Parks in Halifax, Nova Scotia
The Halifax Regional Municipality has a number of parks and recreation areas in urban and rural settings. Admiral Cove Park 44°43′1.8″N 63°39′6″W Admiral Harry DeWolf Park 44°42′59.1″N 63°40′15″W Africville Park 44°40′29.7″N 63°37′7″W Albro Lake Park 44°41′10.6″N 63°34′31.9″W Arnold Witwork Park 44°39′33.09″N 63°32′52.53″W Ashley Cheeseman Memorial Park Beazley Park 44°41′14.7″N 63°31′56.8″W Bedford Lions Sandy Lake Park 44°44′10.5″N 63°41′42.6″W Bell Lake Park 44°40′37.2″N 63°30′34.9″W Birch Cove 44°40′46.6″N 63°33′42.3″W Bissett Lake Park 44°39′30.2″N 63°27′47.3″W Brownlow Park 44°40′18.1″N 63°32′36.3″W Charlie Park 44°47′19.2″N 63°36′45.6″W Chocolate Lake 44°38′18.5″N 63°37′25.3″W City Waterfront Park, Dartmouth 44°39′47.8″N 63°34′4″W Halifax Common 44°38′57.86″N 63°35′21.39″W Conrose Field 44°38′19.7″N 63°36′4.3″W Cornwallis Park 44°38′23″N 63°34′10.4″W Cyril Smith Golden Acres Park 44°41′26.9″N 63°34′31.2″W Crawthorne Park 44°40′12.7″N 63°35′4.8″W Dartmouth Common 44°40′8.72″N 63°34′17.72″W Deadman's Island Park 44°38′5.95″N 63°36′36.09″W Eastern Passage Commons 44°36′29.1″N 63°28′29.5″W Findley Community Park 44°40′19.3″N 63°33′38.8″W Flinn Park 44°38′30.3″N 63°36′46.1″W Forest Hills Commons 44°41′5.2″N 63°29′18″W Farrell Park 44°40′33.9″N 63°35′23.2″W Grahams Cove 44°40′51.6″N 63°32′59.8″W Gorsebrook Park 44°38′03.8″N 63°34′55.9″W Graves-Oakley Memorial Park 44°35′48.6″N 63°37′37.4″W Hemlock Ravine Park 44°41′20.9″N 63°40′3.3″W Horseshoe Island Park 44°38′23″N 63°36′46.6″W J. Albert Walker Sports Field 44°37′42.4″N 63°37′28.2″W Jason MacCullough Park Larry O'Connell Field 44°38′45.2″N 63°36′31.4″W Mainland Common 44°39′24.9″N 63°39′46.3″W Mary Clayton Memorial Park Maybank Park 44°41′8.1″N 63°34′1.2″W Merv Sullivan Park 44°40′16.9″N 63°36′39.1″W Millers Mountain Park 44°41′28.9″N 63°32′27.6″W Northbrook Park 44°40′30.8″N 63°34′54.3″W Old Hill Lake Park 44°40′26″N 63°32′59″W Oleary Drive Park 44°48′26.1″N 63°40′13.2″W Owls Nest Island - Little Micmac Park 44°41′19.5″N 63°33′3.5″W Penhorn Lake Beach Park 44°40′32.3″N 63°32′22.8″W Perrin Road Park 44°49′41.9″N 63°35′1.4″W Pinehill Lookoff Park 44°41′16″N 63°35′6″W Point Pleasant Park 44°37′22″N 63°34′9″W Public Gardens 44°38′34″N 63°34′56″W Russell Lake Park 44°40′6.2″N 63°31′34.1″W Saunders Park 44°38′45.2″N 63°36′40″W Schwarzwald Park 44°50′6.5″N 63°35′55.4″W Shubie Park 44°42′5.3″N 63°33′26.7″W Sir Sandford Fleming Park 44°37′41.1″N 63°36′7.2″W Sullivan's Pond 44°40′18.8″N 63°33′48″W Tremont Park 44°40′30.8″N 63°39′23.6″W Urban Wilderness Park 44°40′14.7″N 63°34′26″W Victoria Park 44°38′27.9″N 63°34′46.6″W Yetter Park 44°40′34.8″N 63°35′28″W Blue Mountain-Birch Cove Lakes Wilderness Area Boggy Lake Wilderness Area 45°5′21″N 62°18′36″W Clattenburgh Brook Wilderness Area 44°51′54.7″N 63°24′53.1″W Peggys Cove Preservation Area44°29′55.8″N 63°55′4.6″W Ship Harbour Long Lake Wilderness Area 44°50′17″N 63°04′32″W Tangier Grand Lake Wilderness Area 44°52′26.5″N 62°48′20.2″W Terence Bay Wilderness Area 44°32′45.2″N 63°41′6.6″W Waverley-Salmon River Long Lake Wilderness Area 44°47′17″N 63°27′37″W White Lake Wilderness Area 44°51′28.7″N 63°9′30″W Liscomb Game Sanctuary 45°5′0″N 62°25′54″W Waverley Game Sanctuary 44°49′29″N 63°32′10″W Sable Island National Park Reserve 43°57′00″N 59°54′57″W Clam Harbour Beach Provincial Park 44°43′53″N 62°53′28″W Cleveland Beach Provincial Park 44°39′5″N 63°59′59″W Cole Harbour -Lawrencetown Coastal Heritage Park Salt Marsh Trail 44°40′6.6″N 63°25′21.6″W Lawrencetown Beach Provincial Park 44°38′39″N 63°20′27″W Rainbow Haven Beach Provincial Park 44°38′58″N 63°25′4″W Crystal Crescent Beach Provincial Park 44°27′36″N 63°37′12″W Dollar Lake Provincial Park 44°55′49″N 63°19′7″W Elderbank Provincial Park 44°58′49″N 63°12′58″W Gibraltar Rock Provincial Park Reserve44°48′16.73″N 63°10′29.97″W Herring Cove Provincial Park Reserve Laurie Provincial Park 44°53′2″N 63°36′6″W Lewis Lake Provincial Park 44°41′21″N 63°50′46″W Long Lake Provincial Park 44°37′2.89″N 63°38′7.03″W Martinique Beach Provincial Park 44°41′34″N 63°7′50″W MacCormacks Beach Provincial Park 44°36′28.4″N 63°29′32.3″W McNabs Island Provincial Park 44°37′0″N 63°31′57″W Moose River Gold Mines Provincial Park 44°58′52″N 62°56′27″W Musquodoboit Valley Provincial Park 45°3′18″N 63°6′44″W Oakfield Provincial Park 44°54′55″N 63°35′14″W Porters Lake Provincial Park 44°41′16″N 63°18′5″W Powder Mill Lake Provincial Park 44°46′29″N 63°36′38″W Queensland Beach Provincial Park 44°38′8″N 64°1′35″W Taylor Head Provincial Park 44°49′22″N 62°34′30″W William E. Degarthe Provincial Park 44°29′37″N 63°54′51″W Kidstone Lake/ Rockingstone Park 44°35′48.3″N 63°37′8.3″W Moser River Seaside Park 44°58′19.7″N 62°15′15.1″W Oceanic Drive Park 44°38′47.5″N 63°19′49.2″W Ssckville Lakes Provincial Park 44°46′12.9″N 63°38′54.6″W West River Sheet Harbour Picnic Park 44°55′40.1″N 62°32′48.7″W Halifax Citadel National Historic Site 44°38.9′N 63°34.8′W Fort Charlotte National Historic Site 44°38′28.6″N 63°33′35″W Fort McNab National Historic Site 44°36′0.8″N 63°30′53.5″W York Redoubt National Historic Site 44°35′47.7″N 63°33′8.78″W Prince of Wales Tower National Historic Site of Canada 44°37′15″N 63°34′5″W Atlantic View Trail 44°38′41.2″N 63°20′7.5″W Beechville Lakeside Timberlea Rails to Trails 44°39′59.3″N 63°46′35.2″W Bissett Road Trail 44°38′10.7″N 63°27′23.3″W Blueberry Run Trail 44°40′5.3″N 63°15′38.6″W Chain of Lakes Trail Dartmouth Harbourfront Walkway 44°39′17.9″N 63°33′9.4″W DeWolfe Park Boardwalk 44°42′55.4″N 63°40′18.2″W Fort Sackville Walkway44°44′29.8″N 63°39′31.6″W Frog Pond Trail44°37′33.4″N 63°36′13.6″W Bedford - Sackville Greenway 44°43′48″N 63°39′42.5″W Lake Charles, Nova Scotia Trail 44°42′54.1″N 63°33′6.9″W Mainland North Linear Parkway 44°39′38.3″N 63°39′40.2″W McCurdy Woodlot Trails 45°2′58.7″N 63°8′39.5″W Moser River Interpretive Tra
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Sport in Halifax, Nova Scotia
Halifax, Nova Scotia, with the largest urban population in Atlantic Canada, is a major sporting centre. The municipal and provincial governments maintain a network of public parks, sports fields, skating arenas, other facilities throughout urban and rural areas of the municipality. Additionally, many schools in the Halifax Regional School Board and several universities make use of their gymnasiums and sports fields for community use outside of school programs. Ranging from walking trails and provincial parks to tennis courts, swimming pools, shooting ranges and artificial turf soccer fields, Halifax residents have access to every type of sport facility, with organized leagues available throughout the area; the Gaelic games of Hurling and Gaelic football, governed by the Gaelic Athletic Association, are played in Halifax. The local team is the Halifax Gaels; the team competes in the Eastern Canada GAA division. Beginners are encouraged. HRM's plentiful sheltered lakes in the urban core of Dartmouth and Halifax provide private paddling clubs with some of the best race courses in Canada, in particular Lake Banook.
Lake Banook and all the clubs on the lake hosted World Senior Canoe Kayak Championships in 1997 and 2009. Mic Mac AAC - Lake Banook Banook Canoe Club - Lake Banook Senobe Canoe Club - Lake Banook Abenaki Aquatic Club - Bell Lake Cheema Aquatic Club- Lake Charles Maskwa Aquatic Club- Kearney Lake Orenda Canoe Club - Lake Echo Kinap Athletic Club - Porters Lake The Armdale Yacht Club, Royal Nova Scotia Yacht Squadron, Dartmouth Yacht Club and Bedford Yacht Club provide organized sailing competitions on a daily or weekly basis throughout the summer sailing season. St. Margarets Bay in the western part of the municipality, along with areas of the Eastern Shore, provide additional support to sailing sport enthusiasts; the city hosts two of the four 50 metre swimming pools in Atlantic Canada: Centennial Pool, built for the 1969 Canada Games, the pool at Dalhousie University. Smaller 25-metre pools exist at the Dartmouth Sportsplex, the Canada Games Centre, Cole Harbour Place, Captain William Spry Centre, Sackville Sports Stadium, the Waegwoltic Club, the Shearwater Fitness and Sports Centre.
There are several smaller public pools of about 20 metres length. The YMCA in the Spring Garden district is being rebuilt and will include a 25-metre competition pool; the facility is set to open in 2017 or 2018. Several lakes in the city are popular places for swimming in the summer; the city posts lifeguards to the most popular lakes. Dalhousie University, St. Mary's University and Mount St. Vincent University all field varsity and intramural teams for sports, enjoyed by members of the public and university communities; the Saint Mary's Huskies Canadian Interuniversity Sport football team is a popular draw, play their games at Huskies Stadium. Both Dalhousie and St. Mary's field ice hockey and soccer teams have a fierce rivalry. Hockey teams are the most popular sports draw in Halifax; the Scotiabank Centre is home to the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League's Halifax Mooseheads, who lead the league in attendance. The Dartmouth Sportsplex hosts the Metro Marauders Junior-A team; the Halifax Wanderers are a professional soccer team playing in the Canadian Premier League.
On August 24, 2006 it was announced. The team was known as the Rainmen. After one year in the ABA, the Rainmen joined the Premier Basketball League. From 2011 they played in the National Basketball League of Canada until declaring bankruptcy and folding in July 2015; the Rainmen were replaced in late 2015 based in the Scotiabank Centre. Rumours of a Canadian Football League team have been around for decades, with one team, the Atlantic Schooners, existing only on paper; the Halifax Regional Municipality has considered lobbying to have a CFL team located in the area, though the proposal has never been formally endorsed by the municipal or provincial governments. Huskies Stadium hosted Touchdown Atlantic, a CFL exhibition game, in 2005, planned to host another in 2006, but the suspension of one of the scheduled teams forced the cancellation of the game; the Nova Scotia Keltics play in the Rugby Canada Super League. On September 13, 2018 the National Lacrosse League announced it would be expanding into Halifax for the 2019-20 season.
HRM has hosted the World Junior Hockey Championships, as well as the Brier and Tournament of Hearts curling championships. HRM was selected to host the 2007 World Indoor Lacrosse Championship in May, 2007. National teams from Australia, the Czech Republic, the Iroquois Nation and the United States participated. Canada defeated the Iroquois Nation in the final by a score of 21-4; the inaugural World Indoor Lacrosse Championship were held in Hamilton, Kitchener and Oshawa, Canada in May, 2003. The World Indoor Lacrosse Championship is an International Lacrosse Federation-sanctioned event. Halifax co-hosted the 2008 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships with Quebec City. In 2015, Halifax will host the Eastern Canada GAA finals. Teams will compete in Gaelic Football. Teams from Quebec, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia will be competing; the Halifax Gaels will be hosting the event. In 1969, the cities of Halifax and Dartmouth hosted the first edition of the Canada Summer Games. In preparation for the games the cities built a range of new sports venues, including a softball facility, the paddling course at Lake Banook, the first Olympic-size swimming pool in Atlantic Canada, the Centennial Pool.
In February 2011, the city hosted the 2011 Canada Winter Games. Several new facilities were built for the games, including the Canada Games Centre and the Emera Oval; the skatin
Halifax Stanfield International Airport
Halifax Stanfield International Airport is a Canadian airport in Goffs, a rural community of the Halifax Regional Municipality in Halifax County, Nova Scotia. It serves adjacent areas in the neighbouring Maritime provinces; the airport is named in honour of Robert Stanfield, the 17th Premier of Nova Scotia and leader of the federal Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. The airport, owned by Transport Canada since it was constructed, has been operated since 2000 by the Halifax International Airport Authority, it forms part of the National Airports System. Halifax Stanfield is the 8th busiest airport in Canada by passenger traffic, it handled a total of 4,316,079 passengers in 2018 and 84,045 aircraft movements in 2017. It is a hub for Air Canada Express, Cougar Helicopters, Maritime Air Charter, PAL Airlines and SkyLink Express. An airfield in the West End, known as Chebucto Field, was built as the Halifax Civic Airport by the City of Halifax in 1931, it served as the city's main airport until 1942, when it was converted to an army base.
Today Saunders Park, named after the first Halifax airport manager, marks the site. RCAF Station Shearwater subsequently functioned as Halifax's primary airport until the current airport was opened. In October 1945, the City of Halifax asked the federal Department of Transport for help choosing a site for a new civil airport. A key factor was to find a site near Halifax with a minimal number of days per year when fog would affect airport operation. Lucasville was favoured, but after a year of study it was found to have similar average visibility to the foggy airport at Shearwater. A site near Kelly Lake was scrutinized based on a recommendation by Trans-Canada Air Lines. After two years of monitoring, the site was approved in 1954 for construction of a modern, C$5 million airport; the land was purchased by the City of Halifax on April 5, 1955, while the federal Department of Transport was tasked with building the airport. Construction of the new airport began in November 1955; the runways were built by Diamond Construction of Halifax.
The modernist terminal building was designed by Gilleland and Strutt, an architecture firm which designed a similar-looking terminal at Ottawa. The new airport was completed in June 1960. An opening gala was held on Dominion Day of 1960. At 4:50 am on August 1, 1960 the first airplane landed there, a Vickers Viscount running the Trans-Canada Airlines Flight 400 between Montreal and Newfoundland, it was piloted by Halifax native W. E. Barnes; the first overseas flight arrived an hour travelling from London en route to Montreal. The airport was formally inaugurated on September 10, 1960 by the Minister of Transport, George Hees; the ultimate cost of construction was about $18 million. Passenger numbers grew during the first few decades of operation; the passenger terminal was renovated in 1966. A 5,000-square-metre passenger terminal extension opened in July 1976. By 1990 2,500,000 passengers passed through the airport annually, up from about 180,000 when it first opened. A 400-square-metre southern expansion was opened in December 1994 by Minister of Transport Doug Young, while the check-in area was expanded in 1998.
Owing to the National Airports Policy, announced in 1994, the Halifax International Airport Authority was founded in November 1995. Management of the airport was passed from Transport Canada to HIAA on February 1, 2000. Following the September 11 attacks the airport took part in Operation Yellow Ribbon, commenced to accept United States civilian flights after the Federal Aviation Administration closed down U. S. airspace. Halifax airport took in 47 flights—more flights than any other Canadian airport involved in the operation—carrying about 7,300 passengers—more passengers than any other Canadian airport involved in the operation other than Vancouver, which registered 8,500. Much of this was because flights that were coming from Europe were told to avoid the major airports in Central Canada, like Toronto Pearson, Montréal-Dorval, Ottawa Macdonald–Cartier International Airport. Shortly after the attacks, the airport was advised that as many as 40 to 50 planes would divert to Halifax. In response, runway 15/33 was shut down to accommodate the parked aircraft.
The first diverted aircraft, a United Airlines Boeing 767, arrived at 11:35 am. The number of arriving passengers outstripped the capacity of the airport, which faced processing 7,000–8,000 people with an arrivals facility designed to handle 900 per hour; the Halifax municipal government was tasked with providing emergency shelter, food and care to the stranded travellers, who were housed in city sports complexes and schools, universities, military bases, as well as the homes of private citizens. A memorial ceremony was held in the airport terminal on September 14, 2001. To honour the people of Gander and Halifax for their support during the operation, Lufthansa named a new Airbus A340-300 Gander-Halifax on May 16, 2002; that airplane is listed with the registration D-AIFC, is the first aircraft of the whole fleet with a city name outside of Germany. On September 11, 2006, five years after the attacks, United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice visited Halifax airport and delivered a speech of thanks.
After the December 2003 death of Robert Stanfield, the former Premier of Nova Scotia and federal Leader of the Official Opposition, several proposals were made in Nova Scotia to honour the respected politician. In early 2005 the airport's governing board voted to rename the terminal building after Stanfield; the terminal was rechristened in a ceremony held on September 9
Port of Halifax
The Port of Halifax comprises various port facilities in Halifax Harbour in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Strategically located as North America's first inbound and last outbound gateway, the Port of Halifax is the deepest, ice-free harbour with minimal tides and is two days closer to Europe and one day closer to Southeast Asia than any other North American East Coast port. In addition, it is one of just a few eastern seaboard ports able to accommodate and service laden post-Panamax container ships using the latest technology. With 19 world's top shipping lines calling the Port, including transshipment, feeder ship services and direct access to Canadian National Railway inland network, the Port of Halifax is connected to every market in North America and over 150 countries worldwide supporting the delivery of all types of cargoes. Annually the Port handles over 1,500 vessels, generates more than 11,190 jobs and $1.5 billion in economic impact. Halifax is one of Canada's top four container ports in terms of the volume of cargo handled.
After the Royal Navy withdrew from Halifax in 1905, the dockyards were handed over to the Government of Canada. Prior to World War I, the government began the Ocean Terminals project. A new railway was built through the city's South End to service the modern piers, the first of which opened in the early 1920s. Shipping grew during World War II. With the containerisation revolution of shipping, it was decided to build a container terminal in Halifax; the South End Container Terminal opened in the South End in 1969 at the site of the former Seaward Defence Base. A specialised vehicular processing facility, the Autoport, was opened in 1971, it provides various pre-distribution services in addition to basic off-loading. The number of vehicles handled annually by the Autoport has grown from 100,000 in 1979 to about 185,000 today. By the late 1970s the South End Container Terminal was operating at capacity, handling more tonnage than any other container terminal in Canada. A second container terminal at Fairview Cove was therefore built at a cost of $47 million and opened in 1982.
It was a single-berth facility, operations were contracted out to Cerescorp Inc. The terminal has since been expanded. In 2003, Ceres bid on a continued operations contract, effective January 1, 2003 for 20 years. In 2005 the Fairview Cove Container Terminal berth depth was deepened to 16.8 metres. In 2012 a major expansion of the South End Container Terminal was completed; the depth of the berth was increased from 14.5 to 16 metres and the pier was extended. In June 2017 it welcomed the ZIM Antwerp. Many major port facilities are owned by the Halifax Port Authority, a port authority operating as a federally regulated Crown corporation of the Government of Canada. HPA has responsibility of managing 260 acres federally owned marine industrial land in Halifax Harbour; the HPA succeeds the Halifax Port Corporation. HPC was the successor to the National Harbours Board, which operated all federally owned ports in Canada. Halifax was one of the first of eighteen national ports in Canada which implemented this administrative change as required by the Canada Marine Act which passed on June 11, 1998.
Halifax Port Authority facilities include: South End Container Terminal – Piers 36–42 Ocean Terminals – Piers 23–34 Seaport – Piers 20–22, Cruise Ship Pavilion and Pier 21 museum, NSCAD University, HPA administrative building Halifax Grain Elevator Richmond Terminals – Piers 9 and 9A Richmond Offshore Terminals – Piers 9B–9D Fairview Cove Container Terminal – Sheet Harbour Industrial PortMajor port facilities not owned or administered by HPA: National Gypsum Wharf – Woodside Atlantic Wharf – Imperial Oil Wharves – Autoport – All HPA facilities except the Sheet Harbour Port are serviced by CN Rail. In addition to being one of the world's largest natural harbours for breakbulk, roll-on/roll-off and project cargoes, the Halifax seaport has become an popular port of call for cruise ships from around the world. In 2013, the Port of Halifax had 134 cruise vessel calls with just over 252,000 passengers aboard, it is estimated that cruise passengers alone contribute about $50 million to Halifax's economy every year.
CFB Halifax Halifax Shipyard Official website
The Halifax Peninsula is a community and planning area located in the urban core of municipal Halifax, Nova Scotia. Halifax Peninsula is home to Downtown Halifax, the financial and economic heart of the municipality, the site of the original settlement and town of Halifax; the town of Halifax was founded by the British government under the direction of the Board of Trade and Plantations under the command of Governor Edward Cornwallis in 1749. Geographically, the Halifax Peninsula is a Canadian peninsula in central Nova Scotia. Although now located within HRM, the peninsula was the original host to the town and now former City of Halifax; the founding of the town sparked Father Le Loutre's War. The original settlement was clustered in the southeastern part of the peninsula along The Narrows, between a series of forts and the harbour; the settlement expanded beyond its walls and encroached over the entire peninsula, creating residential neighbourhoods defined by the peninsula's geography and referred to by Haligonians as: North End South End, including Point Pleasant Park at the southernmost part of the peninsula West EndThe streets are set in a grid pattern the way town officials planned in the 18th century.
After a protracted struggle between residents and the Executive Council, the city was incorporated to in 1841. The former city of Halifax was contained within the Halifax Peninsula. During this time, Rudyard Kipling paid homage to Halifax in his poem The Song of Cities: At this time the Halifax Public Gardens and Victoria Park, Halifax were created, with many Victorian Era monuments. Builders such as George Lang created many landmark buildings. During 1916–1919 a mega construction project was undertaken by Canadian Government Railways along the peninsula's Northwest Arm shoreline which saw a 4 km long rock cut blasted up to 30 m deep for a railway line running from Fairview Cove to serve the new Halifax Ocean Terminals which were built at the southeastern end. On 1 April 1996, the government of Nova Scotia formed Halifax Regional Municipality, a single-tier regional government governing all of Halifax County; the City of Halifax became a provincial metropolitan area, the HRM divided the former city into two separate community planning areas, Halifax Peninsula and Mainland Halifax, at that time with separate community councils inside of the regional government.
Extending from the western shore of Halifax Harbour, the peninsula is connected to the much larger Chebucto Peninsula by an isthmus measuring 2.6 km, defined by Fairview Cove and the Bedford Basin to the north and the Northwest Arm to the southwest. Down the length of this isthmus is Joseph Howe Drive considered to be the boundary between the Halifax Peninsula and Mainland Halifax; the Halifax Peninsula creates a constriction of Halifax Harbour to its east. Measuring 3.3 km at its widest and 7.5 km at its longest, the peninsula's topography is flat near the isthmus where Chebucto Field, an aerodrome that preceded Halifax Stanfield International Airport was located. The northern end of the peninsula rises to a glacial drumlin at Fort Needham, with the central area of the peninsula being a plateau 40–50 m. in elevation. Another drumlin approx. 60 m above sea level is located at Citadel Hill and offshore to the east at Georges Island. The bedrock of this peninsula is Precambrian slate. Glaciers during the Pleistocene era converted the rock surface to an olive-colored loamy till.
Glaciation removed reddish till from sedimentary rock to the north and redeposited it as a drumlin to form Citadel Hill. The stony loam to sandy loam soils are mapped as Bridgewater series on olive till and Wolfville series on the Citadel Hill drumlin. Downtown Halifax North End Halifax West End, Halifax Quinpool district South End Halifax Spring Garden Convoy Place Hydrostone Mulgrave Park Westmount Africville Richmond
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe