Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Kerala and the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry by the Malayali people, it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India. Malayalam has official language status in the state of Kerala and in the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry and is spoken by 38 million people worldwide. Malayalam is spoken by linguistic minorities in the neighbouring states. Due to Malayali expatriates in the Persian Gulf, the language is widely spoken in Gulf countries; the origin of Malayalam remains a matter of dispute among scholars. One view holds that Malayalam and modern Tamil are offshoots of Middle Tamil and separated from it sometime after the c. 7th century. A second view argues for the development of the two languages out of "Proto-Dravidian" or "Proto-Tamil-Malayalam" in the prehistoric era. Designated a "Classical Language in India" in 2013, it developed into the current form by the influence of the poet Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan in the 16th century.
The oldest documents written purely in Malayalam and still surviving are the Vazhappalli Copper plates from 832 and Tharisapalli Copper plates from 849. The earliest script used to write Malayalam was the Vatteluttu alphabet, the Kolezhuttu, which derived from it; the current Malayalam script is based on the Vatteluttu script, extended with Grantha script letters to adopt Indo-Aryan loanwords. The oldest literary work in Malayalam, distinct from the Tamil tradition, is dated from between the 9th and 11th centuries; the first travelogue in any Indian language is the Malayalam Varthamanappusthakam, written by Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar in 1785. The word Malayalam originated from the words mala, meaning "mountain", alam, meaning "region" or "-ship"; the term referred to the land of the Chera dynasty Tamil dynasty, only became the name of its language. The language Malayalam is alternatively called Alealum, Malayali, Malean and Mallealle; the earliest extant literary works in the regional language of present-day Kerala date back to as early as the 12th century.
However, the named identity of this language appears to have come into existence only around the 16th century, when it was known as "Malayayma" or "Malayanma". The word "Malayalam" was coined in the period, the local people referred to their language as both "Tamil" and "Malayalam" until the colonial period; the held view is that Malayalam was the western coastal dialect of Tamil and separated from Tamil sometime between the 9th and 13th centuries. Some scholars however believe that both Tamil and Malayalam developed during the prehistoric period from a common ancestor,'Proto-Tamil-Dravidian', that the notion of Malayalam being a'daughter' of Tamil is misplaced; this is based on the fact that Malayalam and several Dravidian languages on the western coast have common features which are not found in the oldest historical forms of Tamil. Robert Caldwell, in his 1856 book "A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Languages", opined that Malayalam branched from Classical Tamil and over time gained a large amount of Sanskrit vocabulary and lost the personal terminations of verbs.
As the language of scholarship and administration, Old-Tamil, written in Tamil-Brahmi and the Vatteluttu alphabet greatly influenced the early development of Malayalam. The Malayalam script began to diverge from the Tamil-Brahmi script in the 9th centuries, and by the end of the 13th century a written form of the language emerged, unique from the Tamil-Brahmi script, used to write Tamil. Malayalam is similar to some Sri Lankan Tamil dialects, the two are mistaken by native Indian Tamil speakers; the Portuguese called the Kerala variant of Malayalam-Tamil Lingua Malabar Tamul. It was called Malabar Thamozhi; the first book to be printed in Lingua Malabar Tamul was Cartilha in 1554, which used Portuguese letters to write the Malabar Thamozhi. Ravikutty Pilla Por, written in the 17th century, is the shining example of Malayanma literature. Ananthapuri Varnanam, written in the 1800s, was among the last of these Malayalam-Tamil books. Itty Achudan, the famed Ayurvedic physician, used Malayanma and Kolezhuttu to write Hortus Malabaricus in 1678.
In the 17th century, the Malayanma script was extensively used by the Catholics of Kerala. Samkshepa Vedartham, in Malayanma, was printed in Rome in 1772; the Ramban Bible, written in Malayanma, was translated from Syriac by Fr. Phillipose and published in 1811. After this period, the British banned Malayanma and most of the books written in Malayanma disappeared; the British never supported or translated Malayanma books into Grantha Malayalam, which they chose to promote in the 19th century. Iravikutti Pilla Por, Vadakkan Pattu, Thacholi Pattu, Kannassa Ramayanam, Ramacharitham Ananthapuri Varnanam are a few of the Malayanma books which have survived. Malayanma, the indigenous Dravidian tongue, its great literary tradition were lost in history. In the 12th century, Kerala was invaded by the Tulu Bana Kings, with an army from Ahichatra on the Indo-Nepalese border. Keralolpathi mentions a Tulu invader called Banapperumal, the brother of Tulu king Kavi Raja Singhan of the Alupa dynasty, who invaded Kerala with a Large Nair army led by Pada Mala Nair.
Banapperumal established his capital at
Sakthikulangara is a zone and neighbourhood situated at the coastal area of the city of Kollam in Kerala India. It is one among the 6 zonal headquarters of Kollam Municipal Corporation. Sakthikulangara is situated, it is 31 km away from Paravur town. Heading from North Neendakara bridge opens the entrance to Sakthikulangara village. Moreover it is the birthplace of B. Wellington, E. Balanandan, R. S. Unni and Henry Austin; the famous political personalities in Kerala. P. J. Rajendran politician, chairman for health Kollam Municipal Corporation councilar AT alattukavu divition Cine field Prateeksha Peter Joy Thomas Bijou Antony. One of the major fishing harbours in Kerala is in Sakthikulangara. Sakthikulangara village and/or the old Sakthikulangara panchayat includes the major residential areas of Maruthady, Ozhukkuthodu, Vattakkayal, Poovanpuzha, Kavanadu, Mukkadu, Edamanakkavu, Kallumpuram and a few small islands in Ashtamudi lake. Sakthikulangara is a prominent place because of its proximity to the following places: Seafood Exporting.
Fish landing centre. Boat building yards Vattakkayal Neendakara Fishing Harbour Kavanad & Kollam Bypass St. John D Britto Church Sree Dharma Shastha Temple:The temple is famous for its festival in'Makaram' month. Capithan's Movie Theatre. Lakeford SchoolSakthikulangara village owes it's transformation from a sleepy village to present Fishing industry power house due to Indo- Norwegian project. Indo-Norwegian Project was Norway's first foreign aid development project; the project was first established in Neendakara, near Quilon, Kerala in 1953, the aim was modernisation of fisheries of Kerala, but including health and water supply. Kollam Kollam Port Kollam district Kollam Junction Kollam Beach Paravur http://www.sakthikulangara.com/
Kerala, locally known as Keralam, is a state on the southwestern, Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2, Kerala is the twenty-second largest Indian state by area, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, the Lakshadweep Sea and Arabian Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population, it is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala. The Ay kingdom in the deep south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era; the region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The region's prominence in trade was noted in the works of Pliny as well as the Periplus around 100 CE.
In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, paved the way for European colonisation of India. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin, they united to form the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949. The Malabar region, in the northern part of Kerala had been a part of the Madras province of British India, which became a part of the Madras State post-independence. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State, the state of Thiru-Kochi, the taluk of Kasaragod in South Canara, a part of Madras State; the economy of Kerala is the 12th-largest state economy in India with ₹7.73 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹163,000. Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%. The state has witnessed significant emigration to Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, its economy depends on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community.
Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian and European cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad; the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, tea, coffee and spices are important; the state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres, around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages English and Malayalam. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions; the name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. One popular theory derives Kerala from alam; the word Kerala is first recorded as Keralaputra in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, one of his edicts pertaining to welfare.
The inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra. This contradicts the theory that Kera is from "coconut tree". At that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil: Chera and Kera are variants of the same word; the word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for "lake". The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. Kerala is mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics; the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal, referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil chera alam; the Greco-Roman trade map. According to Tamil classic Purananuru, Chera king Senkuttuvan conquered the lands between Kanyakumari and the Himalayas. Lacking worthy enemies, he besieged the sea by throwing his spear into it. According to the 17th century Malayalam work Keralolpathi, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu.
Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, the water receded as far as it reached. According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari; the land which rose from sea was filled with unsuitable for habitation. Out of respect and all snakes were appo
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
The Arabian Sea is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, on the southeast by the Laccadive Sea, on the southwest by the Somali Sea, on the east by India. Its total area is 3,862,000 km2 and its maximum depth is 4,652 metres; the Gulf of Aden in the west, connects the Arabian Sea to the Red Sea through the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, the Gulf of Oman is in the northwest, connecting it to the Persian Gulf. The Arabian Sea has been crossed by many important marine trade routes since the third or second millennium BCE. Major seaports include Kandla Port, Okha Port, Mumbai Port, Nhava Sheva Port, Mormugão Port, New Mangalore Port and Kochi Port in India, the Port of Karachi, Port Qasim, the Gwadar Port in Pakistan, Chabahar Port in Iran and the Port of Salalah in Salalah, Oman; the largest islands in the Arabian Sea include Socotra, Masirah Island and Astola Island. The Arabian Sea's surface area is about 3,862,000 km2.
The maximum width of the Sea is 2,400 km, its maximum depth is 4,652 metres. The biggest river flowing into the Sea is the Indus River; the Arabian Sea has two important branches — the Gulf of Aden in the southwest, connecting with the Red Sea through the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb. There are the gulfs of Khambhat and Kutch on the Indian Coast; the countries with coastlines on the Arabian Sea are Somalia, Oman, Pakistan and the Maldives. There are several large cities on the sea's coast including Male, Cape Comorin, Kovalam, Thiruvananthapuram, Alappuzha, Kozhikode, Kasaragod, Bhatkal, Vasco, Malvan, Alibag, Daman, Surat, Khambhat, Diu, Mangrol, Dwarka, Jamnagar, Gandhidham, Koteshwar, Keti Bandar, Ormara, Gwadar, Muscat, Salalah, Al Ghaydah, Aden and Hafun; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Arabian Sea as follows: On the west: the eastern limit of the Gulf of Aden. On the north: a line joining Ràs al Hadd, east point of the Arabian Peninsula and Ràs Jiyùni on the coast of Pakistan.
On the south: a line running from the southern extremity of Addu Atoll in the Maldives, to the eastern extremity of Ràs Hafun. On the east: the western limit of the Laccadive Sea a line running from Sadashivgad on the west coast of India to Cora Divh and thence down the west side of the Laccadive and Maldive archipelagos to the most southerly point of Addu Atoll in the Maldives; the Arabian Sea and geographically has been referred to by many different names by Arabian and European geographers and travellers, including Indian Sea, Persian Sea, Sindhu Sagar, Arabbi Samudra, Erythraean Sea, Sindh Sea, Akhzar Sea. The Arabian Sea has been an important marine trade route since the era of the coastal sailing vessels from as early as the 3rd millennium BCE the late 2nd millennium BCE through the days known as the Age of Sail. By the time of Julius Caesar, several well-established combined land-sea trade routes depended upon water transport through the Sea around the rough inland terrain features to its north.
These routes began in the Far East or down river from Madhya Pradesh with transshipment via historic Bharuch, traversed past the inhospitable coast of today's Iran split around Hadhramaut into two streams north into the Gulf of Aden and thence into the Levant, or south into Alexandria via Red Sea ports such as Axum. Each major route involved transhipping to pack animal caravan, travel through desert country and risk of bandits and extortionate tolls by local potentates; this southern coastal route past the rough country in the southern Arabian Peninsula was significant, the Egyptian Pharaohs built several shallow canals to service the trade, one more or less along the route of today's Suez canal, another from the Red Sea to the Nile River, both shallow works that were swallowed up by huge sand storms in antiquity. The kingdom of Axum arose in Ethiopia to rule a mercantile empire rooted in the trade with Europe via Alexandria; the Port of Karachi is Pakistan's busiest seaport. It is located between the Karachi towns of Saddar.
The Gwadar Port is a warm-water, deep-sea port situated at Gwadar in Balochistan, Pakistan at the apex of the Arabian Sea and at the entrance of the Persian Gulf, about 460 km west of Karachi and 75 km east of Pakistan's border with Iran. The port is located on the eastern bay of a natural hammerhead-shaped peninsula jutting out into the Arabian Sea from the coastline. Port of Salalah in Salalah, Oman is a major port in the area; the International Task Force uses the port as a base. There is a significant number of warships of all nations coming in and out of the port, which makes it a safe bubble; the port handled just under 3.5m teu in 2009. Jawaharlal Nehru Port in Mumbai is the largest port in the Arabian Sea, the largest container port in India. Major Indian ports in the Arabian Sea are Mundra Port, Kandla Port, Nava Sheva, Kochi Port, Mumbai Port, Mormugão. There are several islands in the Arabian Sea, with the most important ones being Lakshadweep
A. K. Antony
Arackaparambil Kurien Antony, better known as A. K. Antony is an Indian politician and attorney who serves as Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha, representing the state of Kerala for the fifth consecutive term since 1985, he currently serves as the Chairman of the Disciplinary Action Committee of the All India Congress Committee, Congress Working Committee, member of the Central Election Committee. Antony served as Defence Minister, making him the person who served the longest in this post in India, he has been three times as Chief Minister of the state of Kerala. A. K. Antony was born at Cherthala, near Alleppey in Travancore and was the son of Arackaparambil Kurien Pillai and Aleykutty Kurian, his father died in Antony self-financed part of his education through odd jobs. Antony completed his primary education at Holy Family Boys High school and Government Boys High school and completed his Bachelor of Arts from Maharaja's College and Bachelor of Law from Government Law College, Ernakulam. Antony entered politics as a student leader in Cherthala Taluk as an activist of the Kerala Students Union under the guidance of M. A. John.
He has been an active leader of many strikes like Oru Ana Samaram. He became the youngest president of Kerala Students Union in 1966 and served in the Kerala Pradesh Congress Committee before becoming an All India Congress Committee General Secretary in 1984; when he became KPCC president in 1972 he was the youngest person. He was elected again as KPCC president in 1987, was defeated by Vayalar Ravi in the KPCC presidential elections in 1991. Antony founded the Congress political party when he split from the Indian National Congress, a splinter group of the Indian National Congress The party was active in Kerala and joined the LDF ministry headed by E. K. Nayanar during 1980-1982. After the fall of the Nayanar ministry, this party merged with the Congress in 1982, but Antony was not given any office until the death of Indira Gandhi; the members of the party have continued as a faction in the local congress afterwards. On accusations in the Rajan case, K. Karunakaran resigned and Antony was made the 8th Chief Minister of Kerala, becoming the youngest Chief Minister of the state at the age of 37 serving from years 27 April 1977 to 27 October 1978.
Again, when Karunakaran resigned in connection with the ISRO case Antony was made the 16th Chief Minister of Kerala, serving from 22 March 1995 to 9 May 1996. He was the Leader of Opposition in the Kerala Legislative Assembly between 1996-2001. Antony was elected and served a third term from 17 May 2001 to 29 August 2004, he failed to retain power on the first two occasions as Chief minister. In 2004 after the Congress in Kerala suffered a total rout in the Lok Sabha elections amid factional politics and in-fighting within the Congress Party, Antony resigned as Chief Minister, he was succeeded by Oommen Chandy. It was at Antony's behest that the decision to construct the new Legislature Complex was taken in 1977. During his tenure, he introduced the Unemployment Allowance, Festival Allowance for the State Employees, Prohibition of arrack and the steps initiated to revive the economy of Kerala. Antony carried out Asian Development Bank aided "Modernization of Government Plan", he liberalised education by allowing several private engineering and medical colleges to open in Kerala and championed the state as an investment destination.
He ordered the closure of the Kerala Coca-Cola plant in 2004 citing drought and the non-availability of drinking water. He is considered as one of best chief minister of kerala after E._K._Nayanar and K Karunakaran Antony was a Member of Parliament in the Rajya Sabha between 1993 and 1995 and was the Minister for Civil Supplies, Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution for a year in 1994 during the tenure of Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha Rao, he resigned on moral grounds as food minister in 1994 when his ministry was involved in a sugar import scandal, despite there being no allegations against him. In 2005, Antony entered the Rajya Sabha and was inducted into the Union Council of Ministers as Defence Minister following Natwar Singh's expulsion from the Congress and Pranab Mukherjee's transfer to the Ministry of External Affairs. After the Congress again won the elections in 2009 and formed the government once again under Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, Antony retained the portfolio of Defence for the second term becoming the longest-serving Defence Minister of India in a continuous stint for 8 years.
His "Buy and Make Indian" campaign saw the cancellation of billion of dollars in purchases of foreign arms, while at the same time stunting domestic production by restricting investments. The result has been a "critical shortage of ammunition and gaping holes in its air defense systems", he held the post of Chairman of the Indian Statistical Institute in Kolkata, President of the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses and Chancellor of Defence Institute of Advanced Technology. In the Manmohan Singh Cabinet, Antony was the senior member of the Cabinet Committees on Accommodation, Economic Affairs, Parliamentary Affairs, Political Affairs, Security, he is considered as political guru of Rahul Gandhi. Antony's political skills and long experience in government have led him to heading a large number
Chavara (Assembly constituency)
Chavara is a legislative assembly constituency in Kollam district of Kerala, India. It is one among the 11 assembly constituencies in Kollam district; as per the recent changes on assembly constituency delimitations, the Chavara assembly constituency consists of the 7 wards from Kollam Municipal Corporation and 5 neighbouring panchayaths including Chavara, Panmana, Chavara Thekkumbhagom and Thevalakkara. Chavara constituency was dissolved with neighbouring constituencies after 1954 and re-formed in 1977