Heinkel He 111
The Heinkel He 111 was a German aircraft designed by Siegfried and Walter Günter at Heinkel Flugzeugwerke in 1934. Through development it was described as a "wolf in sheep's clothing". Due to restrictions placed on Germany after the First World War prohibiting bombers, it masqueraded as a civil airliner, although from conception the design was intended to provide the nascent Luftwaffe with a fast medium bomber; the best-recognised German bomber due to the distinctive, extensively glazed "greenhouse" nose of versions, the Heinkel He 111 was the most numerous Luftwaffe bomber during the early stages of World War II. The bomber fared well until the Battle of Britain, it proved capable of sustaining heavy damage and remaining airborne. As the war progressed, the He 111 was used in a variety of roles on every front in the European theatre, it was used as a strategic bomber during the Battle of Britain, a torpedo bomber in the Atlantic and Arctic, a medium bomber and a transport aircraft on the Western, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, North African Front theatres.
The He 111 was upgraded and modified, but became obsolete during the latter part of the war. The German Bomber B project was not realised, which forced the Luftwaffe to continue operating the He 111 in combat roles until the end of the war. Manufacture of the He 111 ceased in September 1944, at which point piston-engine bomber production was halted in favour of fighter aircraft. With the German bomber force defunct, the He 111 was used for logistics. Production of the Heinkel continued after the war as the Spanish-built CASA 2.111. Spain received a batch of He 111H-16s in 1943 along with an agreement to licence-build Spanish versions, its airframe was produced in Spain under licence by Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA. The design differed in powerplant only being equipped with Rolls-Royce Merlin engines; the Heinkel's descendant continued in service until 1973. After its defeat in World War I, Germany was banned from operating an air force by the Treaty of Versailles. German re-armament began earnestly in the 1930s and was kept secret because it violated the treaty.
The early development of military bombers was disguised as a development program for civilian transport aircraft. Among the designers seeking to benefit from German re-armament was Ernst Heinkel. Heinkel decided to create the world's fastest passenger aircraft, a goal met with scepticism by Germany's aircraft industry and political leadership. Heinkel entrusted development to Siegfried and Walter Günter, both new to the company and untested. In June 1933 Albert Kesselring visited Heinkel's offices. Kesselring was head of the Luftwaffe Administration Office: at that point Germany did not have a State Aviation Ministry but only an aviation commissariat, the Luftfahrtkommissariat. Kesselring was hoping to build a new air force out of the Flying Corps being constructed in the Reichswehr, required modern aircraft. Kesselring convinced Heinkel to move his factory from Warnemünde to Rostock — with its factory airfield in the coastal "Marienehe" region of Rostock and bring in mass production, with a force of 3,000 employees.
Heinkel began work on the new design, which garnered urgency as the American Lockheed 12, Boeing 247 and Douglas DC-2 began to appear. Features of the He 111 were apparent in the Heinkel He 70; the first single-engined He 70 Blitz rolled off the line in 1932 and started breaking records. In the normal four-passenger version its speed reached 380 km/h when powered by a 447 kW BMW VI engine; the He 70 was designed with an elliptical wing, which the Günther brothers had incorporated into the Bäumer Sausewind before they joined Heinkel. This wing design became a feature in this and many subsequent designs they developed; the He 70 drew the interest of the Luftwaffe, looking for an aircraft with both bomber and transport capabilities. The He 111 was a twin-engine version of the Blitz, preserving the elliptical inverted gull wing, small rounded control surfaces and BMW engines, so that the new design was called the Doppel-Blitz; when the Dornier Do 17 displaced the He 70, Heinkel needed a twin-engine design to match its competitors.
Heinkel spent 200,000 man hours designing the He 111. The fuselage length was extended to just over 17.4 m/57 ft and wingspan to 22.6 m/74 ft. The first He 111 flew on 24 February 1935, piloted by chief test pilot Gerhard Nitschke, ordered not to land at the company's factory airfield at Rostock-Marienehe, as this was considered too short, but at the central Erprobungstelle Rechlin test facility, he ignored these orders and landed back at Marienehe. He said that the He 111 performed slow manoeuvres well and that there was no danger of overshooting the runway. Nitschke praised its high speed "for the period" and "very good-natured flight and landing characteristics", stable during cruising, gradual descent and single-engined flight and having no nose-drop when the undercarriage was operated. During the second test flight Nitschke revealed there was insufficient longitudinal stability during climb and flight at full power and the aileron controls required an unsatisfactory amount of force. By the end of 1935, prototypes V2 V4 had been produced under civilian registrations D-ALIX, D-ALES and D-AHAO.
D-ALES became the first prototype of the He 111 A-1 on 10 January 1936 and received recognition as the "fastest passenger aircraft in the world", as its speed exceeded 402 km/h. The design would have achieved a greater total speed had the 1,000 hp DB 600 inverted-V12 en
VHF omnidirectional range
High Frequency Omni-Directional Range is a type of short-range radio navigation system for aircraft, enabling aircraft with a receiving unit to determine its position and stay on course by receiving radio signals transmitted by a network of fixed ground radio beacons. It uses frequencies in the high frequency band from 108.00 to 117.95 MHz. Developed in the United States beginning in 1937 and deployed by 1946, VOR is the standard air navigational system in the world, used by both commercial and general aviation. By 2000 there were about 3,000 VOR stations around the world including 1,033 in the US, reduced to 967 by 2013 with more stations being decommissioned with the widespread adoption of GPS. A VOR ground station sends out an omnidirectional master signal, a directional second signal is propagated by a phased antenna array and rotates clockwise in space 30 times a second; this signal is timed so that its phase varies as the secondary signal rotates, this phase difference is the same as the angular direction of the'spinning' signal.
By comparing the phase of the secondary signal with the master, the angle to the aircraft from the station can be determined. This line of position is called the "radial" from the VOR; the intersection of radials from two different VOR stations can be used to fix the position of the aircraft, as in earlier radio direction finding systems. VOR stations are short range: the signals are line of sight between transmitter and receiver and are useful for up to 200 miles; each station broadcasts a VHF radio composite signal including the navigation signal, station's identifier and voice, if so equipped. The navigation signal allows the airborne receiving equipment to determine a bearing from the station to the aircraft; the station's identifier is a three-letter string in Morse code. The voice signal, if used, is the station name, in-flight recorded advisories, or live flight service broadcasts. At some locations, this voice signal is a continuous recorded broadcast of Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Service or HIWAS.
Developed from earlier Visual Aural Radio Range systems, the VOR was designed to provide 360 courses to and from the station, selectable by the pilot. Early vacuum tube transmitters with mechanically-rotated antennas were installed in the 1950s, began to be replaced with solid-state units in the early 1960s, they became the major radio navigation system in the 1960s, when they took over from the older radio beacon and four-course system. Some of the older range stations survived, with the four-course directional features removed, as non-directional low or medium frequency radiobeacons. A worldwide land-based network of "air highways", known in the US as Victor airways and "jetways", was set up linking VORs. An aircraft can follow a specific path from station to station by tuning into the successive stations on the VOR receiver, either following the desired course on a Radio Magnetic Indicator, or setting it on a course deviation indicator or a horizontal situation indicator and keeping a course pointer centred on the display.
As of 2005, due to advances in technology, many airports are replacing VOR and NDB approaches with RNAV approach procedures. VOR signals provide greater accuracy and reliability than NDBs due to a combination of factors. Most significant is that VOR provides a bearing from the station to the aircraft which does not vary with wind or orientation of the aircraft. VHF radio is less vulnerable to diffraction around terrain coastlines. Phase encoding suffers less interference from thunderstorms. VOR signals offer a predictable accuracy of 90 m, 2 sigma at 2 NM from a pair of VOR beacons. VOR stations rely on "line of sight" because they operate in the VHF band—if the transmitting antenna cannot be seen on a clear day from the receiving antenna, a useful signal cannot be received; this limits VOR range to the horizon -- or closer. Although the modern solid state transmitting equipment requires much less maintenance than the older units, an extensive network of stations, needed to provide reasonable coverage along main air routes, is a significant cost in operating current airway systems.
VORs are assigned radio channels between 117.95 MHz. The first 4 MHz is shared with the instrument landing system band. To leave channels for ILS, in the range 108.0 to 111.95 MHz, the 100 kHz digit is always so 108.00, 108.05, 108.20, 108.25, so on are VOR frequencies but 108.10, 108.15, 108.30, 108.35 and so on, are reserved for ILS in the US. The VOR encodes azimuth as the phase relationship between a variable signal; the omnidirectional signal contains a modulated continuous wave 7 wpm Morse code station identifier, contains an amplitude modulated voice channel. The conventional 30 Hz reference signal is frequency modulated on a 9,960 Hz subcarrier; the variable amplitude modulated signal is conven
Heinkel He 177
The Heinkel He 177 Greif was a long-range heavy bomber flown by the Luftwaffe during World War II. The He 177 was the only operational long-range heavy bomber available to the Luftwaffe during the war years that had a payload/range capability similar to the four-engined heavy bombers flown by the USAAF and RAF in the European theatre. Designed to a 1936 requirement known as Bomber A, the aircraft was intended to be a purely strategic bomber intended to support a long-term bombing campaign against Soviet industry in the Urals. In spite of its large, 30 metres wingspan, the design was limited to two engines. During the design, Luftwaffe doctrine came to stress the use of moderate-angle dive bombing, or "glide bombing", to improve accuracy. Applying the changes needed for this type of attack to such a large aircraft was unrealistic. To deliver the power required from only two engines on an aircraft this large, engines of at least 2,000 horsepower were needed; such designs were not well established and the DB 606 "power system" engine, combined with the cooling and maintenance problems caused by the tight nacelles, caused the engines to be infamous for catching fire in flight.
Early models gained the nicknames Reichsfeuerzeug from Luftwaffe aircrew. The type matured into a usable design too late in the war to play an important role, it was built and used in some numbers on the Eastern Front where its range was useful. It is notable for its use in mass raids on Velikiye Luki in 1944, one of the late-war heavy bombing efforts by the Luftwaffe, it saw less use on the Western Front, although it played a role during Operation Steinbock, against the UK in 1944. In 1936, the company of Heinkel Flugzeugwerke received details of the new Bomber A specification from the Reichsluftfahrtministerium; this specification, first proposed by the RLM on 3 June 1936 – the same day that the main advocate for the Luftwaffe having a strategic bomber force, General Walther Wever, lost his life – called for an aircraft more advanced than the Dornier Do 19 or Junkers Ju 89 "Ural bomber" prototypes that General Wever had championed. The Bomber A aircraft specification required the plane to carry a bomb-load of at least 1,000 kg over a range of 5,000 km, with a maximum speed of not less than 500 km/h at altitude.
This was a formidable specification, calling as it did for an aircraft able to outrun any modern fighter – as was expected with the top speeds of the main force Schnellbomber concept – and outperform, by a considerable margin, any bomber in service. On 2 June 1937, Heinkel Flugzeugwerke received instructions to proceed with construction of a full-scale mock-up of its Projekt 1041 Bomber A; that was completed in November 1937, on 5 November 1937 it was allocated the official RLM airframe type number "8-177", the same day that the Luftwaffe High Command stipulated that the new design should possess sufficient structural strength to enable it to undertake medium-degree diving attacks. Heinkel Flugzeugwerke's estimated performance figures for Projekt 1041 included a top speed of 550 km/h at 5,500 m and a loaded weight of 27,000 kg. In order to achieve these estimates, Ernst Heinkel's chief designer, Siegfried Günter, employed several revolutionary features; the He 177 required at least a pair of 2,000 PS engines to meet performance requirements.
No engine in the German aviation power-plant industry at that time developed such power. A four-engine version would have been possible with engines like the Daimler-Benz DB 601 but the four-engine layout would impose higher propeller drag to the detriment of performance in dive bombing; the use of only two counter-rotating propellers on a heavy bomber offered many advantages, such as a substantial reduction in drag, reduction of dive instability and a marked improvement in maneuverability. The eight initial V-series prototypes, the larger number of A-0 pre-production models of the He 177, displayed an airspeed and maneuverability comparable to many heavy fighters of the time. For the He 177, Günter decided to employ two of the complex Daimler-Benz DB 606 "power system" setups for propulsion, he had employed these engines on the record-breaking Heinkel He 119 reconnaissance aircraft prototypes. They consisted of a pair of DB 601 liquid-cooled 12-cylinder inverted-vee inline engines mounted side by side in a nacelle – for the He 119, centrally within the fuselage, just behind its glazed cockpit enclosure – driving one propeller.
The two engines were inclined inwards by 30° when mounted onto either side of their common, vertical-plane space-frame primary engine mount, so that the inner cylinder banks were disposed vertically. A common gear-housing connected the front ends of the two crankcases, with the two crankshaft pinions driving a single airscrew shaft gear; the outer sides of each of the component engines' crankcases were connected to the nacelle firewall through forged mountings similar to what would be used for either a single DB 601 or DB 605 engine-powered aircraft installation. When combined with the central space-frame mount designed for the "power system" format, this resulted in a Daimler-Benz "coupled" twin-crankcase "power system" having a trio of engine mount structures within its nacelle accommodation; the starboard DB 601 component engine had to be fitted with a mirror-image version of its mechanically driven centrifugal supercharger, drawing air from the starboard side of the engine. Two of the DB 606s, each of which developed 2,600 PS for take-off and weighing some 1,515 kg apiece, were to power the He 177.
Messerschmitt Me 262
The Messerschmitt Me 262, nicknamed Schwalbe in fighter versions, or Sturmvogel in fighter-bomber versions, was the world's first operational jet-powered fighter aircraft. Design work started before World War II began, but problems with engines and top-level interference kept the aircraft from operational status with the Luftwaffe until mid-1944; the Me 262 was faster and more armed than any Allied fighter, including the British jet-powered Gloster Meteor. One of the most advanced aviation designs in operational use during World War II, the Me 262's roles included light bomber and experimental night fighter versions. Me 262 pilots claimed a total of 542 Allied aircraft shot down, although higher claims are sometimes made; the Allies countered its effectiveness in the air by attacking the aircraft on the ground and during takeoff and landing. Strategic materials shortages and design compromises on the Junkers Jumo 004 axial-flow turbojet engines led to reliability problems. Attacks by Allied forces on fuel supplies during the deteriorating late-war situation reduced the effectiveness of the aircraft as a fighting force.
Armament production within Germany was focused on more manufactured aircraft. In the end, the Me 262 had a negligible impact on the course of the war as a result of its late introduction and the small numbers put in operational service. While German use of the aircraft ended with the close of World War II, a small number were operated by the Czechoslovak Air Force until 1951, it influenced several designs, like Sukhoi Su-9 and Nakajima Kikka. Captured Me 262s were studied and flight tested by the major powers, influenced the designs of post-war aircraft such as the North American F-86 Sabre, MiG-15 and Boeing B-47 Stratojet. Several aircraft survive on static display in museums, there are several built flying reproductions that use modern General Electric J85 engines. Several years before World War II, the Germans foresaw the great potential for aircraft that used the jet engine constructed by Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain in 1936. After the successful test flights of the world's first jet aircraft—the Heinkel He 178—within a week of the Invasion of Poland to start the war, they adopted the jet engine for an advanced fighter aircraft.
As a result, the Me 262 was under development as Projekt 1065 before the start of World War II. The project originated with a request by the Reichsluftfahrtministerium for a jet aircraft capable of one hour's endurance and a speed of at least 850 km/h. Dr Waldemar Voigt headed the design team, with Messerschmitt's chief of development, Robert Lusser, overseeing. Plans were first drawn up in April 1939, the original design was different from the aircraft that entered service, with wing root-mounted engines, rather than podded ones, when submitted in June 1939; the progression of the original design was delayed by technical issues involving the new jet engine. Because the engines were slow to arrive, Messerschmitt moved the engines from the wing roots to underwing pods, allowing them to be changed more if needed. Since the BMW 003 jets proved heavier than anticipated, the wing was swept by 18.5°, to accommodate a change in the center of gravity. Funding for the jet engine program was initially lacking as many high-ranking officials thought the war could be won with conventional aircraft.
Among those were Hermann Göring, head of the Luftwaffe, who cut the engine development program to just 35 engineers in February 1940. By that time, problems with engine development had slowed production of the aircraft considerably. One acute problem arose with the lack of an alloy with a melting point high enough to endure the high temperatures involved, a problem that by the end of the war had not been adequately resolved; the aircraft made its first successful flight on jet power on 18 July 1942, powered by a pair of Jumo 004 engines, after a November 1941 flight ended in a double flameout. The project aerodynamicist on the design of the Me 262 was Ludwig Bölkow, he designed the wing using NACA airfoils modified with an elliptical nose section. In the design process, these were changed to AVL derivatives of NACA airfoils, the NACA 00011-0.825-35 being used at the root and the NACA 00009-1.1-40 at the tip. The elliptical nose derivatives of the NACA airfoils were used on the horizontal and vertical tail surfaces.
Wings were of single-spar cantilever construction, with stressed skins, varying from 3 mm skin thickness at the root to 1 mm at the tip. To expedite construction, save weight and use less strategic materials, late in the war, wing interiors were not painted; the wings were fastened to the fuselage at four points, using a pair of 20 mm and forty-two 8 mm bolts. In mid-1943, Adolf Hitler envisioned the Me 262 as a ground-attack/bomber aircraft rather than a defensive interceptor; the configuration of a high-speed, light-payload Schnellbomber was intended to penetrate enemy airspace during the expected Allied invasion of France. His edict resulted in the development of the Sturmvogel variant, it is debatable to what extent Hitler's interference
The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918. It was composed of three parts: the joint army, the Imperial Austrian Landwehr, the Royal Hungarian Honvéd. In the wake of fighting between the Austrian Empire and the Hungarian Kingdom and the two decades of uneasy co-existence following, Hungarian soldiers served either in mixed units or were stationed away from Hungarian areas. With the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the new tripartite army was brought into being, it existed until the disestablishment of the Austro-Hungarian Empire following World War I in 1918. The joint "Imperial and Royal Army" units were poorly trained and had limited access to new equipment because the governments of the Austrian and Hungarian parts of the empire preferred to generously fund their own units instead of outfitting all three army branches equally. All of the Honvédség and the Landwehr regiments were composed of three battalions, while the joint army k.u.k.
Regiments had four. The long-standing white infantry uniforms were replaced in the half of the 19th century with dark blue tunics, which in turn were replaced by a pike grey uniform used in the initial stages of World War I. In September 1915, field gray was adopted as the new official uniform colour; the last known surviving member of the Austro-Hungarian Army was World War I veteran Franz Künstler, who died in May 2008 at the age of 107. The major decisions 1867-1895 were made by Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen, the nephew of the Emperor Franz Joseph and his leading advisor in military affairs. According to historians John Keegan and Andrew Wheatcroft: He was a firm conservative in all matters and civil, took to writing pamphlets lamenting the state of the Army’s morale as well as fighting a fierce rearguard action against all forms of innovation…. Much of the Austrian failure in the First World War can be traced back to his long period of power…, his power was that of the bureaucrat, not the fighting soldier, his thirty years of command over the peacetime Habsburg Army made it a flabby instrument of war.
Austria-Hungary avoided major wars in the era between 1867 and 1914 but engaged in a number of minor military actions. The general staff maintained plans for major wars against neighboring powers Italy and Russia. By contrast, the main enemies Russia and Serbia had engaged in large scale warfare in the decade before the First World War. In the late 19th century the army was used to suppress unrest in urban areas of the empire: in 1882 and 1887 in Vienna and notably against German nationalists at Graz and Czech nationalists in Prague in November 1897. Soldiers under the command of Conrad von Hotzendorf were used against Italian rioters in Trieste in 1902; the most significant action by soldiers of the Dual Monarchy in this period was the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the summer of 1878. When troops under the command of Josip Filipović and Stjepan Jovanović entered the provinces expecting little or no resistance, they were met with ferocious opposition from elements of both Muslim and Orthodox populations there.
Despite setbacks at Maglaj and Tuzla, Sarajevo was occupied in October. Austro-Hungarian casualties amounted to over 5,000 and the unexpected violence of the campaign led to recriminations between commanders and political leaders. In 1868, the number of active-duty troops in the army was 355,000, the total could be expanded to 800,000 upon mobilization. However, this was less than the European powers of France, the North German Confederation and Russia, each of which could field more than one million men. Though the population of the empire had risen to nearly 50 million by 1900, the size of the army was tied to ceilings established in 1889. Thus, at the start of the 20th century, Austria-Hungary conscripted only 0.29% of its population, compared to 0.47% in Germany, 0.35% in Russia and 0.75% in France. The 1889 army law was not revised until 1912; the ethnic make-up of the enlisted ranks reflected the diversity of the empire. From a religious standpoint, the Austro-Hungarian army officer corps was dominated by Roman Catholics.
In 1896, out of 1000 officers, 791 were Roman Catholics, 86 Protestants, 84 Jews, 39 Greek-Orthodox, one Uniate. Of the pre–World War military forces of the major European powers, the Austro-Hungarian army was alone in its regular promotion of Jews to positions of command. While the Jewish population of the lands of the Dual Monarchy 4.4% including Bosnia-Herzegovna), Jews made up nearly 18% of the reserve officer corps. There were no official barriers to military service for Jews, but in years this tolerance eroded to some extent, as important figures such as Conrad von Hötzendorf and Archduke Franz Ferdinand sometimes expressed anti-Jewish sentiments. Franz Ferdinand was accused of discriminating against Protestant officers. Following the 1867 constitutional arrangements, the Reichsrat was dominated by German Liberals, who regarded the army as a relic of feudalism. In Budapest, legislators were reluctant to authorize funds for the joint army but were generous with the Hungarian branch of the army, the Honvédség.
In 1867 the military budget accounte
Cheb is a town in the Karlovy Vary Region of the Czech Republic, with about 33,000 inhabitants. It is at the foot of the Smrčiny near the border with Germany. Before the 1945 expulsion of the German speaking population, the town was the centre of the German-speaking region known as Egerland, part of the Northern Austro-Bavarian dialect area; the name of the town was in 1061 recorded as Egire. From 1850 it was given the twin official names of Cheb. From 1938 to 1945 it was one of the municipalities in Sudetenland; the twin towns of Cheb are Hof in Germany, Rheden in the Netherlands, Nizhny Tagil in Russia and Bắc Ninh in Vietnam. The earliest settlement in the area was a Slavic stronghold at what is now known as the Cheb Castle complex, north of the town-centre. In 807 the district of today's Cheb was included in the new margraviate of East Franconia, which belonged at first to the Babenbergs, but from 906 to the margraves of Vohburg. Depold II of Vohburg built the castle about which the town grew.
In 1179 town status was achieved. In 1149, by the marriage of Adelheid of Vohburg to the emperor Frederick I, Eger came into the possession of the House of Swabia, remained in the hands of the emperors until the early 13th century, during which time it became an Imperial Free City. In 1265, it was taken by the king Ottokar II of Bohemia. After being transferred from the one power to the other, according to the preponderance of Bohemia or the empire, the town and territory were incorporated into Bohemia in 1322, under John of Bohemia. Several imperial privileges, continued to be enjoyed by the town until 1849. On 5 May 1389, during a Reichstag between King Wenceslaus and a group of Imperial Free Cities of south-west Germany, the Peace of Eger was agreed upon, after Wenceslaus had failed to secure his interests in the city, it suffered during the Hussite Wars, during the Swedish invasion in 1631 and 1647, in the War of the Austrian Succession in 1742. In 1634, during the Thirty Years' War, Albrecht von Wallenstein was killed here.
George of Podebrady died 1471? gave away his daughter in marriage and fathered two sons in the city. From the Middle Ages until 1945, the lands around the town were known by the German name Egerland. In 1723, Cheb became a free royal town; the northern quarter of the town was devastated by a large fire in 1809, many middle-age buildings were irreplaceably destroyed. Until 1851, the renowned spa-town of Františkovy Lázně belonged to the Magistrate of Cheb; the carbonated mineral water coming from these springs was delivered to spa visitors residing in Cheb. Geographers of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy proclaimed the nearby 939m high Tillen as the geographical centre of Europe; this claim was documented on a copper plaque mounted at the summit. Austrian National Socialism and hence German National Socialism can trace its origins to Cheb when Franko Stein transferred a small newspaper from Vienna to Cheb in 1897. There he organized a German workers congress called the Deutschvölkischer Arbeitertag, which published the 25-point program.
The terms of the 1919 Treaty of St. Germain triggered civil unrest between the Sudeten German population and the new Czechoslovak administration, just as in the rest of the Sudetenland; as elsewhere, protests in the town – now named Cheb – were suppressed by force. On 3 October 1938, the town was visited by Adolf Hitler. From 1938 until 1945, the town was annexed to Germany. On 1 May 1939, the town split away from the surrounding district to form its own municipal district together with the settlement of Matzelbach, gave its name to the most westerly of the three administrative regions of the Sudetenland; the administrative seat of the Regierungspräsident lay in Karlsbad, however. Cheb was liberated by the 97th Infantry Division of the US Army on 25 April, 1945. After the end of World War II the region was returned to Czechoslovakia. Under the Beneš decrees of the same year, the German-speaking majority of the town was dispossessed of their homes and property, was forcibly expelled from the country.
In 1954, the town of Amberg in Germany adopted the expelled Sudeten German population from Cheb and the surrounding districts. On 24 August 2001, German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder and Czech Prime Minister Miloš Zeman visited the Euregio Egrensis, received the Freedom of the City of Cheb. In 2004, a town-twinning agreement was made with Hof in Bavaria. Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, Cheb has had cordial relationships with the neighbouring German towns of Waldsassen and Marktredwitz. 15th century – 7,300 inhabitants with about 400 houses, plus 200 in suburbs 1930 – 31,406 inhabitants, of whom 3,493 were Czech. 1945 – 45,000 inhabitants 1947 – 14,533 inhabitants, due to the expulsion of ethnic Germans and resettlement of Czechs 1990 – 29,962 inhabitants 2005 – 33,462 inhabitantsThe current population includes a large group of Vietnamese, whose families were invited to the country as guest workers during the Communist era, Romani, who were resettled after the Second World War. On the rock, to the north-west of the city center, lies Cheb castle, built in the 12th century, now in ruins.
The main attractions are the Chapel of St Erhard and Ursula, the Black Tower and the ruins of a pa