and killed five hours later. The photograph was subsequently re-created in 2009 by John and Yoko's son Sean Lennon, posing with his girlfriend Charlotte Kemp Muhl, with male/female roles reversed, by Henry Bond and Sam Taylor-Wood in their YBA pastiche October 26, 1993. In the 1980s, Leibovitz's new style of lighting and use of bold colors and poses got her a position with Vanity Fair magazine. Leibovitz photographed celebrities for an international advertising campaign for American Express charge cards, which won a Clio award in 1987. In 1991, Leibovitz mounted an exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery.
She was first woman to show there. In 1991, Leibovitz had been made Commandeur de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the French government. In 1991, Leibovitz emulated Margaret Bourke-White's feat by mounting one of the eagle gargoyles on the 61st floor of the Chrysler Building in Manhattan, where she photographed the dancer David Parsons cavorting on another eagle gargoyle. Noted Life photographer and picture editor John Loengard made a gripping photo of Leibovitz at the climax of her danger. In 2007, major retrospective of Leibovitz's work was held at the Brooklyn Museum, The retrospective was based on her book, Annie Leibovitz: A Photographer's Life, 1990–2005 and included many of her professional photographs as well as numerous personal photographs of her family and partner Susan Sontag; this show, expanded to include three of the official portraits of Queen Elizabeth II went on the road for seven stops. It was on display at the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington, D. C. from October 2007 to January 2008 and at the Palace of the Legion of Honor in San Francisco from March 2008 to May 20
Paparazzi are independent photographers who take pictures of high-profile people, such as athletes, entertainers and other celebrities while subjects go about their usual life routines. Paparazzi tend to make a living by selling their photographs to media outlets focusing on tabloid journalism and sensationalism. Paparazzi tend to be independent contractors, unaffiliated with mainstream media organizations, photos taken are done so by taking advantage of opportunities when they have sightings of high-profile people they are tracking; some experts have described the behavior of paparazzi as synonymous with stalking, anti-stalking bills in many countries address the issue by reducing harassment of public figures and celebrities with their children. Some public figures and celebrities have expressed concern at the extent to which paparazzi go to invade their personal space; the filing and receiving of judicial support for restraining orders against paparazzi has increased, as have lawsuits with judgments against them.
Walter Santesso portrays Paparazzo in the 1960 film La Dolce Vita, marking the character as the eponym of the word paparazzi. Paparazzo Derek Shook's work has appeared online and in publications like Star Magazine, Us Weekly, National Enquirer, People Magazine and Style, Rolling Stone Magazine, The Globe, Hello Magazine, Daily Mail, Vogue, he was interviewed for the movie Supermensch: The Legend of Shep Gordon. Ron Galella is most known for suing Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis after the former First Lady ordered her Secret Service agents to destroy Galella’s camera and film following an encounter in New York City's Central Park in the early 1970s. A news photographer named. In his book Word and Phrase, Robert Hendrickson writes that Fellini took the name from an Italian dialect word that describes a annoying noise, that of a buzzing mosquito; as Fellini said in his interview to Time magazine, "Paparazzo... suggests to me a buzzing insect, darting, stinging." Those versions of the word's origin are sometimes contested.
For example, in the Abruzzo dialect spoken by Ennio Flaiano, co-scriptwriter of La Dolce Vita, the term paparazzo refers to the local clam, Venerupis decussata, is used as a metaphor for the shutter of a camera lens. Further, in an interview with Fellini's screenwriter Flaiano, he said the name came from the book Sulla riva dello Jonio, a translation by Italian poet Margherita Guidacci of By the Ionian Sea, a 1901 travel narrative in southern Italy by Victorian writer George Gissing, he further states that either Fellini or Flaiano opened the book at random, saw the name of a restaurant owner, Coriolano Paparazzo, decided to use it for the photographer. This story is further documented by a variety of Gissing scholars and in the book A Sweet and Glorious Land. Revisiting the Ionian Sea. By the late 1960s, the word in the Italian plural form paparazzi, had entered English as a generic term for intrusive photographers. A person, photographed by the paparazzi is said to have been "papped". A transliteration of paparazzi is used in several languages that do not use the Latin alphabet, including Japanese, Ukrainian, Russian and Hebrew.
Chinese uses 狗仔隊, meaning "puppy squad". Khmer uses អ្នកប្រមាញ់រូប. Due to the reputation of paparazzi as a nuisance, several states and countries restrict their activities by passing laws and curfews, by staging events in which paparazzi are not allowed to take photographs. In the United States, celebrity news organizations are protected by the First Amendment. To protect the children of celebrities, California passed a new bill in September 2013; the purpose of the bill is to stop paparazzi from taking pictures of children in a harassing manner, regardless of who their parents are. This law increased the penalty on the penalty for harassment of children. In 1972, paparazzo photographer Ron Galella sued Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis after the former First Lady ordered her Secret Service agents to destroy Galella's camera and film following an encounter in New York City's Central Park. Kennedy counter-sued claiming harassment; the trial lasted three weeks and became a groundbreaking case regarding photojournalism and the role of paparazzi.
In Galella v. Onassis, Kennedy obtained a restraining order to keep Galella 150 feet away from her and her children; the restriction was dropped to 25 feet. The trial is a focal point in a 2010 documentary film by director Leon Gast. In 1997, Princess of Wales and Dodi Fayed were killed in a limousine crash as their driver was speeding, trying to escape paparazzi. An inquest jury investigated the involvement of paparazzi in the incident, although several paparazzi were taken into custody, no one was convicted; the official inquests into the accident attributed the causes to the speed and manner of driving of the Mercedes, as well as the following vehicles, the impairment of the judgment of the Mercedes driver, Henri Paul, through alcohol. In 1999, the Oriental Daily News of Hong Kong was found guilty of "scandalizing the court", an rare law that the newspaper's conduct would undermine confidence in the administration of justice; the charge was brought after the newspaper had published abusive articles challenging the judiciary's integrity and accusing it of bias in a lawsuit the p
Dorothy Parker was an American poet, writer and satirist based in New York. From a conflicted and unhappy childhood, Parker rose to acclaim, both for her literary works published in such magazines as The New Yorker and as a founding member of the Algonquin Round Table. Following the breakup of the circle, Parker traveled to Hollywood to pursue screenwriting, her successes there, including two Academy Award nominations, were curtailed when her involvement in left-wing politics resulted in her being placed on the Hollywood blacklist. Dismissive of her own talents, she deplored her reputation as a "wisecracker". Both her literary output and reputation for sharp wit have endured. Known as Dot or Dottie, Parker was born Dorothy Rothschild in 1893 to Jacob Henry and Eliza Annie Rothschild at 732 Ocean Avenue in Long Branch, New Jersey, her parents had a summer beach cottage there. Dorothy's mother was of Scottish descent, her father was of German Jewish descent. Parker wrote in her essay "My Hometown" that her parents returned to their Manhattan apartment shortly after Labor Day so that she could be called a true New Yorker.
Her mother died in West End in July 1898, a month before Parker's fifth birthday. Her father remarried in 1900 to Eleanor Frances Lewis. Parker hated her father, she grew up on the Upper West Side and attended a Roman Catholic elementary school at the Convent of the Blessed Sacrament on West 79th Street with sister Helen, although their father was Jewish and her stepmother was Protestant. Parker once joked that she was asked to leave following her characterization of the Immaculate Conception as "spontaneous combustion", her stepmother died in 1903. Parker attended Miss Dana's School, a finishing school in Morristown, New Jersey, she graduated from Miss Dana's School in 1911, at the age of 18. Following her father's death in 1913, she played piano at a dancing school to earn a living while she worked on her poetry. Dorothy Rothschild sold her first poem to Vanity Fair magazine in 1914 and some months was hired as an editorial assistant for Vogue, another Condé Nast magazine, she moved to Vanity Fair as a staff writer after two years at Vogue.
In 1917, she met and married a Wall Street stockbroker, Edwin Pond Parker II, but they were soon separated by his army service in World War I. She had ambivalent feelings about her Jewish heritage and joked that she married to escape her name. Parker's career took off in 1918 while she was writing theatre criticism for Vanity Fair, filling in for the vacationing P. G. Wodehouse. At the magazine, she met Robert Benchley, who became a close friend, Robert E. Sherwood; the trio began lunching at the Algonquin Hotel on a near-daily basis and became founding members of what became known as the Algonquin Round Table. The Round Table numbered among its members the newspaper columnists Franklin Pierce Adams and Alexander Woollcott. Through their publication of Parker's lunchtime remarks and short verses in Adams' column "The Conning Tower", Dorothy began developing a national reputation as a wit; when the group was informed that famously taciturn former president Calvin Coolidge had died, Parker remarked, "How could they tell?"Parker's caustic wit as a critic proved popular, but she was dismissed by Vanity Fair in 1920 after her criticisms too offended powerful producers.
In solidarity, both Benchley and Sherwood resigned in protest. She soon started working for Ainslee's Magazine, she published pieces in Vanity Fair, happier to publish her than employ her, The Smart Set, The American Mercury, but in the popular Ladies’ Home Journal, Saturday Evening Post, Life. When Harold Ross founded The New Yorker in 1925, Parker and Benchley were part of a board of editors established by Ross to allay concerns of his investors. Parker's first piece for the magazine was published in its second issue. Parker became famous for her short, viciously humorous poems, many highlighting ludicrous aspects of her many romantic affairs and others wistfully considering the appeal of suicide; the next 15 years were Parker's greatest period of success. In the 1920s alone she published some 300 poems and free verses in Vanity Fair, Vogue, "The Conning Tower" and The New Yorker as well as Life, McCall's and The New Republic. Parker published her first volume of poetry, Enough Rope, in 1926.
The collection garnered impressive reviews. The Nation described her verse as "caked with a salty humor, rough with splinters of disillusion, tarred with a bright black authenticity". Although some critics, notably The New York Times reviewer, dismissed her work as "flapper verse", the volume helped affirm Parker's reputation for sparkling wit. Parker released two more volumes of verse, Sunset Gun and Death and Taxes, along with the short story collections Laments for the Living and After Such Pleasures. Not So Deep as a Well collected much of the material published in Rope and Death and she re-released her fiction with a few new pieces in 1939 under the title Here Lies, she collaborated with playwright Elmer Rice to create Close Harmony, which ran on Broadway in December 1924. The play was well received in out-of-town previews and was favorably reviewed in New York but it closed after a run of just 24 performances, it d