National Register of Historic Places listings in Pennsylvania
This is a list of properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Pennsylvania. As of 2015, there are over 3,000 listed sites in Pennsylvania. Sixty-six of the 67 counties in Pennsylvania have listings on the National Register; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 5, 2019. The following are approximate tallies of current listings in Pennsylvania on the National Register of Historic Places; these counts are based on entries in the National Register Information Database as of April 24, 2008 and new weekly listings posted since on the National Register of Historic Places web site. There are frequent additions to the listings and occasional delistings and the counts here are not official; the counts in this table exclude boundary increase and decrease listings which modify the area covered by an existing property or district and which carry a separate National Register reference number. 16 percent of the NRHP's in Pennsylvania are in Philadelphia, nearly 40 percent are located within the Delaware Valley.
List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Pennsylvania List of covered bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Pennsylvania List of National Historic Landmarks in Pennsylvania List of National Historic Landmarks in Philadelphia List of Pennsylvania state historical markers National Register: Delaware and Lehigh National Heritage Corridor – travel Itinerary National Register: Aboard the Underground Railroad Information and photos for the numerous historic bridges in western Pennsylvania
National Register of Historic Places listings in Chester County, Pennsylvania
There are 320 properties and districts listed on the National Register in Chester County, United States. This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 5, 2019. For the purposes of this list, the county is split into three regions: Eastern and Southern. Eastern Chester County is defined as being the municipalities south and east of a line extending from Phoenixville to Exton to West Chester. One district is split between Eastern Chester County. List of Pennsylvania state historical markers in Chester County
National Register of Historic Places property types
The U. S. National Register of Historic Places classifies its listings by various types of properties. Listed properties fall into one of five categories, though there are special considerations for other types of properties which do not fit into these five broad categories or fit into more specialized subcategories; the five general categories for NRHP properties are: building, object and structure. Listed properties fall into one of five categories, though there are special considerations for other types of properties which do not fit into these five broad categories or fit into more specialized subcategories; the five general categories for NRHP properties are: building, object and district. I When multiple like properties are submitted as a group and listed together, they are known as a Multiple Property Submission. Buildings, as defined by the National Register, are structures intended to shelter some sort of human activity. Examples include a house, hotel, church or similar construction.
The term building, as in outbuilding, can be used to refer to and functionally related units, such as a courthouse and a jail, or a barn and a house. Buildings included on the National Register of Historic Places must have all of their basic structural elements as parts of buildings, such as ells and wings; as such, the whole building is considered during the nomination and its significant features must be identified. If a nominated building has lost any of its basic structural elements, it is considered a ruin and categorized as a site; the National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, last revised in 2004. According to the Register definition, a historic district is: "a geographically definable area, urban or rural, possessing a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, structures, or objects united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical development. In addition, historic districts consist of non-contributing properties.
Historic districts possess a concentration, linkage or continuity of the other four types of properties. Objects, structures and sites within a historic district are thematically linked by architectural style or designer, date of development, distinctive urban plan, and/or historic associations." For example, the largest collection of houses from 17th and 18th century America are found in the McIntire Historic District in Salem, Massachusetts. Some NRHP-listed historic districts are further designated as National Historic Landmarks, termed National Historic Landmark Districts. All National Historic Landmarks are NRHP-listed. A contributing property is any building, object or site within the boundaries of the district which reflects the significance of the district as a whole, either because of historic associations, historic architectural qualities or archaeological features. Another key aspect of the contributing property is historic integrity. Significant alterations to a property can damage its physical connections with the past, lowering its historic integrity.
Objects are artistic in nature, or small in scale when compared to structures and buildings. Though objects may be movable, they are associated with a specific setting or environment. Examples of objects include monuments and fountains. Objects considered for inclusion on the NRHP, whether individually or as part of districts, should be designed for a specific location. Fixed outdoor sculpture, an example of public art, is appropriate for inclusion on the Register; the setting of an object is important in relation to the Register. It should be appropriate to roles, or character. In addition, objects that have been relocated to museums are not considered for inclusion on the Register. Sites may include discrete areas significant for activities in that location in the past, such as battlefields, significant archaeological finds, designed landscapes, other locations whose significance is not related to a building or structure. Sites possess significance for their potential to yield information in the future, though they are added to the Register under all four of the criteria for inclusion.
A sites need not have actual physical remains if it marks the location of a prehistoric or historic event, or if there were no buildings or structures present at the time of the events marked by the site. Site determination requires careful evaluation when the location of prehistoric or historic events cannot be conclusively determined. Structures differ from buildings, in that they are functional constructions meant to be used for purposes other than sheltering human activity. Examples include, a ship, a grain elevator, a gazebo and a bridge; the criteria of significance are applied to nominated structures in much the same fashion as they are for buildings. The basic structural elements must all be intact. An example would be a truss bridge being considered for inclusion. Said truss bridge is composed of metal or wooden truss and supporting piers. Structures that have lost their historic configuration or pattern of organization through demolition or deterioration, much like buildings, are considered ruins and classified as sites.
There are several other types of properties that do not fall neatly into the categories listed abo
Jane Jacobs was an American-Canadian journalist and activist who influenced urban studies and economics. Her book The Death and Life of Great American Cities argued that urban renewal did not respect the needs of city-dwellers, it introduced the sociological concepts "eyes on the street" and "social capital". Jacobs organized grassroots efforts to protect neighborhoods from "slum clearance", in particular Robert Moses' plans to overhaul her own Greenwich Village neighborhood, she was instrumental in the eventual cancellation of the Lower Manhattan Expressway, which would have passed directly through SoHo and Little Italy. She was arrested in 1968 for inciting a crowd at a public hearing on that project. After moving to Toronto in 1968, she joined the opposition to the Spadina Expressway and the associated network of expressways in Toronto planned, under construction; as a mother and a writer who criticized experts in the male-dominated field of urban planning, Jacobs endured scorn from established figures.
She was described as a housewife first. She did not have a college degree or any formal training in urban planning, her lack of credentials was seized upon as grounds for criticism. Jacobs was born Jane Isabel Butzner in Scranton, the daughter of Bess Robison Butzner, a former teacher and nurse and John Decker Butzner, a physician, they were a Protestant family in a Roman Catholic town. Her brother, John Decker Butzner, Jr. served as a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. After graduation from Scranton High School, she worked for a year as the unpaid assistant to the women's page editor at the Scranton Tribune. In 1935, during the Great Depression, she moved to New York City with her sister Betty. Jane Butzner took an immediate liking to Manhattan's Greenwich Village, which did not conform to the city's grid structure; the sisters soon moved there from Brooklyn. During her early years in the city, Jacobs held a variety of jobs working as a stenographer and freelance writer, writing about working districts in the city.
These experiences, she said, "gave me more of a notion of what was going on in the city and what business was like, what work was like." Her first job was for a trade magazine as a secretary an editor. She sold articles to the Sunday Herald Tribune, Cue magazine, Vogue, she studied at Columbia University's School of General Studies for two years, taking courses in geology, law, political science, economics. About the freedom to pursue study across her wide-ranging interests, she said: For the first time I liked school and for the first time I made good marks; this was my undoing because after I had garnered, statistically, a certain number of credits I became the property of Barnard College at Columbia, once I was the property of Barnard I had to take, it seemed, what Barnard wanted me to take, not what I wanted to learn. My high-school marks had been so bad that Barnard decided I could not belong to it and I was therefore allowed to continue getting an education. After attending Columbia University's School of General Studies for two years, Butzner found a job at Iron Age magazine.
