The Squamish River is a short but large river in the Canadian province of British Columbia. Its drainage basin is 3,328 square kilometres in size; the total length of the Squamish River is 80 kilometres. The Squamish River drains a complex of basins in the Coast Mountains just north of Vancouver, its flows south to the head of Howe Sound where the town of Squamish is located. The Squamish River originates at the toe of the Pemberton Icefield; as it flows south from the glacier, it is joined by several more glacier fed tributaries. About 21.8 km southwest of the source, the Squamish meets the Elaho River. The Elaho River, the largest tributary of the Squamish has more volume than the Squamish where they join. After its confluence with the Elaho, the river moves southeast for another 24.8 km until its confluence with the Ashlu River, its second largest tributary. Another 16.4 km from there, it is met by the Cheakamus River, 4.7 km further south, by the Mamquam River. From there, the river flows another 6 km to its mouth at the head of the Howe Sound.
List of British Columbia rivers Squamish people Squamish Nation The Barrier Mount Cayley volcanic field
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
Garibaldi Provincial Park
Garibaldi Provincial Park called Garibaldi Park, is a wilderness park located in British Columbia, about 70 kilometres north of Vancouver. The park is located to the east of the Sea to Sky Highway between Squamish and Whistler and covers an area of over 1,950 square kilometres. Garibaldi was designated as a provincial park in 1927, included what was split off in 1967 as Golden Ears Provincial Park, which juts southward between the basins of Pitt Lake and the Stave River into the Municipality of Maple Ridge; the park consists of many steep, rugged mountains, many of them capped by glaciers. It includes Mount Garibaldi and other volcanoes related to subduction volcanism in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt; the park features many dense Douglas-fir, western red cedar and western-hemlock forests, as well as alpine meadows and many rocky alpine areas. The park reaches its highest peak at Wedge Mountain—2,891 metres; this park is home to mammalian species including black bear, mountain goat, deer and pika.
Bird species of golden eagle, bald eagle, ptarmagin inhabit the area. There are five park entrance points located along the Sea to Sky Highway; each entrance provides access to hiking trails with backcountry camping opportunities. All access points are open in winter for backcountry skiing, but only the Diamond Head access road is plowed. All camp sites are first-served; the Garibaldi Bus service provide frequent transportation between Vancouver and Garibaldi Provincial Park Diamond Head This southern most entrance provides hiking or skiing access to the area south of Mount Garibaldi. A cooking hut and winter-only camping area are located in Red Heather Meadows, about 5 kilometres from the parking lot. An overnight shelter and campground are located 12 kilometres from the parking lot at Elfin Lakes; the Black Tusk/Garibaldi Lake The second entrance is located halfway between Squamish and Whistler. Hiking trails provide access to Garibaldi Lake, The Black Tusk, Panorama Ridge. A trail connects to the Cheakamus Lake area further north.
Two camping areas provide sites for 90 tents. Cheakamus Lake This entrance, located just to the south of Whistler, provides access to Cheakamus Lake. Two campgrounds are located a few kilometers from the parking lot. Singing Pass The Singing Pass area is located to the east of Whistler Mountain; the area can be accessed by a trail which follows the Fitzsimmons Creek, between Whistler and Blackcomb mountains. The area can be accessed from the top of Whistler mountain via an alpine route. Camping is permitted at Russet Lake. Wedgemount Lake The most northern entrance is via a deactivated forest service road; the road is recommended for 4x4 vehicles only. Wedgemount Lake is accessed via a hiking trail. Camping is permitted around the lake; the Black Tusk Golden Ears Provincial Park BCParks - Garibaldi page - UN database entry - History of Park and Area - Virtual Museum of Canada - Garibaldi Park 2020 - History of Park and Mapping
Whistler, British Columbia
Whistler is a resort municipality in the southern Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains in the province of British Columbia, Canada 125 km north of Vancouver and 36 km south of the town of Pemberton. Incorporated as the Resort Municipality of Whistler, it has a permanent population of 11,854, plus a larger but rotating population of seasonal workers younger people from beyond British Columbia, notably from Australia and Europe. Over two million people visit Whistler annually for alpine skiing and snowboarding and, in summer, mountain biking at Whistler Blackcomb, its pedestrian village has won numerous design awards and Whistler has been voted among the top destinations in North America by major ski magazines since the mid-1990s. During the 2010 Winter Olympics, Whistler hosted most of the alpine, luge and bobsled events; the Whistler Valley is located around the pass between the headwaters of the Green River and the upper-middle reaches of the Cheakamus. It is flanked by glaciated mountains on both sides.
Although there are a few other routes through the maze of mountains between the basin of the Lillooet River just east, the Cheakamus-Green divide is the lowest and most direct and was the main trading route of the Squamish and Lil'wat First Nations long before the arrival of Europeans. One Lil ` wat legend of the Great Flood says; the first British survey by the Royal Navy took place in the 1860s. These surveyors named the mountain London Mountain because of the heavy fog and cloud gathering around the mountain, but the area informally acquired the name "Whistler" due to the call of the hoary marmot. In the late 19th century, a trail was cut through the valley, linking Lillooet via Pemberton with Burrard Inlet via a pass from Squamish to the Seymour River; the trail was completed in 1877, but because of the difficult and unforgiving terrain, it was only used once for its intended purpose, to drive cattle. The area began to attract trappers and prospectors who established small camps in the area in the early 20th century.
The area began to gain recognition with the arrival of Myrtle and Alex Philip, who in 1914 purchased 10 acres of land on Alta Lake and established the Rainbow Lodge. The Philips had relocated from Maine to Vancouver in 1910, had heard rumours of the natural beauty of the area from Pemberton pioneer John Millar. After an exploratory journey, the couple was convinced. Rainbow Lodge and other railway-dependent tourist resorts were collectively known as Alta Lake. Along with the rest of the valley bridging the Cheakamus and Green River basins, they became part of British Columbia's first Resort Municipality in 1975. Completion of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway in 1914 reduced the travel time from three days, providing ease of access from Vancouver, the Rainbow Lodge gained a reputation as the most popular vacation destination west of the Rockies; the lodge was a summer destination, with boating and hiking among the most popular activities, soon other lodges began to open not just on Alta Lake, but on other valley lakes as well.
Appreciation of the outdoors was not the only activity in the valley, however. Logging was a boom industry. During the first half of the 20th century, most of the lower slopes of the surrounding mountains were cleared of old growth. At its peak, four mills were in operation, most located around Green Lake. Prospecting and trapping were pursued as well, though no claims of great value were staked. Whistler is well known for its skiing and snowboarding in the winter and mountain biking in the summer. There are many other smaller activities such as donating/Tubing; the different run difficulties: Green, Black, Double Black. Locals consider some runs to be considered "Triple Balck" these runs aren't labelled on maps. Throughout the year each run's difficulty stays the same; until the 1960s, this quiet area was without basic infrastructure. There were no sewage facilities, water, or electricity, no road from Squamish or Vancouver. In 1962, four Vancouver businessmen began to explore the area with the intent of building a ski resort and bidding for the 1968 Winter Olympics.
Garibaldi Lift Company was formed, shares were sold, in 1966, Whistler Mountain opened to the public. The town still known as Alta Lake, was offered the 1976 Winter Olympics after the selected host city Denver declined the games due to funding issues. Alta Lake Whistler declined as well, after elections ushered in a local government less enthusiastic about the Olympics; the 1976 Winter Olympics were held in Innsbruck, Austria. Whistler was the Host Mountain Resort of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympic Games, the first time the IOC has bestowed that designation on a community. Whistler hosted the alpine technical and speed events, the sliding events at Fitzsimmons Creek, the Nordic events in the nearby Callaghan Valley and all the Paralympic events except the opening ceremonies, sledge hockey and wheelchair curling; the Whistler Olympic and Paralympic Village housed around 2,400 athletes, coaches and officials. Post-games, the site has been turned into a new residential neighbourhood Cheakamus Crossing.
Whistler is located on British Columbia Highway 99, al
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae. Other fish in the same family include trout, char and whitefish. Salmon are native to tributaries of the North Pacific Ocean. Many species of salmon have been introduced into non-native environments such as the Great Lakes of North America and Patagonia in South America. Salmon are intensively farmed in many parts of the world. Salmon are anadromous: they hatch in fresh water, migrate to the ocean return to fresh water to reproduce. However, populations of several species are restricted to fresh water through their lives. Folklore has it. Tracking studies have shown this to be true. A portion of a returning salmon run may spawn in different freshwater systems. Homing behavior has been shown to depend on olfactory memory. Salmon date back to the Neogene; the term "salmon" comes from the Latin salmo, which in turn might have originated from salire, meaning "to leap". The nine commercially important species of salmon occur in two genera.
