Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects. Bees produce honey from the sugary secretions of plants or from secretions of other insects, by regurgitation, enzymatic activity, water evaporation. Bees store honey in wax structures called a honeycomb; the variety of honey produced by honey bees is the best-known, due to its worldwide commercial production and human consumption. Honey is collected from wild bee colonies, or from hives of domesticated bees, a practice known as beekeeping or apiculture. Honey gets its sweetness from the monosaccharides fructose and glucose, has about the same relative sweetness as sucrose, it has attractive chemical properties for a distinctive flavor when used as a sweetener. Most microorganisms do not grow in honey, so sealed honey does not spoil after thousands of years. Honey provides 46 calories in a serving of one tablespoon. Honey is regarded as safe. Honey use and production have a long and varied history as an ancient activity.
Several cave paintings in Cuevas de la Araña, depict humans foraging for honey at least 8,000 years ago. Honey is produced by bees collecting nectar for use as sugars consumed to support metabolism of muscle activity during foraging or to be stored as a long-term food supply. During foraging, bees access part of the nectar collected to support metabolic activity of flight muscles, with the majority of collected nectar destined for regurgitation and storage as honey. In cold weather or when other food sources are scarce and larval bees use stored honey as food. By contriving for bee swarms to nest in human-made hives, people have been able to semidomesticate the insects and harvest excess honey. In the hive or in a wild nest, the three types of bees are: a single female queen bee a seasonally variable number of male drone bees to fertilize new queens 20,000 to 40,000 female worker beesLeaving the hive, a foraging bee collects sugar-rich flower nectar, sucking it through its proboscis and placing it in its proventriculus, which lies just dorsal to its food stomach.
The honey stomach holds about 40 mg of nectar, or 50% of the bee's unloaded weight, which can require over a thousand flowers and more than an hour to fill. The nectar begins with a water content of 70 to 80%. Salivary enzymes and proteins from the bee's hypopharyngeal gland are added to the nectar to begin breaking down the sugars, raising the water content slightly; the forager bees return to the hive, where they regurgitate and transfer nectar to the hive bees. The hive bees use their honey stomachs to ingest and regurgitate the nectar, forming bubbles between their mandibles until it is digested; the bubbles create a large surface area per volume and a portion of the water is removed through evaporation. Bee digestive enzymes hydrolyze sucrose to a mixture of glucose and fructose, break down other starches and proteins, increasing the acidity; the bees work together as a group with the regurgitation and digestion for as long as 20 minutes, passing the nectar from one bee to the next, until the product reaches the honeycombs in storage quality.
It is placed in honeycomb cells and left unsealed while still high in water content and natural yeasts which, would cause the sugars in the newly formed honey to ferment. Bees are some of the few insects that can generate large amounts of body heat, thus the hive bees regulate the hive temperature, either heating with their bodies or cooling with water evaporation, to maintain a constant temperature in the honey-storage areas around 35 °C; the process continues as hive bees flutter their wings to circulate air and evaporate water from the honey to a content around 18%, raising the sugar concentration beyond the saturation point and preventing fermentation. The bees cap the cells with wax to seal them; as removed from the hive by a beekeeper, honey has a long shelf life and will not ferment if properly sealed. Another source of honey is from a number of wasp species, such as Brachygastra lecheguana and Brachygastra mellifica, which are found in South and Central America; these species are known to produce honey.
Some wasps, such as Polistes versicolor consume honey themselves, alternating between feeding on pollen in the middle of their lifecycles and feeding on honey, which can better provide for their energy needs. Honey is collected from domesticated beehives. On average, a hive will produce about 65 pounds of honey per year. Wild bee nests are sometimes located by following a honeyguide bird. To safely collect honey from a hive, beekeepers pacify the bees using a bee smoker; the smoke triggers a feeding instinct, making them less aggressive and the smoke obscures the pheromones the bees use to communicate. The honeycomb is removed from the hive and the honey may be extracted from that, either by crushing or by using a honey extractor; the honey is usually filtered to remove beeswax and other debris. Before the invention of removable frames, bee colonies were sacrificed to conduct the harvest; the harvester would replace the entire colony the next spring. Since the invention of removable frames, the principles of husbandry led most beekeepers to ensure that their bees have enough stores to survive the winter, either by leaving some honey in the beehive or by providing the colony with a honey substitute such as sugar water or crystalline sugar.
The amount o
A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients and dishes, associated with a specific culture or geographic region. A cuisine is influenced by the ingredients that are available locally or through trade. Religious food laws, such as Hindu and Jewish dietary laws, can exercise a strong influence on cuisine. Regional food preparation traditions and ingredients combine to create dishes unique to a particular region; some factors that have an influence on a region's cuisine include the area's climate, the trade among different countries, religiousness or sumptuary laws and culinary culture exchange. For example, a Tropical diet may be based more on fruits and vegetables, while a polar diet might rely more on meat and fish; the area's climate, in large measure, determines the native foods. In addition, climate influences food preservation. For example, foods preserved for winter consumption by smoking and pickling have remained significant in world cuisines for their altered gustatory properties.
The trade among different countries largely affects a region's cuisine. Dating back to the ancient spice trade, seasonings such as cinnamon, cardamom and turmeric were important items of commerce in the earliest evolution of trade. Cinnamon and cassia found their way to the Middle East at least 4,000 years ago. Certain foods and food preparations are required or proscribed by the religiousness or sumptuary laws, such as Islamic dietary laws and Jewish dietary laws. Culinary culture exchange is an important factor for cuisine in many regions: Japan’s first substantial and direct exposure to the West came with the arrival of European missionaries in the second half of the 16th century. At that time, the combination of Spanish and Portuguese game frying techniques with a Chinese method for cooking vegetables in oil led to the development of tempura, the popular Japanese dish in which seafood and many different types of vegetables are coated with batter and deep fried. Cuisine dates back to the Antiquity.
As food began to require more planning, there was an emergence of meals that situated around culture. Cuisines evolve continually, new cuisines are created by innovation and cultural interaction. One recent example is fusion cuisine, which combines elements of various culinary traditions while not being categorized per any one cuisine style, refers to the innovations in many contemporary restaurant cuisines since the 1970s. Nouvelle cuisine is an approach to cooking and food presentation in French cuisine, popularized in the 1960s by the food critics Henri Gault, who invented the phrase, his colleagues André Gayot and Christian Millau in a new restaurant guide, the Gault-Millau, or Le Nouveau Guide. Molecular cuisine, is a modern style of cooking which takes advantage of many technical innovations from the scientific disciplines; the term was coined in 1999 by the French INRA chemist Hervé This because he wanted to distinguish it from the name Molecular cuisine, introduced by him and the late Oxford physicist Nicholas Kurti.
It is named as multi sensory cooking, modernist cuisine, culinary physics, experimental cuisine by some chefs. Besides, international trade brings new foodstuffs including ingredients to existing cuisines and leads to changes; the introduction of hot pepper to China from South America around the end of the 17th century influencing Sichuan cuisine, which combines the original taste with the taste of introduced hot pepper and creates a unique flavor of both spicy and pungent. A global cuisine is a cuisine, practiced around the world, can be categorized according to the common use of major foodstuffs, including grains and cooking fats. Regional cuisines can vary based on availability and usage of specific ingredients, local cooking traditions and practices, as well as overall cultural differences; such factors can be more-or-less uniform across wide swaths of territory, or vary intensely within individual regions. For example, in Central and South America, both fresh and dried, is a staple food, is used in many different ways.
In northern Europe, wheat and fats of animal origin predominate, while in southern Europe olive oil is ubiquitous and rice is more prevalent. In Italy, the cuisine of the north, featuring butter and rice, stands in contrast to that of the south, with its wheat pasta and olive oil. In some parts of China, rice is the staple, while in others this role is filled by noodles and bread. Throughout the Middle East and Mediterranean, common ingredients include lamb, olive oil, lemons and rice; the vegetarianism practiced in much of India has made pulses such as chickpeas and lentils as important as wheat or rice. From India to Indonesia, the extenive use of spices is characteristic. African cuisines use a combination of locally available fruits, cereal grains and vegetables, as well as milk and meat products. In some parts of the continent, the traditional diet features a preponderance of milk and whey products. In much of tropical Africa, cow's milk is rare and cannot be produced locally; the continent's diverse demographic makeup is reflected in the many different eating and drinking habits and preparation techniques of its manifold populations.
Asian cuisines are many and varied. Ingredients common to many cultures in the east and Southeast regions of the continent include rice, garlic, sesame seeds, dried onions and tofu. Stir frying, steaming
Butter is a dairy product with high butterfat content, solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions, liquid when warmed. It is made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk to separate the butterfat from the buttermilk, it is used as a spread on plain or toasted bread products and a condiment on cooked vegetables, as well as in cooking, such as baking, sauce making, pan frying. Butter consists of butterfat, milk proteins and water, added salt. Most made from cow's milk, butter can be manufactured from the milk of other mammals, including sheep, goats and yaks. Salt and preservatives are sometimes added to butter. Rendering butter, removing the water and milk solids, produces clarified butter or ghee, entirely butterfat. Butter is a water-in-oil emulsion resulting from an inversion of the cream, where the milk proteins are the emulsifiers. Butter remains a firm solid when refrigerated, but softens to a spreadable consistency at room temperature, melts to a thin liquid consistency at 32 to 35 °C.
The density of butter is 911 grams per Litre. It has a pale yellow color, but varies from deep yellow to nearly white, its natural, unmodified color is dependent on the source animal's feed and genetics, but the commercial manufacturing process manipulates the color with food colorings like annatto or carotene. The word butter derives from the Latin butyrum, the latinisation of the Greek βούτυρον; this may be a compound of βοῦς, "ox, cow" + τυρός, "cheese", "cow-cheese". The word turos is attested in Mycenaean Greek; the unlatinized form is found in the name butyric acid, a compound found in rancid butter and dairy products such as Parmesan cheese. In general use, the term "butter" refers to the spread dairy product when unqualified by other descriptors; the word is used to describe puréed vegetable or seed and nut products such as peanut butter and almond butter. It is applied to spread fruit products such as apple butter. Fats such as cocoa butter and shea butter that remain solid at room temperature are known as "butters".
Non-dairy items that have a dairy-butter consistency may use "butter" to call that consistency to mind, including food items such as maple butter and witch's butter and nonfood items such as baby bottom butter, hyena butter, rock butter. Unhomogenized milk and cream contain butterfat in microscopic globules; these globules are surrounded by membranes made of phospholipids and proteins, which prevent the fat in milk from pooling together into a single mass. Butter is produced by agitating cream, which damages these membranes and allows the milk fats to conjoin, separating from the other parts of the cream. Variations in the production method will create butters with different consistencies due to the butterfat composition in the finished product. Butter contains fat in three separate forms: free butterfat, butterfat crystals, undamaged fat globules. In the finished product, different proportions of these forms result in different consistencies within the butter. Churning produces small butter grains floating in the water-based portion of the cream.
This watery liquid is called buttermilk—although the buttermilk most common today is instead a directly fermented skimmed milk. The buttermilk is drained off; the grains are "worked": pressed and kneaded together. When prepared manually, this is done using wooden boards called scotch hands; this consolidates the butter into a solid mass and breaks up embedded pockets of buttermilk or water into tiny droplets. Commercial butter is about 15 % water. Butterfat is a mixture of triglyceride, a triester derived from glycerol and three of any of several fatty acid groups. Butter becomes rancid when these chains break down into smaller components, like butyric acid and diacetyl; the density of butter is about the same as ice. In some countries, butter is given a grade before commercial distribution. Before modern factory butter making, cream was collected from several milkings and was therefore several days old and somewhat fermented by the time it was made into butter. Butter made from a fermented cream is known as cultured butter.
During fermentation, the cream sours as bacteria convert milk sugars into lactic acid. The fermentation process produces additional aroma compounds, including diacetyl, which makes for a fuller-flavored and more "buttery" tasting product. Today, cultured butter is made from pasteurized cream whose fermentation is produced by the introduction of Lactococcus and Leuconostoc bacteria. Another method for producing cultured butter, developed in the early 1970s, is to produce butter from fresh cream and incorporate bacterial cultures and lactic acid. Using this method, the cultured butter flavor grows. For manufacturers, this method is more efficient, since aging the cream used to make butter takes more space than storing the finished butter product. A method to make an artificial simulation of cultured butter is to add lactic acid and flavor compounds directly to the fresh-cream butter. Dairy products are pasteurized during production to kill pathogenic bacteria and other
West African cuisine
West African cuisine encompasses a diverse range of foods that are split between its 16 countries. In West Africa, many families grow and raise their own food, within each there is a division of labor. Indigenous foods consist of a number of plant species and animals, are important to those whose lifestyle depends on farming and hunting; the history of West Africa plays a large role in their cuisine and recipes, as interactions with different cultures over the centuries have introduced many ingredients that would go on to become key components of the various national cuisines today. Centuries the Portuguese and British further influenced regional cuisines, but only to a limited extent. However, as far as it is known, it was European explorers and slaves ships who brought chili peppers and tomatoes from the New World, both have become ubiquitous components of West African cuisines, along with peanuts, corn and plantains. In turn, these slave ships carried African ingredients to the New World, including black-eyed peas and okra.
Around the time of the colonial period during the Scramble for Africa, the European settlers defined colonial borders without regard to pre-existing borders, territories or cultural differences. This created colonies with varying culinary styles; as a result, it is difficult to define, for example, Senegalese cuisine. Although the European colonists brought many new ingredients to the African continent, they had little impact on the way people cook in West Africa, its strong culinary tradition lives on despite the influence of colonization and food migration that occurred long ago. Though there are obvious differences among the local cuisines in West Africa, there are many commonalities in the ingredients used. Many dishes are enriched with a base of tomatoes and chili peppers. Considered an essential and "sacred" cooking technique in the region, the combination of these three ingredients sauteed in oil is analogous to similar concepts such as the holy trinity of Cajun and Creole cooking in the United States, sofrito used in the Spanish-speaking world, soffritto in Italy, the mirepoix of France.
The most prevalent cooking oil is palm nut oil, traditionally associated with the coastal regions and contributes a distinctive colour and texture to food, while shea butter is more used in the Sahel. Called karité in French, which comes from the Arabic word ghartī, it is prized for the rich mouthfeel it imparts. There are certain ingredients. In Ghana, the most used ingredients are hot pepper and maize. Ghanaians use hot pepper because they believe the hot peppers will cool the body and cleanse/purify it.. In Senegal, the main ingredients are among many others gumbo, hot pepper, millet, ginger, tamarind leaves, baobab fruit, cooking oil; those are the few that have a slight difference of what they use for their dishes. For an overall view of West Africa, according to Fran Osseo-Asare, the common ingredients for the West African region are the leaves from a baobab tree, cereal grains: sorghum and fonio, Cola nuts, egusi seeds, guinea fowl, melegueta pepper, oil palm and rice. Other ingredients used are okra basis for soups stew, black-eyed peas, sesame according to Harris in High on the Hog.
Spices play a less prominent role in West African cooking compared to say, North African cuisine. Cooks use spices and herbs like ginger and thyme sparingly but knowingly. Chilli peppers however are immensely loved in West Africa, both in fresh or dried and powdered form in the more hot-and-humid lands of the region. Introduced to Africa sometime soon after Christopher Columbus sailed to America by European sailors, it is said that the sweating induced by the spicy heat of chilli helps to air-conditions your skin. More than in other regions of Africa, West Africans utilize Scotch bonnet chile peppers with a liberal hand in many of their sauces and stews; the bite and fire of these hot peppers add a unique flavor as well as heat. The chilli is supposed to help preserve food, as well as adding flavour to bland tropical staples like root vegetables; the seeds of Guinea pepper, a plant indigenous to West Africa, are widely used. This native spice tastes and looks somewhat like a peppercorn, but has cardamom and coriander seed flavor notes.
The grains of paradise was once a prized commodity reaching Europe through North African middlemen, during the Middle Ages. Sumbala or soumbala is a flavouring used across West Africa, used in a manner not unlike a bouillon cube, it is prepared by women over the course of several days, traditionally from néré seeds. It can be made from other kinds of seeds, the use of soybeans for this purpose is increasing due to inadequate supply of néré seeds; the fabrication process involves boiling and packing away to ferment – the fermentation process giving it a pungent smell and at the same time a rich, deep umami or savory flavour is developed. Salt can be added to the finished product to facilitate storage life; this condiment is traditionally sold in balls or patties that can be kept for several months at a time in the case of the best quality. It is a traditional cooking ingredient used across West Africa, although the less traditional bouillon cube the Maggi brand rivals it in popularity. African Potash is a native salt used for flavoring and to
Lard is fat from a pig, in both its rendered and unrendered forms. It is a semi-soft white fat derived from fatty parts of the pig, with a high saturated fatty acid content and no trans fat. Rendering is by boiling, or dry heat; the culinary qualities of lard vary somewhat depending on the processing method. At retail, refined lard is sold as paper-wrapped blocks. Many cuisines use lard as a spread similar to butter, it is an ingredient in various savoury dishes such as sausages, pâtés, fillings, it is favored for the preparation of pastry because of the "flakiness" it provides. In western cuisine, it has ceded its popularity to vegetable oils, but many cooks and bakers still favor it over other fats for certain uses. Lard has always been an important cooking and baking staple in cultures where pork is an important dietary item, with pig fat being as valuable a product as pork. During the 19th century, lard was used to butter in North America and many European nations. Lard remained about as popular as butter in the early 20th century and was used as a substitute for butter during World War II.
As a available by-product of modern pork production, lard had been cheaper than most vegetable oils, it was common in many people's diet until the industrial revolution made vegetable oils more common and more affordable. Vegetable shortenings were developed in the early 1900s, which made it possible to use vegetable-based fats in baking and in other uses where solid fats were called for. Upton Sinclair's novel The Jungle, though fictional, portrayed men falling into rendering vats and being sold as lard, it generated negative publicity. By the late 20th century lard began to be considered less healthy than vegetable oils because of its high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. However, despite its reputation, lard has less saturated fat, more unsaturated fat and less cholesterol than an equal amount of butter by weight. Unhydrogenated lard contains no transfats, it has been regarded as a "poverty food". Many restaurants in the western nations have eliminated the use of lard in their kitchens because of the health-related dietary restrictions of many of their customers, religious pork-based dietary restrictions such as Kashrut and Halal mean that some bakers will substitute beef tallow for lard.
In the 1990s and early 2000s, however and bakers rediscovered lard's unique culinary values, leading to a partial rehabilitation of this fat among "foodies". Negative publicity about the transfat content of the hydrogenated vegetable oils in vegetable shortening has driven this trend. Chef and food writer Rick Bayless is a prominent proponent of the virtues of lard for certain types of cooking, it is again becoming popular in the United Kingdom among aficionados of traditional British cuisine. This led to a "lard crisis" in late 2004. Lard can be obtained from any part of the pig; the highest grade of lard, known as leaf lard, is obtained from the "flare" visceral fat deposit surrounding the kidneys and inside the loin. Leaf lard has little pork flavor, making it ideal for use in baked goods, where it is valued for its ability to produce flaky, moist pie crusts; the next-highest grade is obtained from fatback, the hard subcutaneous fat between the pig's back skin and muscle. The lowest grade is obtained from the soft caul fat surrounding digestive organs, such as small intestines, though caul fat is used directly as a wrapping for roasting lean meats or in the manufacture of pâtés.
Lard may be rendered by two processes: dry. In wet rendering, pig fat is boiled in water or steamed at a high temperature and the lard, insoluble in water, is skimmed from the surface of the mixture or separated in an industrial centrifuge. In dry rendering, the fat is exposed to high heat in a oven without water; the two processes yield somewhat differing products. Wet-rendered lard has a more neutral flavor, a lighter color, a high smoke point. Dry-rendered lard has a caramelized flavor and has a lower smoke point. Industrially-produced lard, including much of the lard sold in supermarkets, is rendered from a mixture of high and low quality fat from throughout the pig. Lard is hydrogenated to improve its stability at room temperature. Hydrogenated lard sold to consumers contains fewer than 0.5 g of transfats per 13 g serving. Lard is often treated with bleaching and deodorizing agents and antioxidants such as BHT; these treatments prevent spoilage. Consumers wanting a higher-quality source of lard seek out artisanal producers, or render it themselves from leaf lard or fatback.
A by-product of dry-rendering lard is deep-fried meat and membrane tissue known as cracklings. Lard consists of fats, which in the language of chemistry are known as triglycerides; these triglycerides are composed of three fatty acids and the distribution of fatty acids varies from oil to oil. In general lard is similar to tallow in its composition. Pigs that have been fed different diets will have lard with a different fatty acid content and iodine value. Peanut-fed hogs or the acorn-fed pigs raised for Jamón ibérico therefore produce a somewhat different kind of lard compared to pigs raised in North American farms that are fed corn. Lard is one of the few edible oils with a high smoke point, attributable to its high saturated fatty acids content. Pure lard is useful for cooking since it
Central European cuisine
The Central European cuisine is the cuisine of Central Europe. The cuisine within each country in the region is influenced by the local climate. For example, German cuisine, Polish cuisine and Czech cuisine show many similarities, yet differ from the highlander cuisines in these countries. Austrian cuisine Czech cuisine German cuisine Hungarian cuisine Polish cuisine Liechtensteiner cuisine Slovak cuisine Slovenian cuisine Swiss cuisine Ashkenazi cuisine Metzger, Christine Culinaria Germany. Cambridge: Ullmann, 2008. Montanari, Massimo, Il mondo in cucina. Laterza, 2002 Mintz, Sidney. Tasting Food, Tasting Freedom: Excursions into Eating and the Past, Beacon Press, 1997, ISBN 0807046299 Mintalová - Zubercová, Zora: Všetko okolo stola I. Vydavateľstvo Matice slovenskej, 2009, ISBN 978-80-89208-94-4
European cuisine, or alternatively western cuisine, is a generalised term collectively referring to the cuisines of Europe and other Western countries, including that of Russia, as well as non-indigenous cuisines of the Americas and Southern Africa, which derive substantial influence from European settlers in those regions. The term is used by East Asians to contrast with Asian styles of cooking, analogous to Westerners' referring collectively to the cuisines of East Asian countries as Asian cuisine; when used by Westerners, the term may sometimes refer more to cuisine in Europe. The cuisines of Western countries are diverse by themselves, although there are common characteristics that distinguish Western cooking from cuisines of Asian countries and others. Compared with traditional cooking of Asian countries, for example, meat is more prominent and substantial in serving-size. Steak and cutlet in particular are common dishes across the West. Western cuisines put substantial emphasis on grape wine and on sauces as condiments, seasonings, or accompaniments.
Many dairy products are utilised except in nouvelle cuisine. Cheeses are produced in hundreds of different varieties, fermented milk products are available in a wide selection. Wheat-flour bread has long been the most common source of starch in this cuisine, along with pasta and pastries, although the potato has become a major starch plant in the diet of Europeans and their diaspora since the European colonisation of the Americas in Northern Europe. Maize is much less common in most European diets. Although flatbreads, rice are eaten in Europe, they do not constitute an ever-present staple. Salads are an integral part of European cuisine. Formal European dinners are served in distinct courses. European presentation evolved from service à la française, or bringing multiple dishes to the table at once, into service à la russe, where dishes are presented sequentially. Cold and savoury, sweet dishes are served separately in this order, as hors d'oeuvre or soup, as entrée and main course, as dessert.
Dishes that are both sweet and savoury were common earlier in ancient Roman cuisine, but are today uncommon, with sweet dishes being served only as dessert. A service where the guests are free to take food by themselves is termed a buffet, is restricted to parties or holidays. Guests are expected to follow the same pattern. European cuisine has been developed in the European royal and noble courts. European nobility was arms-bearing and lived in separate manors in the countryside; the knife was the primary eating implement, eating steaks and other foods that require cutting followed. In contrast in the Sinosphere, the ruling class were the court officials, who had their food cut ready to eat in the kitchen, to be eaten with chopsticks; the knife was supplanted by the spoon for soups, while the fork was introduced in the early modern period, ca. 16th century. Today, most dishes are intended to be eaten with cutlery and only a few finger foods can be eaten with the hands in polite company. All of these countries have their specialities.
Austria is famous for their Wiener Schnitzel - a breaded veal cutlet served with a slice of lemon, the Czech Republic for their world renowned beers. Germany for their world-famous wursts, Hungary for their goulash. Slovakia is famous for their gnocchi-like Halusky pasta. Slovenia for their German and Italian influenced cuisine, Poland for their world-famous Pierogis which are a cross between a Ravioli and an Empanada. Liechtenstein and German speaking Switzerland are famous for their Rösti and French speaking Switzerland for their fondue and Raclettes. Austrian cuisine Czech cuisine German cuisine Hungarian cuisine Polish cuisine Liechtensteiner cuisine Slovak cuisine Slovenian cuisine Swiss cuisine Armenian cuisine Azerbaijani cuisine Belarusian cuisine Bulgarian cuisine Georgian cuisine Kazakh cuisine Moldovan cuisine Romanian cuisine Russian cuisine Chechen cuisine Komi cuisine Mordovian cuisine Tatar cuisine Udmurt cuisine Yamal cuisine Ukrainian cuisine Crimean Tatar cuisine British cuisine English cuisine Northern Irish cuisine Scottish cuisine Welsh cuisine Danish cuisine Estonian cuisine Faroese cuisine Finnish cuisine Icelandic cuisine Irish cuisine Latvian cuisine Livonian cuisine Lithuanian cuisine Norwegian cuisine Sami cuisine Swedish cuisine Albanian cuisine Bosnian cuisine Croatian cuisine Cypriot cuisine Gibraltarian cuisine Greek cuisine Cretan cuisine Greek Macedonian cuisine Ionian cuisine Italian cuisine Neapolitan cuisine Sardinian cuisine Sicilian cuisine Tuscan cuisine Venetian cuisine Macedonian cuisine Maltese cuisine Montenegrin cuisine Portuguese cuisine Sammarinese cuisine Serbian cuisine Kosovan cuisine Spanish cuisine Andalusian cuisine Aragonese cuisine Asturian cuisine Balearic cuisine Basque cuisine Canarian cuisine Cantabrian cuisine Castilian-Leonese cuisine Castilian-Manchego cuisine Catalan cuisine Extremaduran cuisine Galician cuisine Menorcan cuisine Valencian cuisine Turkish cuisine Belgian cuisine Dutch cuisine French cuisine Haute cuisine Cuisine classique Nouvelle cuisine Luxembourgian cuisine Monégasque cuisine Occitan cuisine Ea