Gaius Julius Caesar, known by his nomen and cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, military general, historian who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. He wrote Latin prose. In 60 BC, Caesar and Pompey formed the First Triumvirate, a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years, their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar rose to become one of the most powerful politicians in the Roman Republic through a number of his accomplishments, notably his victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC. During this time, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the English Channel and the Rhine River, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. Caesar's wars extended Rome's territory to past Gaul; these achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC.
With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Leaving his command in Gaul meant losing his immunity from being charged as a criminal for waging unsanctioned wars; as a result, Caesar found himself with no other options but to cross the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman Italy under arms. This began Caesar's civil war, his victory in the war put him in an unrivaled position of power and influence. After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar, he gave citizenship to many residents of far regions of the Roman Empire. He initiated land support for veterans, he centralized the bureaucracy of the Republic and was proclaimed "dictator for life", giving him additional authority. His populist and authoritarian reforms angered the elites. On the Ides of March, 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of rebellious senators led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Marcus Junius Brutus and Decimus Junius Brutus, who stabbed him to death.
A new series of civil wars broke out and the constitutional government of the Republic was never restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian known as Augustus, rose to sole power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, the era of the Roman Empire began. Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns and from other contemporary sources the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust; the biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are major sources. Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history, his cognomen was subsequently adopted as a synonym for "Emperor". He has appeared in literary and artistic works, his political philosophy, known as Caesarism, inspired politicians into the modern era. Gaius Julius Caesar was born into a patrician family, the gens Julia, which claimed descent from Iulus, son of the legendary Trojan prince Aeneas the son of the goddess Venus.
The Julii were of Alban origin, mentioned as one of the leading Alban houses, which settled in Rome around the mid-7th century BC, after the destruction of Alba Longa. They were granted patrician status, along with other noble Alban families; the Julii existed at an early period at Bovillae, evidenced by a ancient inscription on an altar in the theatre of that town, which speaks of their offering sacrifices according to the lege Albana, or Alban rites. The cognomen "Caesar" originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor, born by Caesarean section; the Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations: that the first Caesar had a thick head of hair. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name. Despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesar's father called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia, his sister Julia, Caesar's aunt, married Gaius Marius, one of the most prominent figures in the Republic.
His mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesar's childhood. In 85 BC, Caesar's father died so Caesar was the head of the family at 16, his coming of age coincided with a civil war between his uncle Gaius Marius and his rival Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Both sides carried out bloody purges of their political opponents whenever they were in the ascendancy. Marius and his ally Lucius Cornelius Cinna were in control of the city when Caesar was nominated as the new Flamen Dialis, he was married to Cinna's daughter Cornelia. Following Sulla's final victory, Caesar's connections to the old regime made him a target for the new one, he was stripped of his inheritance, his wife's dowry, his priesthood, but he refused to divorce Cornelia and was forced to go into hiding. The threat against hi
Aresches is a commune in the Jura department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France. Communes of the Jura department INSEE statistics
Arbois is a commune in the Jura department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France. The Cuisance River passes through the town; the town centres on an arcaded central square. The commune has been awarded two flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Arbois is located 30 km southeast of Dole, it has a typical Revermont landscape. The plain is used for cropping of cereals on medium-sized plots of land; the lower slopes consist of meadows surrounded by small hedges for dairy farming. There are some vineyards in the same area; the rest of the hills is occupied by small vineyards with a few scattered meadows. The top of the hills and the plateau are forested. Access to the commune is by Route nationale N83 which comes from Mouchard in the north and passes through the town before continuing south to Buvilly; the D469 goes west from the village to Mathenay and the D107 goes east to Mesnay. The D14 goes north to Villers-Farlay and the D246 goes south to Pupillin.
The town is about 40 minutes drive from Besançon and Lons-le-Saunier. It takes about 1 hour 30 minutes to 1 hour 45 minutes to Lyon. SNCF ArboisThe railway station is just north of the town and all TER Franche-Comté trains serve this station; the nearest TGV station is at Mouchard on the Paris-Switzerland line. AerodromeThere is a small aerodrome in the north of the commune with the ICAO code LFGD and a restricted use runway. Arbois is traversed by the Cuisance river and is part of Revermont since it lies at the foot of the Plateau of Lons-le-Saunier, the first plateau of the Jura. Together with Salins-les-Bains and Poligny it forms "Revermont Country"; this small historic city has a mild climate with little humidity. The presence of vineyards reflects this and the Loue and Doubs rivers are far enough away to limit the occurrence of fog in the winter; the influence of the small Cuisance river is low. The climate is hot in summer; the origin of the town of Arbois dates back to remote times but it is difficult to be specific.
It is certain however. Until 1260 Arbois was a villa or town without defences: it was surrounded by ramparts during the following ten years. Arbois endured seven sieges when it was part of the Duchy of Burgundy including sackings by Charles I of Amboise, Henry IV, Louis XIV. A castle was built in 1270, some vestiges of which survived the dismantling that Louis XIV ordered in 1678 following the conquest of Franche-Comté. There remain stretches of wall, pierced for archers, three round towers, the square Gloriette tower; when the republic was proclaimed at Lyon on 13 April 1834 the town joined the revolt against the government, which promptly sent a small force of grenadiers, a battery of artillery to subdue it. The U. S. 36th Infantry Division liberated Arbois in September 1944 as it moved up the Rhône towards Besançon and on to the Moselle. The Arbois symbol is the heraldic pelican, called a Pelican in her piety, feeding her young from her beak; this is a Christian symbol and is accompanied by the motto of the city, Sic his quos diligo.
The Arbois band, which plays during the Biou festival is called Le Pelican in reference to this symbolic bird. There is a Guggenmusik band called Biou'Z'Musik; the arms use the colours of the city: yellow and black which are an allusion to yellow wine and dark forests. List of Successive Mayors Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Arbois is a small rural town with a rich historical heritage and important advantages for agricultural activity such as viticulture, an industrial enterprise among the 10 largest in the department, tourism based on its heritage and gastronomy. There is, hide some economic fragility with an aging population and sensitive industries at risk of relocation, a degradation of the diversity of shopping, an overestimation of the value of property to deter young households; the area produces some of the best Jura wines, including vin jaune and vin de Paille, in the Arbois AOC. This is the dominant activity. Arbois has many wineries such as Henri Maire, Frédéric Lornet, Tissot, Claret and Fumey-Chatelain.
The Arbois Appellation d'origine contrôlée was introduced in 1936 and covers 13 communes on the hills and valley slopes surrounding the town. One of these, a small village named Pupillin, is known for the quality of its wines, which come from a patchwork of vineyards planted on south-facing, limestone-rich slopes. Wines from these sites are sold as Arbois-Pupillin. Arbois wines are produced from around 2100 acres of vineyards, planted with Chardonnay, Poulsard, Pinot Noir and Trousseau. About 70% of Jura's red wines are produced under the Arbois name, along with about 30% of its whites; some bottles are labeled with the saying: "Arbois wine: the more you drink, the more it goes right!". An old familiar song, the Tourdion is a song on the wines of Arbois, it is mentioned by Jacques Brel in his song Pour mon dernier repas as well as by Hubert-Félix Thiéfaine in La cancoillotte. In 1285 the Count
Alise-Sainte-Reine is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of eastern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Alisiennes. Alise-Sainte-Reine is located 50 km northwest of Dijon; the D905 from Venarey-les-Laumes to Posanges in the south passes through the western part of the commune. Access to the village however is on the D103, D103J, D103T from Venaray-les-Laumes in the west which continues east to join the D10 road. Apart from the village the commune consists of farmland with some forest and a horse racing track in the west; the Ozeraine river forms most of the southern border of the commune and flows west to join the Brenne west of the commune. Because of its identification with Alesia the origin of the name of Alise-Sainte-Reine has been the subject of numerous studies. Several ideas have been proposed for a root of *alis and three proposals have attracted the attention of linguists and toponymists: Alisier Rocky height, Cliff SourceThese points were confirmed by Jacques Lacroix in his study of the god of Alise: Alisanos.
Research on alisier remains unfinished despite numerous attempts to develop the subject. The theme of the oronyme *alis or *ales meaning "rocky height" is the one, most put forward to explain the name of Alesia, it is from an Indo-European root *palis or *pales, the initial became silent in Celtic, while on the contrary it remains in Latin place names such as Palatinus for example. In Germanic the Indo-European was mute which gives *falisa in lower Old Frankish, felisa in Old High German or the German Fels meaning "rock". A number of researchers believe that the term may be suitable for a site in Alise-Sainte-Reine that has cliffs; the explanation of a hydronym was mentioned early - in 1901 Camille Jullian said that the name of Alise derived from the spring in the heart of the village and, famous until the early 20th century. It recurred in 1908 by breaking the radical *Alis into two themes AL + IS. In 1956 Paul Lebel did not resume this juxtaposition of the two hydronymic themes, he proposed instead for some rivers the prototype *alisa from the post-Celtic period, why in the case of Alesia, he opted for the oronym.
In 1990 the study of the etymology of the name of Alesia was taken over by Marianne Mulon. She wrote that the hydronymic tracks were both "reasonable" proposals; the same year Ernest Nègre in his General toponymy of France, vol 1, explained the name of Alise-Sainte-Reine as pre-Celtic *alis + Gallic Suffix -ia and he indicated that it is a derivative from a designation of a spring. In 1995 the historian Francis Lassus and linguist Gerard Taverdet annotate the study by Ernest Nègre stating that his explanation by hydronym is legitimate because of the thermal spring present at Alise. In 2007 Gerard Taverdet stated that this spring has been the subject of numerous pilgrimages while being exploited for therapy. In 2010 Stephane Gendron, another Toponymist, posed the question: is it from the root *ales designating a mountain or the root *alis designating the spring? He adds, that the village has a mineral source and a sanctuary with a Gallic bathhouse with a therapeutic function; the healing waters site were undoubtedly famous since Celtic times.
In the modern era the trade in mineral water from Alise went beyond the borders of Burgundy and extended to Europe which lasted until the early 20th century. The sanctuary was large and it was dedicated to Apollo Moritasgus. Jacques Lacroix said that this deity was associated with the healing waters with the first part of its name Mori- designating the sea or water as in are-morica or in the maritime tribe of the Morini. During the revolutionary period of the National Convention, the commune bore the names of Alise and Petite-Alise. Alise is reminiscent of Alesia and it is no coincidence since the town lies at the foot of Mont Auxois and the Gallic oppidum attested by excavations and a archaeological site, although still contested by some, of the ancient fortress defended by Vercingetorix. Sainte-Reine is directly derived from the name of the Christian martyr Sainte Reine, beheaded at this place in 252 AD. and, the commune's patron saint. The common symbol to represent the town is the statue of Vercingetorix erected by the orders of Napoleon III to show the strength of Gaul.
The identification of Alesia with Alise is based on a now considerable amount of archaeological and historical research: Alise is the oldest site identified with Alesia. The identification had been made in the Carolingian period. There is no real inconsistency between Caesar's text and the site as long as it is understood that, in the first place, Caesar was addressing a Roman public who were a little anxious about topographical information for a site they would never see and, in the second place, that Caesar was writing a story destined to be valued according to a number of rules and rhetorical commonplaces; the text of Dion Cassius placing Alesia in Séquanes was written long after the siege and may be incorrect: its value as a source cannot be placed above the text of Caesar or the text of Strabo, which placed Alesia closer to Arvernes. Although the remarks of Diodorus of Sicily on Alesia are not as late as Dion, their value should not be exaggerated and cannot guide a search. Didorus was concerned not only with the location of the site but with its religious character.
The oppidum on Mount Auxois at Alise first revealed Gallo-Roman constructions from after the battle. But its Gallic levels are now known to be contemporary with the Gallic Wars and have been so identified wit
Auxange is a commune in the Jura department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France. Communes of the Jura department INSEE statistics