Wine is an alcoholic drink made from fermented grapes. Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol, carbon dioxide, heat. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine; these variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir, the production process. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define qualities of wine; these restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production. Wines not made from grapes include rice wine and fruit wines such as plum, pomegranate and elderberry. Wine has been produced for thousands of years; the earliest known traces of wine are from Georgia and Sicily although there is evidence of a similar alcoholic drink being consumed earlier in China. The earliest known winery is the 6,100-year-old Areni-1 winery in Armenia. Wine reached the Balkans by 4500 BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancient Greece and Rome.
Throughout history, wine has been consumed for its intoxicating effects. Wine has long played an important role in religion. Red wine was associated with blood by the ancient Egyptians and was used by both the Greek cult of Dionysus and the Romans in their Bacchanalia; the earliest archaeological and archaeobotanical evidence for grape wine and viniculture, dating to 6000–5800 BC was found on the territory of modern Georgia. Both archaeological and genetic evidence suggest that the earliest production of wine elsewhere was later having taken place in the Southern Caucasus, or the West Asian region between Eastern Turkey, northern Iran; the earliest evidence of a grape-based fermented drink was found in China, Georgia from 6000 BC, Iran from 5000 BC, Sicily from 4000 BC. The earliest evidence of a wine production facility is the Areni-1 winery in Armenia and is at least 6100 years old. A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with rice to produce mixed fermented drinks in China in the early years of the seventh millennium BC.
Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu, contained traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds found in wine. However, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, cannot be ruled out. If these drinks, which seem to be the precursors of rice wine, included grapes rather than other fruits, they would have been any of the several dozen indigenous wild species in China, rather than Vitis vinifera, introduced there 6000 years later; the spread of wine culture westwards was most due to the Phoenicians who spread outward from a base of city-states along the Mediterranean coast of what are today Syria, Lebanon and Palestine. The wines of Byblos were exported to Egypt during the Old Kingdom and throughout the Mediterranean. Evidence includes two Phoenician shipwrecks from 750 BC discovered by Robert Ballard, whose cargo of wine was still intact; as the first great traders in wine, the Phoenicians seem to have protected it from oxidation with a layer of olive oil, followed by a seal of pinewood and resin, similar to retsina.
Although the nuragic Sardinians consumed wine before the arrival of the Phoenicians The earliest remains of Apadana Palace in Persepolis dating back to 515 BC include carvings depicting soldiers from Achaemenid Empire subject nations bringing gifts to the Achaemenid king, among them Armenians bringing their famous wine. Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer and others. In ancient Egypt, six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y", a royal chief vintner. Five of these amphoras were designated as originating from the king's personal estate, with the sixth from the estate of the royal house of Aten. Traces of wine have been found in central Asian Xinjiang in modern-day China, dating from the second and first millennia BC; the first known mention of grape-based wines in India is from the late 4th-century BC writings of Chanakya, the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. In his writings, Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of wine known as madhu.
The ancient Romans planted vineyards near garrison towns so wine could be produced locally rather than shipped over long distances. Some of these areas are now world-renowned for wine production; the Romans discovered that burning sulfur candles inside empty wine vessels kept them fresh and free from a vinegar smell. In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church supported wine because the clergy required it for the Mass. Monks in France made wine for years. An old English recipe that survived in various forms until the 19th century calls for refining white wine from bastard—bad or tainted bastardo wine; the English word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic *winam, an early borrowing from the Latin vinum, "wine" or " vine", itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o-. The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo, meaning "in" or " of the new wine", wo-no-wa-ti-si, meaning "wine garden", written in Linear B inscriptions. Linear B includes, inter alia, an ideogram for wine
White wine is a wine, fermented without skin contact. The colour can be yellow-green, or yellow-gold, it is produced by the alcoholic fermentation of the non-coloured pulp of grapes, which may have a skin of any colour. White wine has existed for at least 2500 years; the wide variety of white wines comes from the large number of varieties, methods of winemaking, ratios of residual sugar. White wine is from "white" grapes, which are green or yellow in colour, such as the Chardonnay and Riesling; some white wine is made from grapes with coloured skin, provided that the obtained wort is not stained. Pinot noir, for example, is used to produce champagne. Among the many types of white wine, dry white wine is the most common. More or less aromatic and tangy, it is derived from the complete fermentation of the wort. Sweet wines, on the other hand, are produced by interrupting the fermentation before all the grape sugars are converted into alcohol; the methods of enriching wort with sugar are multiple: on-ripening on the vine, passerillage, or the use of noble rot.
Sparkling wines, which are white, are wines where the carbon dioxide from the fermentation is kept dissolved in the wine and becomes gas when the bottle is opened. White wines are used as an apéritif before a meal, with dessert, or as a refreshing drink between meals. White wines are considered more refreshing, lighter in both style and taste than the majority of their red wine counterparts. In addition, due to their acidity and ability to soften meat and deglaze cooking juices, white wines are used in cooking; the first trace of wine, found dates to 7500 years ago, in present-day Iran but the results of archaeological excavations have not been able to determine from which time wine began to be produced. Epigraphy tells us about the presence of wine in the Middle East: it was produced in the "High Country" and imported into Mesopotamia from the 3rd millennium BC; the tablets of Hattusa describes wine with the term wiyana in the Hittite language, GEŠTIN in Sumerian, karânu in Akkadian. It could be red, good wine, honeyed new, or sour.
In Ancient Greece wine had been developed and used since Hippocrates, a physician born around 460 BC who prescribed it to patients. "Vinous white wine" and "bitter white wine" were used among his remedies – a sign of diversity in production at that time. In Roman times the type of viticulture practiced by the Greeks was their model for a long time and production included white wine. Rich Roman patricians organized banquets. In the range of expensive products wine played a predominant role; the richest citizens built sumptuous villas in the Bay of Naples where the vine had been cultivated since its introduction by the Greeks. The aminum or ancient grape produced a sweet white wine produced as mulled wine resembling modern-day Madeira; the conquering of regions more and more to the north encouraged the Romans to cultivate the vine and to produce lighter and less sweet wines. It encouraged them to seek new wild varieties adaptable to these distant areas where the Mediterranean varieties showed their limits.
For example, vines were planted on the banks of the Rhine to provide the Legions with a healthy drink as opposed to water, drinkable. The wine was drunk cool in summer and warm in winter a practice which still continues in the 21st century. Wine merchants failed to survive the fall of the Western Roman Empire and viticulture declined dramatically; the Germanic tribes did not see the value of the wine trade. The decline of viticulture was intensified. In the south the Saracens were making raids; these campaigns in southern Europe caused Languedoc, Southern Italy, the Douro Valley to become depopulated – the people being taken into slavery or fleeing the threat. Knowledge about the culture of grapevines was conserved by the Catholic Church: wine was necessary for the celebration of Mass and the monks planted vines at high latitudes and increased the monastic acreages. Difficult to transport and store, wine long remained a product for local consumption; the trade was re-established after the enrichment of the nobles and prelates because, as with the Romans, the art of the table reflected the reputation of the host.
River trade was of great importance in the development of vineyards. The Germanic countries benefited from the navigability of the Rhine and the Danube so they could export their production. Charlemagne contributed to this growth by enacting his Capitulare de villis which included a set of rules on the cultivation of the vine in all areas, it was an era of great development of the culture of white wine in Austria. The Central European vineyards reached 100,000 hectares, three and a half times the area in the 1990s. From the 13th century traders distinguished vinum hunicum, drunk by the people, from vinum francium, the wine for the wealthy aristocracy. There was recognition of varieties of Sylvaner from the late Middle Ages. Part of European trade was by sea along the Atlantic coast; the English the Dutch and Scandinavians from their demand for wine, created a craze for planting between Bordeaux and La Rochelle. Little dry white wine was produced for export from La Rochelle while Bordeaux exported wines from the hinterland received via the Garonne.
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Many grape names redirect here. For the list, see below: Synonyms. Gewürztraminer is an aromatic wine grape variety, used in white wines, performs best in cooler climates. In English, it is sometimes referred to colloquially as Gewürz, in French it is written Gewurztraminer. Gewürztraminer is a variety with a pink to red skin colour, which makes it a "white wine grape" as opposed to the blue to black-skinned varieties referred to as "red wine grapes"; the variety has high natural sugar and the wines are white and off-dry, with a flamboyant bouquet of lychees. Indeed, Gewürztraminer and lychees share the same aroma compounds. Dry Gewürztraminers may have aromas of roses, passion fruit and floral notes, it is not uncommon to notice some spritz. Gewürztraminer's sweetness may offset the spice in Asian cuisine, it pairs well with Maroilles, Livarot, or Munster cheese, fleshy, fatty wild game. The German name Gewürztraminer means "Spice Traminer" or "Perfumed Traminer", comes from the Alsace region in France.
This grape variety is a mutation of the Savagnin blanc named Traminer in South Tyrol. The history of the Traminer family is complicated, not helped by its rather unstable genome; the story starts with the ancient Traminer variety, a green-skinned grape that takes its name from the village of Tramin, located in South Tyrol, the German-speaking province in northern Italy. The famous ampelographer Pierre Galet thought that Traminer was identical to the green-skinned Savagnin blanc that makes vin jaune in the Jura. More it has been suggested that Savagnin blanc acquired slight differences in its leaf shape and geraniol content as it travelled to the other end of the Alps. Frankisch in Austria, Gringet in Savoie, Heida in Switzerland, Formentin in Hungary and Grumin from Bohemia are all similar to Savagnin blanc and represent clones of the Traminer family, if not Traminer itself; the Viognier of the Rhone Valley may be a more distant relative of Savagnin blanc. At some point, either Traminer or Savagnin blanc mutated into a form with pink-skinned berries, called Red Traminer or Savagnin rose.
Galet believed that a musqué mutation in the Red Traminer/Savagnin rose led to the extra-aromatic Gewürztraminer, although in Germany these names are all regarded as synonymous. With these convoluted genetics happening in the area, the front line for a millennium of wars in Europe, it is maybe not surprising that vines have been misnamed. Given that the wine made from'Gewürztraminer' in Germany can be much less aromatic than that in Alsace, some of the German vines may well be misidentified Savagnin Rose; the Baden vineyard of Durbach claims its own type of Red Traminer called Durbacher Clevner. The story goes that in 1780 Karl Friedrich, Grand Duke of Baden brought vines from Chiavenna in Italy, halfway between Tramin and the Jura, known to the Germans as Cleven; the Klevener de Heiligenstein or Heiligensteiner Klevener found around Heiligenstein in Alsace may represent an outpost of the Durbach vines. They are described as a less aromatic form of Gewürztraminer. Traminer is recorded in Tramin from ca. 1000 until the 16th century.
It was spread down the Rhine to Alsace, by way of the Palatinate, where Gewürz was added to its name – this was when one of the mutations happened. The longer name was first used in Alsace in 1870 – without the umlaut, it is not clear what this name change represents, as it seems too great a coincidence that the musqué mutation happened just after the arrival of the great phylloxera epidemic. More an existing mutant was selected for grafting onto phylloxera-resistant rootstocks when the vineyards were replanted. In 1973 the name Traminer was discontinued in Alsace except for in the Heiligenstein area; the Germans have tried hard to breed the flavours of Gewürztraminer into vines that are easier to grow. In 1932, Georg Scheu crossed Gewürztraminer with Müller-Thurgau to produce Würzer, a little of, grown in Rheinhessen and in England. Similar crosses at Alzey and Würzburg have produced Septimer and the reasonably successful Perle; the early-ripening Siegerrebe is the result of a cross with Madeleine Angevine at Alzey and is notable for producing the highest must weight recorded in Germany, 326 °Oechsle.
A cross between Müller-Thurgau and Siegerrebe produced Ortega. Cserszegi fűszeres is the result of a Hungarian cross with Irsai Oliver. In 1938, Harold Olmo crossed Sémillon and Gewürztraminer at U. C. Davis to make Flora, grown a little in California and New Zealand – in the latter it was mistaken for a late-ripening clone of Pinot gris. Brown Bros blend it with Orange Muscat in Australia. In 1965, Gewürztraminer was crossed with Joannes Seyve 23.416 at the University of Illinois to produce a hybrid variety called Traminette. Traminette is more cold-tolerant than the original, while maintaining most of the desirable taste and aroma characteristics. In the late 20th century, Australian viticulturalist and grape breeder A. J. Antcliff crossed Gewürztraminer with Merbein 29-56 to create the white grape variety Taminga. During a series of trials between 1924 and 1930, Gewürztraminer was crossed with Trebbiano to create the pink-skinned Italian wine grape variety Manzoni rosa. In 1970s, Czech winemaker and grape breeder Ing.
Jan Veverka crossed in former Czechoslovakia Gewürztraminer with Müller-Thurgau to create the wine grape variety Pálava (the name refers to the Pálava hills located i
A rosé is a type of wine that incorporates some of the color from the grape skins, but not enough to qualify it as a red wine. It may be the oldest known type of wine, as it is the most straightforward to make with the skin contact method; the pink color can range from a pale "onion-skin" orange to a vivid near-purple, depending on the varietals used and winemaking techniques. There are three major ways to produce rosé wine: skin contact, saignée, blending. Rosé wines can be made still, semi-sparkling or sparkling and with a wide range of sweetness levels from dry Provençal rosé to sweet White Zinfandels and blushes. Rosé wines can be found all around the globe; when rosé wine is the primary product, it is produced with the skin contact method. Black-skinned grapes are crushed and the skins are allowed to remain in contact with the juice for a short period two to twenty hours; the must is pressed, the skins are discarded rather than left in contact throughout fermentation. The longer that the skins are left in contact with the juice, the more intense the color of the final wine.
When a winemaker desires to impart more tannin and color to a red wine, some of the pink juice from the must can be removed at an early stage in what is known as the Saignée method. The red wine remaining in the vats is intensified as a result of the bleeding, because the volume of juice in the must is reduced, the must involved in the maceration becomes more concentrated; the pink juice, removed can be fermented separately to produce rosé. The simple mixing of red wine into white wine to impart color is uncommon, is discouraged in most wine growing regions in France, where it is forbidden by law, except for Champagne. In Champagne, several high-end producers do not use this method but rather the saignée method; when the first wine labeled as a rosé was produced is not known but it is likely that many of the earliest red wines made were closer in appearance to today's rosés than they would be to modern red wines. This is because many of the winemaking techniques used to make today's darker, more tannic red wines were not practiced in ancient winemaking.
Both red and white wine grapes were pressed soon after harvest, with little maceration time, by hand, feet or sack cloth creating juice, only pigmented. After the development of newer, more efficient wine presses, many ancient and early winemakers still preferred making the lighter colored and fruitier style of wines. There was an understanding, as early as the time of the Ancient Greeks and Roman winemakers, that harder pressing and letting the juice "sit" for a period with the skins would make darker, heartier wines but the resulting wines were considered too harsh and less desirable; this sentiment lasted well into the Middle Ages, when the pale clarets from Bordeaux were starting to gain the world's attention. To the powerful English market the most prized clarets were, according to wine historian Hugh Johnson, the vin d'une nuit or "wine of one night" which were pale-rosé colored wines made from juice, allowed only a single night of skin contact; the darker wine produced from must that had longer skin contact were known as the vin vermeilh was considered to be of much lesser quality.
In the early history of Champagne the wines produced from this region during the Middle Ages were nothing like the sparkling white wines associated with the region today. Instead they were pale red and pinkish with some Champenois winemakers using elderberries to add more red color to the wines as they competed with the wines of Burgundy for the lucrative Flemish wine trade. In the 16th and 17th century, the region achieved some acclaim for their "white" wines made from Pinot noir grapes but rather than being white these wines were instead a pale "greyish pink", reminiscent of a "partridge's eye" and earned the nickname Œil de Perdrix—a style of rosé still being produced in Switzerland. In the late 17th century, the Champenois learned how to better separate the skins from the must and produce white wine from red wine grapes; as Champenois moved towards producing sparkling wines, they continued to produce both sparkling and still rosés by means of blending a small amount of red wine to "color up" an made white wine.
The depth of color was dependent on the amount red wine added with the red wine having more influence on the resulting flavor of the wine if added in larger volumes. The history of rosé would take a dramatic turn following the conclusion of World War II when two Portuguese wine producer families both released sweet sparkling rosés to the European and American markets; these wines and Lancers, would go to set record sales in Europe and the US and dominate the Portuguese wine industry for most of the 20th century but their popularity has declined in the recent years of the 21st century. While they still have a presence in the European and US markets, the trend towards traditional, drier rosés as well as the development of American "blush" wines like White Zinfandel have cut into their market shares. In the early 1970s, demand for white wine exceeded the availability of white wine grapes, so many California producers made "white" wine from red grapes, in a form of saignée production with minimal skin contact, the "whiter" the better.
In 1975, Sutter Home's "White Zinfandel" wine experienced a stuck fermentation, a problem in which the yeast goes dormant, or in some cases di
Isère is a department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France named after the river Isère. Isère is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790, it was created from the main part of the former province of Dauphiné. Its area has been reduced twice, in 1852 and again in 1967, on both occasions losing territory to the department of Rhône. In 1852 in response to rapid urban development around the edge of Lyon, the communes of Bron, Vaulx-en-Velin, Vénissieux and Villeurbanne were transferred to Rhône. In 1967 the redrawing of local government borders led to the creation of the Urban Community of Lyon. At that time intercommunal groupings of this nature were not permitted to straddle departmental frontiers, accordingly 23 more Isère communes found themselves transferred to Rhône; the affected Isère communes were Chaponnay, Communay, Corbas, Décines-Charpieu, Genas, Jons, Meyzieu, Pusignan, Saint-Bonnet-de-Mure, Saint-Laurent-de-Mure, Saint-Pierre-de-Chandieu, Saint-Priest, Saint-Symphorien-d'Ozon, Sérézin-du-Rhône, Solaize and Toussieu.
Most on 1 April 1971, Colombier-Saugnieu was lost to Rhône. Banners appeared in the commune's three little villages at the time proclaiming "Dauphinois toujours" Isère was the name of the French ship which delivered the 214 boxes holding the Statue of Liberty. Isère is part of the current region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes and is surrounded by the departments of Rhône, Savoie, Hautes-Alpes, Drôme, Ardèche, Loire. Isère includes a part of the French Alps; the highest point in the department is the Sub-Peak "Pic Lory" at 4,088 metres, subsidiary to the Barre des Écrins. The summit of La Meije at 3,988 metres is well known; the Vercors Plateau aesthetically dominates the western area of the department. Inhabitants of the department are called Isérois; the President of the General Council is André Vallini of the Socialist Party. The Grande Chartreuse is the mother abbey of the Carthusian order, it is located 14 miles north of Grenoble. As early as the 13th century, residents of the north and central parts of Isère spoke a dialect of the Franco-Provençal language called Dauphinois.
It continued to be spoken in rural areas of Isère into the 20th century. Isère features many ski resorts, including the Alpe d'Huez, Les Deux Alpes, the 1968 Winter Olympics resorts of Chamrousse, Villard de Lans, Autrans. Other popular resorts include Les 7 Laux, Le Collet d'Allevard, Méaudre, Saint-Pierre-de-Chartreuse, Alpe du Grand Serre, Gresse-en-Vercors. Grenoble has a dozen museums, including the most famous created in Grenoble in 1798, the Museum of Grenoble, it is the third largest ski and winter destination of France, after Savoie and Haute-Savoie, before Hautes-Alpes. It hosts Coupe Icare, an annual festival of free flight, such as paragliding and hang-gliding, held at the world-renowned paragliding site at Lumbin. Cantons of the Isère department Communes of the Isère department Arrondissements of the Isère department
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine, juice, grape seed extract, raisins and grape seed oil. Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit occurring in clusters; the cultivation of the domesticated grape began 6,000–8,000 years ago in the Near East. Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs on the skins of grapes, leading to the discovery of alcoholic drinks such as wine; the earliest archeological evidence for a dominant position of wine-making in human culture dates from 8,000 years ago in Georgia. The oldest known winery was found in Armenia, dating to around 4000 BC. By the 9th century AD the city of Shiraz was known to produce some of the finest wines in the Middle East, thus it has been proposed that Syrah red wine is named after Shiraz, a city in Persia where the grape was used to make Shirazi wine. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of purple grapes, history attests to the ancient Greeks and Romans growing purple grapes for both eating and wine production.
The growing of grapes would spread to other regions in Europe, as well as North Africa, in North America. In North America, native grapes belonging to various species of the genus Vitis proliferate in the wild across the continent, were a part of the diet of many Native Americans, but were considered by early European colonists to be unsuitable for wine. In the 19th century, Ephraim Bull of Concord, cultivated seeds from wild Vitis labrusca vines to create the Concord grape which would become an important agricultural crop in the United States. Grapes are a type of fruit that grow in clusters of 15 to 300, can be crimson, dark blue, green and pink. "White" grapes are green in color, are evolutionarily derived from the purple grape. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins, which are responsible for the color of purple grapes. Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines.
Grapes are an ellipsoid shape resembling a prolate spheroid. Most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. Minor amounts of fruit and wine come from American and Asian species such as: Vitis amurensis, the most important Asian species Vitis labrusca, the North American table and grape juice grapevines, sometimes used for wine, are native to the Eastern United States and Canada. Vitis mustangensis, found in Mississippi, Louisiana and Oklahoma Vitis riparia, a wild vine of North America, is sometimes used for winemaking and for jam, it is native to the entire Eastern U. S. and north to Quebec. Vitis rotundifolia used for jams and wine, are native to the Southeastern United States from Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, 75,866 square kilometers of the world are dedicated to grapes. 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, 2% as dried fruit. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be reconstituted for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural".
The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year. There are no reliable statistics, it is believed that the most planted variety is Sultana known as Thompson Seedless, with at least 3,600 km2 dedicated to it. The second most common variety is Airén. Other popular varieties include Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc, Cabernet Franc, Grenache, Tempranillo and Chardonnay. Commercially cultivated grapes can be classified as either table or wine grapes, based on their intended method of consumption: eaten raw or used to make wine. While all of them belong to the same species, Vitis vinifera and wine grapes have significant differences, brought about through selective breeding. Table grape cultivars tend to have large, seedless fruit with thin skin. Wine grapes are smaller seeded, have thick skins. Wine grapes tend to be sweet: they are harvested at the time when their juice is 24% sugar by weight. By comparison, commercially produced "100% grape juice", made from table grapes, is around 15% sugar by weight.
Seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings. Because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction, it is an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques. There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources: Thompson Seedless, Russian Seedless, Black Monukka, all being cultivars of Vitis vinifera. There are more than a dozen varieties of seedless grapes. Several, such as Einset Seedless, Benjamin Gunnels's Prime seedless grapes and Venus, have been cultivated for hardiness and quality in the cold climates of northeastern United States and southern Ontario. An offset to the improved eating quality of seedlessness is the loss of potential health benefits provided by the enriched phytochemical conten