Her 1943 article on economic decline in Scranton was well-publicized and led the Murray Corporation of America to locate a warplane factory there. Encouraged by this success, Butzner petitioned the War Production Board to support more operations in Scranton. Experiencing job discrimination at Iron Age, she advocated for equal pay for women and for the right of workers to unionize, she became a feature writer for the Office of War Information, a reporter for Amerika, a publication of the U. S. State Department. While working there she met Robert Hyde Jacobs Jr. a Columbia-educated architect, designing warplanes for Grumman. They married in 1944. Together they had a daughter and two sons and Ned, they bought a three-story building at 555 Hudson St. Jane continued to write for Amerika after the war, while Robert left Grumman and resumed work as an architect; the Jacobses rejected the growing suburbs as "parasitic", choosing to remain in Greenwich Village. They renovated their house, in the middle of a mixed residential and commercial area, created a garden in the backyard.
Working for the State Department during the McCarthy era, Jacobs received a questionnaire about her political beliefs and loyalties. Jacobs was anti-communist, had left the Federal Workers Union because of its apparent communist sympathies, she was pro-union and purportedly appreciated the writing of Saul Alinsky. On March 25, 1952, Jacobs delivered her response to Conrad E. Snow, chairman of the Loyalty Security Board at the United States Department of State. In her foreword to her answer, she said: The other threat to the security of our tradition, I believe, lies at home, it is the current fear of people who propound them. I do not agree with the extremists of either the left or the right, but I think they should be allowed to speak and to publish, both because they themselves have, ought to have and once their rights are gone, the rights of the rest of us are hardly safe... Jacobs left Amerika in 1952 when it announced its relocation to Washington, D. C, she found a well-paying job at Architectural Forum, published by Henry Luce of Time Inc.
After early success on the job, Jacobs began to take assignments on urban planning and "urban blight". In 1954, she was assigned to cover a development in Philadelphia designed by Edmund Bacon. Although her editors expected a positive story, Jacobs criticized Bacon's project, reacting against its lack of concern for the poor African Americans who were directly affected
National Register of Historic Places listings in Adams County, Pennsylvania
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Adams County, Pennsylvania. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Adams County, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map. There are 35 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county. One site is further designated as a National Historic Site and another is designated as a National Military Park. Another property has been removed; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 5, 2019. List of Pennsylvania state historical markers in Adams County
Historic districts in the United States
Historic districts in the United States are designated historic districts recognizing a group of buildings, properties, or sites by one of several entities on different levels as or architecturally significant. Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts vary in size: some have hundreds of structures, while others have just a few; the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, but listing imposes no restrictions on what property owners may do with a designated property. State-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level.
Local districts are administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, predating the U. S. federal government designation by more than three decades. Charleston city government designated an "Old and Historic District" by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it. New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission and authorizing it to act to maintain the historic character of the city's French Quarter. Other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955; the regulatory authority of local commissions and historic districts has been upheld as a legitimate use of government police power, most notably in Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of New York; the Supreme Court case validated the protection of historic resources as "an permissible governmental goal." In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, soon after a report from the U.
S. Conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from "rootlessness." By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts. Some states, such as Arizona, have passed referendums defending property rights that have stopped private property being designated historic without the property owner's consent or compensation for the historic overlay. Historic districts are two types of properties and non-contributing. Broadly defined, a contributing property is any property, structure or object which adds to the historical integrity or architectural qualities that make a historic district, listed locally or federally, significant. Different entities governmental, at both the state and national level in the United States, have differing definitions of contributing property but they all retain the same basic characteristics. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context and character of a historic district. In addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories.
They are, structure, site and object. All but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register. A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district. However, the Register is "an honorary status with some federal financial incentives." The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, last revised in 2004. According to the Register definition a historic district is: a geographically definable area, urban or rural, possessing a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, structures, or objects united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical development. A district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register is the official recognition by the U.
S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, it is only in cases where the threatening action involves the federal government. If the federal government is not involved the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. For example, if company A wants to tear down the hypothetical Smith House and company A is under contract with the state government of Illinois the federal designation would offer no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected. A federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation. In general, the criteria for acceptance to the National Register are applied but there are considerations for exceptions to the criteria and historic districts have influence on some of those exceptions; the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, or properties that have achieved significance within the last 50 years.
However, if a property falls into one of those categories and are "integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria" an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic dis
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat