Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Udon is a type of thick wheat flour noodle used in Japanese cuisine. It is served hot as a noodle soup in its simplest form, as kake udon, in a mildly flavoured broth called kakejiru, made of dashi, soy sauce, mirin, it is topped with thinly chopped scallions. Other common toppings include tempura prawn or kakiage, or aburaage, a type of deep-fried tofu pockets seasoned with sugar and soy sauce. A thin slice of kamaboko, a halfmoon-shaped fish cake, is added. Shichimi can be added to taste; the flavour of broth and topping vary from region to region. Dark brown broth, made from dark soy sauce, is used in eastern Japan, light brown broth, made from light soy sauce, is used in western Japan; this is noticeable in packaged instant noodles, which are sold in two different versions for east and west. Currynanban is another popular variation, served in curry broth. There are many stories explaining the origin of udon. One story says that in AD 1241, Enni, a Rinzai monk, introduced flour milling technology from Song China to Japan.
Floured crops were made into noodles such as udon and pancakes in Japan which were eaten by locals. Milling techniques were spread around the country. Another story states that during the Nara period, a Japanese envoy was introduced to 14 kinds of confection while being in China during the Tang Dynasty. One of them was called sakubei, listed as muginawa in Shinsen Jikyō, a dictionary, published in the Heian Era; the muginawa is believed to be an origin for many kinds of Japanese noodles. However, the muginawa in Shinsen Jikyō was made with rice flour. Another story for udon claims that the original name of the noodle was konton, made with wheat flour and sweet fillings, yet another story says that a Buddhist priest called Kukai introduced udon noodles to Shikoku during the Heian Era. Kūkai, the Buddhist priest, traveled to Tang China around the beginning of the 9th century to study. Sanuki Province claimed to have been the first to adopt udon noodles from Kūkai. Hakata claimed to have produced udon noodles based on Enni's recipe.
Udon noodles are served chilled in the summer and hot in the winter. In the Edo period, the thicker wheat noodle was called udon, served with a hot broth called nurumugi; the chilled variety was called hiyamugi. Cold udon, or udon salad, is mixed with egg omelette slices, shredded chicken and fresh vegetables, such as cucumber and radish. Toppings of Udon soup are chosen to reflect the seasons. Most toppings are added without much cooking, although there are deep-fried tempura. Many of these dishes may be prepared with soba. Kake udon or Su udon: Hot udon in broth topped with thinly sliced green onions, a slice of kamaboko. Kitsune udon: "Fox udon". Topped with aburaage; this originated in Osaka. Tempura udon: Topped with tempura prawn, or kakiage, a type of mixed tempura fritter. Tanuki udon or Haikara udon: Topped with tempura batter pieces. Tsukimi udon: "Moon-viewing udon". Topped with raw egg, which poaches in the hot soup. Wakame udon: Topped with wakame, a dark green sea vegetable. Karē udon: "Curry udon".
Udon in a curry-flavoured soup which may include meat or vegetables. Biei, Hokkaido is famous for a unique curry udon. Chikara udon: "Power udon". Topped with toasted mochi rice cakes. Stamina udon: "Stamina udon". Udon with various hearty ingredients including meat, a raw egg, vegetables. Nabeyaki udon: A sort of udon hot-pot, with seafood and vegetables cooked in a nabe, or metal pot; the most common ingredients are tempura shrimp with an egg cracked on top. Kamaage udon: Served in a communal hot-pot with hot water, accompanied by a hot dipping sauce of dashi sukiyaki. Yaki udon: Stir-fried udon in soy-based sauce, prepared in a similar manner to yakisoba; this originated in Kitakyushu of Fukuoka Prefecture. Miso-nikomi udon: a local dish of Nagoya, a hard udon simmered in red miso soup; the soup contains chicken, a floating cracked raw egg, stirred in by the eater, kamaboko and tubers. The noodles are firm in order to stand up to the prolonged simmering in the soup. Hōtō udon: a local dish of Yamanashi Prefecture, a type of miso soup with udon and vegetables.
One of the significant differences between usual udon and Hōtō udon is salt. When Hōtō udon is made, salt is not added to the noodle dough. Oyako udon: chicken and egg, with sliced onion in a sweetened dashi soup over udon, it has a sweet savory flavor. Curry nanban is a non-traditional udon soup served in a spicy curry broth; the term nanban is a reference to the Nanban trade which had influenced Japanese culture for a century before being banned in 1639 by the Edo Shogunate. Zaru udon: Chilled udon noodles topped with shredded nori and served on a zaru, a sieve-like bamboo tray. Accompanied by a chilled dipping sauce a strong mixture of dashi and shoyu. Eaten with wasabi or grated ginger. Bukkake udon: Cold udon served with thick dashi-broth. Hadaka udon: Cold udon served on its own. Kijōyu udon: Served in a cold soup of raw soy sauce and sudachi juice, sometimes with a bit of grated daikon. There are wide variations in both shape for udon noodles. Gosetsu udon
Soy sauce is a liquid condiment of Chinese origin, made from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds. Soy sauce in its current form was created about 2,200 years ago during the Western Han dynasty of ancient China, spread throughout East and Southeast Asia where it is used in cooking and as a condiment. Soy sauce is considered as old as soy paste—a type of fermented paste obtained from soybeans—which had appeared during the Western Han dynasty and was listed in the bamboo slips found in the archaeological site Mawangdui. There are several precursors of soy sauce. Among them the earliest one is Qingjiang, listed in Simin Yueling. Others are Jiangqing and Chiqing which are recorded in Qimin Yaoshu in AD 540. By the time of the Song dynasty, the term soy sauce had become the accepted name for the liquid condiment, which are documented in two books: Shanjia Qinggong and Pujiang Wushi Zhongkuilu during the Song dynasty. Like many salty condiments, soy sauce was a way to stretch salt an expensive commodity.
During the Zhou dynasty of ancient China, fermented fish with salt was used as a condiment in which soybeans were included during the fermentation process. By the time of the Han dynasty, this had been replaced with the recipe for soy paste and its by-product soy sauce, by using soybeans as the principal ingredient, with fermented fish-based sauces developing separately into fish sauce; the 19th century Sinologist Samuel Wells Williams wrote that in China, the best soy sauce is "made by boiling beans soft, adding an equal quantity of wheat or barley, leaving the mass to ferment. The earliest soy sauce brewing in Korea seems to have begun prior to the era of the Three Kingdoms c. 57 BC. The Records of the Three Kingdoms, a Chinese historical text written and published in the 3rd century, mentions that "Goguryeo people are good at brewing fermented soy beans." In the section named Dongyi, in the Book of Wei. Jangdoks used for soy sauce brewing are found in the mural paintings of Anak Tomb No.3 from the 4th century Goguryeo.
In Samguk Sagi, a historical record of the Three Kingdoms era, it is written that ganjang and doenjang along with meju and jeotgal were prepared for the wedding ceremony of the King Sinmun in February 683. Sikhwaji, a section from Goryeosa, recorded that ganjang and doenjang were included in the relief supplies in 1018, after a Khitan invasion, in 1052, when a famine occurred. Joseon texts such as Guhwangchwaryo and Jeungbo sallim gyeongje contain the detailed procedures on how to brew good quality ganjang and doenjang. Gyuhap chongseo explains how to pick a date for brewing, what to forbear, how to keep and preserve ganjang and doenjang. Chinese Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century, where it is known as shōyu. Records of the Dutch East India Company list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737, when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima, Japan, to Batavia on the island of Java. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were shipped to the Netherlands. In the 18th century and scholar Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce.
Although earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West, his was among the earliest to focus on the brewing of the Japanese version. By the mid-19th century, Japanese soy sauce disappeared from the European market, the condiment became synonymous with the Chinese product. Europeans were unable to make soy sauce because they did not understand the function of Aspergillus oryzae, the fungus used in its brewing. Soy sauce made from ingredients such as Portobello mushrooms were disseminated in European cookbooks during the late 18th century. A Swedish recipe for "Soija" was published in the 1770 edition of Cajsa Warg's Hjelpreda i Hushållningen för Unga Fruentimber and was flavored with allspice and mace. Soy sauce is made either by hydrolysis; some commercial sauces have both chemical sauces. Flavor and aroma developments during production are attributed to non-enzymatic Maillard browning. Variation is achieved as the result of different methods and durations of fermentation, different ratios of water and fermented soy, or through the addition of other ingredients.
Traditional soy sauces are made by mixing soybeans and grain with mold cultures such as Aspergillus oryzae and other related microorganisms and yeasts. The mixture was fermented in large urns and under the sun, believed to contribute extra flavors. Today, the mixture is placed in a humidity controlled incubation chamber. Traditional soy sauces take months to make: Soaking and cooking: The soybeans are soaked in water and boiled until cooked. Wheat is roasted, crushed. Koji culturing: An equal amount of boiled soybeans and roasted wheat are mixed to form a grain mixture. A culture of Aspergillus spore is added to the grain mixture and mixed or the mixture is allowed to gather spores from the environment itself; the cultures include: Aspergillus: a genus of fungus, used for f
Hamamatsu is a city located in western Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. As of March 1, 2018, the city had an estimated population of 795,350, making it the prefecture's largest city and a population density of 510 persons per km2; the total area was 1,558.06 km2. On July 1, 2005, Hamamatsu absorbed the cities of Tenryū and Hamakita, the town of Haruno, the towns of Hosoe and Mikkabi, the towns of Misakubo and Sakuma, the village of Tatsuyama, the towns of Maisaka and Yūtō to become the current and expanded city of Hamamatsu, it became a city designated by government ordinance on April 1, 2007. The area now comprising Hamamatsu has been settled since prehistoric times, with numerous remains from the Jōmon period and Kofun period having been discovered within the present city limits, including the Shijimizuka site shell mound and the Akamonue Kofun ancient tomb. In the Nara period, it became the capital of Tōtōmi Province. During the Sengoku period, Hamamatsu Castle was the home of future shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Hamamatsu flourished during the Edo period under a succession of daimyō rulers as a castle town, as a post town on the Tōkaidō. After the Meiji Restoration, Hamamatsu became a short-lived prefecture from 1871 to 1876, after which it was united with Shizuoka Prefecture. Hamamatsu Station opened on the Tōkaidō Main Line in 1889; the same year, in a cadastral reform of Japan, Hamamatsu became a town. July 1, 1911: Hamamatsu is upgraded from a town to a city 1918: Rice riots of 1918 affect Hamamatsu 1921: The village of Tenjinchō merges with Hamamatsu 1926: Imperial Japanese Army Hamamatsu Air Base opens 1933: Imperial Japanese Army Flight School opens 1936: The villages of Hikuma and Fujizuka merge with Hamamatsu December 7, 1944: Tonankai earthquake causes much damage June 1945: Hamamatsu destroyed by US air raids 1948: Hamamatsu Incident, ethnic rioting of Zainichi Korean residents. 1951: The villages of Aratsu and Kawarin merge with Hamamatsu 1954: Eight villages in Hamana District merge with Hamamatsu 1955: The village of Miyakoda merges with Hamamatsu 1957: The village of Irino merges with Hamamatsu 1960: The village of Seto merges with Hamamatsu 1961: The village of Shinohara merges with Hamamatsu 1965: The village of Shonai merges with Hamamatsu May 1, 1990: Hamamatsu Arena opened January 1, 1991: The village of Kami in Hamana District merges with Hamamatsu.
April 1, 1991: The first Hamamatsu International Piano Competition was held. May 1, 1994: Act City Hamamatsu opened. October 1, 1995: Hamamatsu Museum of Musical Instruments opened. April 1, 1996: Hamamatsu is designated a core city by the central government. June 1, 1996: Hamamatsu City Fruit Park opened. January 1, 1997: Started separated collection of garbage in residential areas. April 1, 1997: Hamamatsu is designated as an Omnibus Town. April 1, 1998: Act City Musical School opened. April 3, 2000: Shizuoka University of Art and Culture opened. July 1, 2001: The city's 90th anniversary is commemorated August 1, 2002: Launched the conference on Pan-Hamanako Designated City Simulation. April 1, 2003: Shizuoka New Kawafuji National High School Competition was held. June 1, 2003: Launched Tenryūgawa-Hamanako Region Merger Conference. April 8 – October 11, 2004: Pacific Flora 2004 was held at Hamanako Garden Park. July 1, 2005: Hamamatsu absorbed the cities of Hamakita and Tenryū. Inasa District and Iwata District were both dissolved as a result of this merger.
Therefore, there are no more villages left in Shizuoka Prefecture. April 1, 2007: Hamamatsu became a city designated by government ordinance by the central government. Hamamatsu is 260 kilometres southwest of Tokyo. Hamamatsu consists of a flat plain and the Mikatahara Plateau in the south, a mountainous area in the north, it is bordered by Lake Hamana to the west, the Tenryū River to the east, the Pacific Ocean to the south. The climate in southern Hamamatsu has a humid subtropical climate with cool to mild winters with little snowfall; the climate in northern Hamamatsu is much harsher because of foehn winds. Summer is hot with the highest temperature exceeds 35 degrees in the Tenryu-ku area, while it snows in winter. Hamamatsu is administratively divided into seven wards: Hamakita-ku Higashi-ku Kita-ku Minami-ku Naka-ku —administrative center Nishi-ku Tenryū-ku Shizuoka Prefecture Iwata Kosai Shimada Mori KawanehonAichi Prefecture Toyohashi Shinshiro Tōei ToyoneNagano Prefecture Iida Tenryū As of the 2008 Japanese census the total population was estimated to be 824,057.
As of an unspecified year, 29,635 non-Japanese live in Hamamatsu. As of 2008 the number of non-Japanese in Hamamatsu was 33,332, by 2010 the number was about 30,000; the population of Nikkei foreigners increased after a 1990 change in Japanese immigration law allowed them to work in Japan. Many foreigners work in the manufacturing sector, taking temporary jobs in Honda and Yamaha plants. Since 1990 the number of non-Japanese children in Hamamatsu increased. Natsuko Fukue of The Japan Times wrote in 2010 that many foreign children have difficulty integrating to society in Hamamatsu because "Japanese and foreign communities live separate from one another."The foreign population dropped
Kamaboko is a type of cured surimi, a processed seafood product common in Japanese cuisine. It is made by forming various pureed white fish and additives such as MSG into distinctive loaves, which are steamed until cooked and firm; these are sliced and either served unheated with various dipping sauces, or added to various hot soups, rice, or noodle dishes. Kamaboko is sold in semicylindrical loaves; some include artistic patterns, such as the pink spiral on each slice of narutomaki, named after the well-known tidal whirlpool near the Japanese city of Naruto. There is no precise English translation for kamaboko. Rough equivalents are fish paste, fish loaf, fish cake, fish sausage.. Tsuji recommends using the Japanese name in English; the Ashkenazi Jewish dish gefilte fish is similar. Red-skinned and white kamaboko are served at celebratory and holiday meals, as red and white are considered to bring good luck. Kamaboko is now available nearly worldwide; the simulated crab meat product kanikama is the best-known form of surimi in the West.
In Japan, the prepackaged snack chīkama is sold in convenience stores. In the city of Uwajima, a type of fried kamaboko called. Early kamaboko was made with minced catfish; the white fish used to make surimi include: Chicken grunt Golden threadfin bream Lizardfish Japanese gissu Various shark species Alaska pollock White croaker Nibe croaker Daggertooth pike conger Gnomefish Black bass Smallmouth bass Largemouth bass Florida black bass The Kamaboko organization of Japan specified November 15 for Kamaboko Day established in 1983. In Hawaii, pink or red-skinned kamaboko is available in grocery stores, it is a staple of saimin, a popular noodle soup created in Hawaii from the blending of Chinese and Japanese ingredients. Kamaboko is sometimes referred to as fish cake in English. After World War II, surplus Quonset huts became popular as housing in Hawaii, they became known as kamaboko houses due to the Quonset hut's half- cylindrical shape, similar to Kamaboko. Chikuwa Fish ball Hanpen Satsuma age Shizuo.
Japanese cooking: A simple art. Kodansha International, New York. Suzuhiro Kamaboko-How to make Kamaboko
Chinese steamed eggs
Chinese steamed eggs or water egg is a traditional Chinese dish found all over China. Eggs are beaten to a consistency similar to that used for an omelette and steamed, it is sometimes referred to as egg custard on menus. If eaten cold, it has a texture of a gelatin without sugar; the eggs are beaten and water added to create a more tender texture. A good ratio of water to eggs is 1.5:1. Sesame oil, soy sauce, or chicken broth may be used to add additional flavor. Other solid ingredients may be added to the mixture; the egg mixture is poured into a dish, placed in a steamer and steamed until cooked. The eggs should be steamed until just firm, so that the texture of the eggs is still smooth and silky. A plate is placed on top of the bowl containing the egg mixture and left on while the egg is being steamed. Uncapped steamed eggs will have water on top of the finished dish due to the steam. Using four eggs, the average cooking time is 10 minutes with 7 minutes with chicken broth. However, this is in addition to the time needed for pre-boiling water.
This same dish can be cooked in a pressure cooker. Both methods take less time. Homemade versions dried shrimp; these additional ingredients are added to the egg mixture before steaming. It can be enjoyed with soy sauce; the taste is savory. Chawanmushi – A Japanese egg custard dish Gyeran jjim – Korean steamed eggs List of egg dishes List of steamed foods Chinese Steamed Egg. Chinasichuanfood.com