The genus Salmo contains the Atlantic salmon, found in the north Atlantic, as well as many species named trout. The genus Oncorhynchus contains eight species which occur only in the North Pacific; as a group, these are known as Pacific salmon. Chinook salmon have been introduced in New Patagonia. Coho, freshwater sockeye, Atlantic salmon have been established in Patagonia, as well. † Both the Salmo and Oncorhynchus genera contain a number of species referred to as trout. Within Salmo, additional minor taxa have been called salmon in English, i.e. the Adriatic salmon and Black Sea salmon. The steelhead anadromous form of the rainbow trout migrates to sea, but it is not termed "salmon". A number of other species have common names which refer to them as being salmon. Of those listed below, the Danube salmon or huchen is a large freshwater salmonid related to the salmon above, but others are marine fishes of the unrelated Perciformes order: Eosalmo driftwoodensis, the oldest known salmon in the fossil record, helps scientists figure how the different species of salmon diverged from a common ancestor.
The British Columbia salmon fossil provides evidence that the divergence between Pacific and Atlantic salmon had not yet occurred 40 million years ago. Both the fossil record and analysis of mitochondrial DNA suggest the divergence occurred by 10 to 20 million years ago; this independent evidence from DNA analysis and the fossil record rejects the glacial theory of salmon divergence. Atlantic salmon reproduce in northern rivers on both coasts of the Atlantic Ocean. Landlocked salmon live in a number of lakes in eastern North America and in Northern Europe, for instance in lakes Sebago, Ladoga, Saimaa, Vänern, Winnipesaukee, they are not a different species from the Atlantic salmon, but have independently evolved a non-migratory life cycle, which they maintain when they could access the ocean. Chinook salmon are known in the United States as king salmon or blackmouth salmon, as spring salmon in British Columbia. Chinook are the largest of all Pacific salmon exceeding 14 kg; the name tyee is used in British Columbia to refer to Chinook over 30 pounds, in the Columbia River watershed large Chinook were once referred to as June hogs.
Chinook salmon are known to range as far north as the Mackenzie River and Kugluktuk in the central Canadian arctic, as far south as the Central California coast. Chum salmon are known as dog, keta, or calico salmon in some parts of the US; this species has the widest geographic range of the Pacific species: south to the Sacramento River in California in the eastern Pacific and the island of Kyūshū in the Sea of Japan in the western Pacific. Coho salmon are known in the US as silver salmon; this species is found throughout the coastal waters of Alaska and British Columbia and as far south as Central California. It is now known to occur, albeit infrequently, in the Mackenzie River. Masu salmon or cherry salmon are found only in the western Pacific Ocean in Japan and Russia. A land-locked subspecies known as the Taiwanese salmon or Formosan salmon is found in central Taiwan's Chi Chia Wan Stream. Pink salmon, known as humpies in southeast and southwest Alaska, are found from northern California and Korea, throughout the northern Pacific, from the Mackenzie River in Canada to the Lena River in Siberia in shorter coastal streams.
It is the smallest of the Pacific species, with an average weight of 1.6 to 1.8 kg. Sockeye salmon are known in the US as red salmon; this lake-rearing species is found south as far as the Klamath River in California in the eastern Pacific and northern Hokkaidō island in Japan in the western Pacific and as far north as Bathurst Inlet in the Canadian Arctic in the east and the Anadyr River in Siberia in the west. Although most adult Pacific salmon feed on small fish and squid, sockeye feed on plankton they filter through gill rakers. Kokanee salmon are the land-locked form of sockeye salmon. Danube salmon, or huchen, are the largest permanent freshwater salmonid species. Salmon eggs are laid in freshwater streams at high latitudes; the eggs hatch into alevin or sac fry
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
The rainbow trout is a trout and species of salmonid native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America. The steelhead is an anadromous form of the coastal rainbow trout or Columbia River redband trout that returns to fresh water to spawn after living two to three years in the ocean. Freshwater forms that have been introduced into the Great Lakes and migrate into tributaries to spawn are called steelhead. Adult freshwater stream rainbow trout average between 1 and 5 lb, while lake-dwelling and anadromous forms may reach 20 lb. Coloration varies based on subspecies and habitat. Adult fish are distinguished by a broad reddish stripe along the lateral line, from gills to the tail, most vivid in breeding males. Wild-caught and hatchery-reared forms of this species have been transplanted and introduced for food or sport in at least 45 countries and every continent except Antarctica. Introductions to locations outside their native range in the United States, Southern Europe, New Zealand and South America have damaged native fish species.
Introduced populations may affect native species by preying on them, out-competing them, transmitting contagious diseases, or hybridizing with related species and subspecies, thus reducing genetic purity. The rainbow trout is included in the list of the top 100 globally invasive species. Nonetheless, other introductions into waters devoid of any fish species or with depleted stocks of native fish have created sport fisheries such as the Great Lakes and Wyoming's Firehole River; some local populations of specific subspecies, or in the case of steelhead, distinct population segments, are listed as either threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. The steelhead is the official state fish of Washington; the scientific name of the rainbow trout is Oncorhynchus mykiss. The species was named by German naturalist and taxonomist Johann Julius Walbaum in 1792 based on type specimens from the Kamchatka Peninsula in Siberia. Walbaum's original species name, was derived from the local Kamchatkan name used for the fish, mykizha.
The name of the genus is from the Greek onkos and rynchos, in reference to the hooked jaws of males in the mating season. Sir John Richardson, a Scottish naturalist, named a specimen of this species Salmo gairdneri in 1836 to honor Meredith Gairdner, a Hudson's Bay Company surgeon at Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River who provided Richardson with specimens. In 1855, William P. Gibbons, the curator of Geology and Mineralogy at the California Academy of Sciences, found a population and named it Salmo iridia corrected to Salmo irideus; these names faded once it was determined that Walbaum's description of type specimens was conspecific and therefore had precedence. In 1989, morphological and genetic studies indicated that trout of the Pacific basin were genetically closer to Pacific salmon than to the Salmos – brown trout or Atlantic salmon of the Atlantic basin. Thus, in 1989, taxonomic authorities moved the rainbow and other Pacific basin trout into the genus Oncorhynchus. Walbaum's name had precedence, so the species name Oncorhynchus mykiss became the scientific name of the rainbow trout.
The previous species names irideus and gairdneri were adopted as subspecies names for the coastal rainbow and Columbia River redband trout, respectively. Anadromous forms of the coastal rainbow trout or redband trout are known as steelhead. Subspecies of Oncorhynchus mykiss are listed below as described by fisheries biologist Robert J. Behnke. Resident freshwater rainbow trout adults average between 1 and 5 lb in riverine environments, while lake-dwelling and anadromous forms may reach 20 lb. Coloration varies between regions and subspecies. Adult freshwater forms are blue-green or olive green with heavy black spotting over the length of the body. Adult fish have a broad reddish stripe along the lateral line, from gills to the tail, most pronounced in breeding males; the caudal fin is only mildly forked. Lake-dwelling and anadromous forms are more silvery in color with the reddish stripe completely gone. Juvenile rainbow trout display parr marks typical of most salmonid juveniles. In some redband and golden trout forms parr marks are retained into adulthood.
Some coastal rainbow trout and Columbia River redband trout populations and cutbow hybrids may display reddish or pink throat markings similar to cutthroat trout. In many regions, hatchery-bred trout can be distinguished from native trout via fin clips. Fin clipping the adipose fin is a management tool used to identify hatchery-reared fish. Rainbow trout, including steelhead forms spawn in early to late spring when water temperatures reach at least 42 to 44 °F; the maximum recorded lifespan for a rainbow trout is 11 years. Freshwater resident rainbow trout inhabit and spawn in small to moderately large, well oxygenated, shallow rivers with gravel bottoms, they are native to the alluvial or freestone streams that are typical tributaries of the Pacific basin, but introduced rainbow trout have established wild, self-sustaining populations in other river types such as bedrock and spring creeks. Lake resident rainbow trout are found in moderately deep, cool lakes with