The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army shortened to Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established after the 1917 October Revolution; the Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; the Red Army provided the largest land force in the Allied victory in the European theatre of World War II, its invasion of Manchuria assisted the unconditional surrender of Imperial Japan. During operations on the Eastern Front, it accounted for 75–80% of casualties the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS suffered during the war and captured the Nazi German capital, Berlin. In September 1917, Vladimir Lenin wrote: "There is only one way to prevent the restoration of the police, and, to create a people's militia and to fuse it with the army."
At the time, the Imperial Russian Army had started to collapse. 23% of the male population of the Russian Empire were mobilized. The Tsarist general Nikolay Dukhonin estimated that there had been 2 million deserters, 1.8 million dead, 5 million wounded and 2 million prisoners. He estimated the remaining troops as numbering 10 million. While the Imperial Russian Army was being taken apart, "it became apparent that the rag-tag Red Guard units and elements of the imperial army who had gone over the side of the Bolsheviks were quite inadequate to the task of defending the new government against external foes." Therefore, the Council of People's Commissars decided to form the Red Army on 28 January 1918. They envisioned a body "formed from the class-conscious and best elements of the working classes." All citizens of the Russian republic aged 18 or older were eligible. Its role being the defense "of the Soviet authority, the creation of a basis for the transformation of the standing army into a force deriving its strength from a nation in arms, furthermore, the creation of a basis for the support of the coming Socialist Revolution in Europe."
Enlistment was conditional upon "guarantees being given by a military or civil committee functioning within the territory of the Soviet Power, or by party or trade union committees or, in extreme cases, by two persons belonging to one of the above organizations." In the event of an entire unit wanting to join the Red Army, a "collective guarantee and the affirmative vote of all its members would be necessary." Because the Red Army was composed of peasants, the families of those who served were guaranteed rations and assistance with farm work. Some peasants who remained at home yearned to join the Army. If they were turned away they would prepare care-packages. In some cases the money they earned would go towards tanks for the Army; the Council of People's Commissars appointed itself the supreme head of the Red Army, delegating command and administration of the army to the Commissariat for Military Affairs and the Special All-Russian College within this commissariat. Nikolai Krylenko was the supreme commander-in-chief, with Aleksandr Myasnikyan as deputy.
Nikolai Podvoisky became the commissar for Pavel Dybenko, commissar for the fleet. Proshyan, Steinberg were specified as people's commissars as well as Vladimir Bonch-Bruyevich from the Bureau of Commissars. At a joint meeting of Bolsheviks and Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, held on 22 February 1918, Krylenko remarked: "We have no army; the demoralized soldiers are fleeing, panic-stricken, as soon as they see a German helmet appear on the horizon, abandoning their artillery and all war material to the triumphantly advancing enemy. The Red Guard units are brushed aside like flies. We have no power to stay the enemy; the Russian Civil War occurred in three periods: October 1917 – November 1918: From the Bolshevik Revolution to the First World War Armistice, developed from the Bolshevik government's nationalization of traditional Cossack lands in November 1917. This provoked the insurrection of General Alexey Maximovich Kaledin's Volunteer Army in the River Don region; the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk aggravated Russian internal politics.
The situation encouraged direct Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, in which twelve foreign countries supported anti-Bolshevik militias. A series of engagements resulted, amongst others, the Czechoslovak Legion, the Polish 5th Rifle Division, the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian Riflemen. January 1919 – November 1919: Initially the White armies advanced: from the south, under General Anton Denikin; the Whites defeated the Red Army on each front. Leon Trotsky reformed and counterattacked: the Red Army repelled Admiral Kolchak's army in June, the armies of General Denikin and General Yudenich in October. By mid-Nove
Chechen Republic of Ichkeria
The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria was an unrecognized secessionist government of the Chechen Republic. The First Chechen War resulted in the victory of the separatist forces. After achieving de facto independence from Russia in 1996, the Chechen government failed to establish order; the region became plagued by kidnappings and violence between different Chechen clans. In 1997 the Chechen Republic carried out public executions. In November 1997 Chechnya was proclaimed an Islamic republic. A Second Chechen War began in August 1999 and ended in May 2000, with Chechen rebels continuing attacks as an insurgency. In November 1990, Dzhokhar Dudayev was elected head of the Executive Committee of the unofficial opposition All-National Congress of the Chechen People, which advocated sovereignty for Chechnya as a separate republic within the Soviet Union; the Soviet coup d'état attempt on 19 August 1991 became the spark for the so-called Chechen revolution. On 21 August the NCChP called for the overthrow of the Supreme Soviet of the Chechen-Ingush Republic.
In September 1991, NCChP squads seized the local KGB headquarters, took over the building of the Supreme Soviet. The NCChP declared itself the only legitimate authority in the region. In October 1991, Dudayev was elected president of the Chechen-Ingush Republic. Dudayev, in his new position as president, issued a unilateral declaration of independence on 2 November 1991, his stated objective was for Checheno-Ingushetia to become a union republic within Russia. The separatist Interior Minister promised amnesty to any prison inmates who would join pro-independence rallies. Among the prisoners was Ruslan Labazanov, serving a sentence for armed robbery and murder in Grozny and headed a pro-Dudayev militia; as crowds of armed separatists gathered in Grozny, President Yeltsin sought to declare a state of emergency in the region, but his efforts were thwarted by the Russian parliament. An early attempt by Russian authorities to confront the pro-independence forces in November 1991 ended after just three days.
In early 1992 Dudayev signed a decree outlawing the extradition of criminals to any country which did not recognize Chechnya. After being informed that the Russian government would not recognize Chechnya's independence, he declared that he would not recognize Russia. Grozny became an organized crime haven, as the government proved unable or unwilling to curb criminal activities. Dudayev's government created the constitution of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, introduced on March 1992. In the same month, armed clashes occurred between pro and anti-Dudayev factions, leading Dudayev to declare a state of emergency. Chechnya and Ingushetia separated on 4 June 1992. Relationship between Dudayev and the parliament deteriorated, in June 1992 he dissolved the parliament, establishing direct presidential rule. In late October 1992, federal forces were dispatched to end the Ossetian-Ingush conflict; as Russian troops sealed the border between Chechnya and Ingushetia to prevent arms shipments, Dudayev threatened to take action unless the Russians withdrew.
Russian and Chechen forces mutually agreed to a withdrawal, the incident ended peacefully. Clashes between supporters and opponents of Dudayev occurred in April 1993; the President fired Interior Minister Sharpudin Larsanov after he refused to disperse the protesters. The opposition planned a no-confidence referendum against Dudayev for 5 June 1993; the government deployed army and riot police to prevent the vote from taking place, leading to bloodshed. After staging another coup attempt in December 1993, the opposition organized a Provisional Council as a potential alternative government for Chechnya, calling on Moscow for assistance; the general feeling of lawlessness in Chechnya increased during the first seven months in 1994, when four hijacking accidents occurred, involving people trying to flee the country. In May 1994 Labazanov changed sides. In July 1994, 41 passengers aboard a bus near Mineralniye Vody were held by kidnappers demanding $15 million and helicopters. After this incident, the Russian government started to support opposition forces in Chechnya.
In August 1994 Umar Avturkhanov, leader of the pro-Russian Provisional Council, launched an attack against pro-Dudayev forces. Dudayev ordered the mobilization of the Chechen military, threatening a jihad against Russia as a response to Russian support for his political opponents. In November 1994 Avturkanov's forces attempted to storm the city of Grozny, but they were defeated by Dudayev's forces. Dudayev declared his intention to turn Chechnya into an Islamic state, stating that the recognition of sharia was a way to fight Russian'aggression', he vowed to punish the captured Chechen rebels under Islamic law, threatened to execute Russian prisoners. The First Chechen War began in December 1994, when Russian troops were sent to Chechnya to fight the separatist forces. During the Battle of Grozny, the city's population dropped from 400,000 to 140,000. Most of the civilians stranded in the city were elderly ethnic Russians, as many Chechens had support networks of relatives living in villages who took them in.
Salambek Khadzhiyev was appointed leader of the recognized Chechen government in early 1995. The conflict ended after the Russian defeat in the Battle of Grozny of August 1996. After the Russian withdrawal crime became rampant, with kidnappings and murders multiplying as rival rebel factions fought for territory. In December 1996 six Red Cross workers were killed, leading most foreign aid work
Alania was a medieval kingdom of the Iranian Alans that flourished in the Northern Caucasus in the location of latter-day Circassia and modern North Ossetia–Alania, from its independence from the Khazars in the late 9th century until its destruction by the Mongol invasion in 1238-39. Its capital was Maghas, it controlled a vital trade route through the Darial Pass; the kingdom reached its peak under the rule of king Dorgolel. The Alans originated as an Iranian-speaking subdivision of the Sarmatians, they were split by the invasion of the Huns into the European and the Caucasian. The Caucasian Alans occupied part of the North Caucasian plain and the foothills of the main mountain chain from the headwaters of the Kuban River in the west to the Darial Gorge in the east. Alania was an important buffer state during the Byzantine-Arab Wars and Khazar-Arab Wars of the 8th century. Theophanes the Confessor left a detailed account of Leo the Isaurian's mission to Alania in the early 8th century. Leo was instructed by Emperor Justinian II to bribe the Alan leader Itaxes into severing his "ancient friendship" with the Kingdom of Abkhazia which had allied itself with Caliph Al-Walid I He crossed the mountain passes and concluded an alliance with the Alans, but was prevented from returning to Byzantium through Abasgia.
Although the Abkhazians spared no expense to have him imprisoned, the Alans refused to convey the Byzantine envoy to his enemies. After several months of adventures in the Northern Caucasus, Leo extricated himself from the precarious situation and returned to Constantinople. After Leo assumed the imperial title, the land of his mountaineer allies was invaded by Umar II's forces. A Khazar chieftain, hastened to their succor and, in 722, the joint Alan-Khazar army inflicted a defeat on the Arab general Tabit al-Nahrani; the Khazars erected several other strongholds in Alania at this period. In 728 Maslamah ibn Abd al-Malik, having penetrated the Gate of the Alans, devastated the country of the Alans. Eight years Marwan ibn Muhammad passed by the Gate in order to ravage the forts in Alania. In 758, as Ibn al-Faqih reports, the Gate was held by Yazid ibn Usayd; as a result of their united stand against the successive waves of invaders from the south, the Alans of the Caucasus fell under the overlordship of the Khazar Khaganate.
They remained staunch allies of the Khazars in the 9th century, supporting them against a Byzantine-led coalition during the reign of the Khazar king Benjamin. According to the anonymous author of the Schechter Letter, many Alans were during this period adherents of Judaism. In the late 9th century, Alania became independent from the Khazars. In the early 10th century, the Alans fell under the influence of the Byzantine Empire due to the conversion of their ruler to Christianity; the conversion is documented in the letters of Patriarch Nicholas Mysticus to the local archbishop, whose name was Peter. When Ibn Rustah visited Alania at some point between 903 and 913, its king was by Christian; the Persian traveller came to Alania from Sarir, a Christian kingdom to the east: You go to the left from the kingdom of Sarir and, after three days of journey through mountains and meadows, arrive in the kingdom of Al-Lan. Their king is Christian at heart. You travel for ten days among rivers and woods before arriving at a fortress called the "Gate of the Alans".
It stands on the top of a mountain at the foot. The Byzantines, who had adopted an anti-Khazar foreign policy, involved the Alans in a war against the Khaganate during the reign of the Khazar ruler Aaron II the early 920s. In this war the Alans were defeated and their king captured. According to Muslim sources such as al-Mas'udi, the Alans abandoned Christianity and expelled the Byzantine missionaries and clergy contemporaneously with these events. Aaron's son married the daughter of the Alan king and Alania was re-aligned with the Khazars, remaining so until the collapse of the Khaganate in the 960s. After the downfall of Khazaria, the Alan kings allied with the Byzantines and various Georgian rulers for protection against encroachments by northern steppe peoples such as the Pechenegs and Kipchaks. John Skylitzes reports that Alda of Alania, after the death of her husband, "George of Abasgia", received Anakopia as a maritime fief from Emperor Romanus III; this happened in 1033, the year when the Alans and the Rus sacked the coast of Shirvan in modern-day Azerbaijan.
Alania is not mentioned in East Slavic chronicles, but archaeology indicates that the Alans maintained trade contacts with the Rus' principality of Tmutarakan. There is a stone grave cross, with a Cyrillic inscription from 1041, standing on the bank of the Bolshoi Yegorlyk River in present-day Stavropol Krai north of Alania. Two Russian crosses, datable to ca. 1200, were discovered by archaeologists in the heartland of medieval Alania. The Alans and Georgians collaborated in the Christianization of the Vainakhs and Dvals in the 12th and 13th centuries, Georgian missionaries were active in Alania and the Alan contingents were employed by the Georgian monarchs against their Muslim neighbors; the Alanian-Georgian alliance was cemented in the 1060s, when the Alans struck across Muslim Arran and sacked Ganja. In the 1120s King David the Builder of Georgia visited the Darial to reconcile the Alans with the Kipchaks, who thereupon were allowed to pass through Alania to the Georgian soil. David's son, Demetre I journeyed, c.
1153, to Alania acco
Grozny is the capital city of Chechnya, Russia. The city lies on the Sunzha River. According to the 2010 Census, it had a population of 271,573, it was known as Groznaya. In Russian, "Grozny" means "fearsome", "menacing", or "redoubtable", the same word as in Ivan Grozny or Ivan the Terrible. While the official name in Chechen is the same, informally the city is known as "Соьлжа-Гӏала, Sölƶa-Ġala", which means "the city on the Sunzha River". In 1996, during the First Chechen War, the Chechen separatists renamed the city Dzhokhar-Ghala, or Dzhokhar/Djohar for short, after Dzhokhar Dudayev, the first President of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. In December 2005, the Chechen parliament voted to rename the city "Akhmadkala" —a proposition, rejected by his son Ramzan Kadyrov, the prime minister and President of the republic; the fortress of Groznaya was founded in 1818 as a Russian military outpost on the Sunzha River by general Aleksey Petrovich Yermolov. As the fort was being built the workers were fired upon by the Chechens.
The Russians solved the problem by placing a cannon at a chosen point outside the walls. When night fell and the Chechens came out of their hiding places to drag the gun away all the other guns opened up with grapeshot; when the Chechens recovered their senses and began to carry away the bodies the guns fired again. When it was over 200 dead were counted, thus did the'terrible' fort receive its baptism of fire. It was a prominent defense center during the Caucasian War. After the annexation of the region by the Russian Empire, the military use of the old fortress was obsolete and in December 1869 it was renamed Grozny and granted town status; as most of the residents there were Terek Cossacks, the town grew until the development of oil reserves in the early 20th century. This encouraged the rapid development of petrochemical production. In addition to the oil drilled in the city itself, the city became a geographical center of Russia's network of oil fields, in 1893 became part of the Transcaucasia — Russia Proper railway.
The result was the population doubled from 15,600 in 1897 to 30,400 in 1913. One day after the October Revolution, on November 8, 1917, the Bolsheviks headed by N. Anisimov seized Grozny; as the Russian Civil War escalated, the Proletariat formed the 12th Red Army, the garrison held out against numerous attacks by Terek Cossacks from August 11 to November 12, 1918. However, with the arrival of Denikin's armies, the Bolsheviks were forced to withdraw and Grozny was captured on February 4, 1919, by the White Army. Underground operations were carried out, but only the arrival of the Caucasus front of the Red Army in 1920 allowed the city to permanently end up with the Russian SFSR on March 17, it became part of the Soviet Mountain Republic, formed on January 20, 1921, was the capital of the Chechen National Okrug inside it. On November 30, 1922, the mountain republic was dissolved, the national okrug became the Chechen Autonomous Oblast with Grozny as the administrative center. At this time most of the population was still Russian, but of Cossack descent.
As Cossacks were viewed as a potential threat to the Soviet nation, Moscow encouraged the migration of Chechens into the city from the mountains. In 1934 the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Oblast was formed, becoming the Chechen-Ingush ASSR in 1936. In 1944, the entire population of Chechens and Ingush was deported after rebelling against Soviet rule. Large numbers of people who were not deemed fit for transport were'liquidated' on the spot, the adverse situation with transport and the stay in Siberia caused many deaths as well. According to internal NKVD data, a total of 144,704 were killed in 1944–1948 alone. Authors such as Alexander Nekrich, John Dunlop and Moshe Gammer, based on census data from the period estimate a death toll of about 170,000–200,000 among Chechens alone, thus ranging from over a third of the total Chechen population, deported to nearly half being killed in those 4 years. All traces of them in the city, including books and graveyards, were destroyed by the NKVD troops; the act was recognized by the European Parliament as an act of genocide in 2004.
Grozny became the administrative center of Grozny Oblast of the Russian SFSR, the city at the time was again wholly Russian. In 1957, the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was restored, the Chechens were allowed to return; the return of the Chechens to Grozny, lacking of Nakh for thirteen years, would cause massive disruptions to the social and political systems of what had been a Russian city for the period until their return. This caused a self-feeding cycle of ethnic conflict between the two groups, both believing the other's presence in the city was illegitimate. Once again migration of non-Russians into Grozny continued whilst the ethnic Russian population, in turn, moved to other parts of the USSR, notably the Baltic states, after the inter-ethnic conflict broke out in 1958. According to sociologist Georgy Derluguyan, the Checheno-Ingush Republic's economy was divided into two spheres—much like French settler-ruled Algeria—and the Russian sphere had all the jobs with higher salaries, while non-Russians were systematically kept out of all government positions.
Russians worked in education, oil and social
History of Chechnya
The history of Chechnya may refer to the history of the Chechens, of their land Chechnya, or of the land of Ichkeria. Chechen society has traditionally been organized around many autonomous local clans, called taips; the traditional Chechen saying goes that the members of Chechen society, like its taips, are "free and equal like wolves". Jaimoukha notes in his book Chechens that sadly, "Vainakh history is the most poorly studied of the peoples of the North Caucasus. Much research effort was expended upon the Russo-Circassian war, most falsified at that." There was once a library of Chechen history scripts, written in Chechen using Arabic and Georgian script. The first known settlement of what is now Chechnya is thought to have occurred around 12500 BCE, in mountain-cave settlements, whose inhabitants used basic tools and animal hides. Traces of human settlement go back to 40000 BCE with cave paintings and artifacts around Lake Kezanoi; the ancestors of the Nakh peoples are thought to have populated the Central Caucasus around 10000–8000 BCE.
This colonization is thought by many to represent the whole Eastern Caucasian language family, though this is not universally agreed upon. The proto-language, thought to be the ancestor of all Eastern Caucasian languages, in fact, has words for concepts such as the wheel, so it is thought that the region had intimate links to the Fertile Crescent. Johanna Nichols has suggested that the ancestors of Eastern Caucasians had been involved in the birth of civilization in the Fertile Crescent. At the time the proto-language split, the people had all these concepts early on. Towns were built in the area, now Chechnya as early as 8000 BCE. Pottery, came around the same time, so did stone weaponry, stone utensils, stone jewelry items, etc.. This period was known as the Kura-Arax culture. Amjad Jaimoukha notes that there was a large amount of cultural diffusion between the Kura-Arax culture and the Maikop culture; the economy was built around cattle and farming. The trend of a progressive Caucasus continued: as early as 3000–4000 BCE, evidence of metalworking as well as more advanced weaponry.
This period is referred to Chechnya during the Copper Age. Horseback riding came around 3000 BCE having diffused from contact with Indo-European-speaking tribes to the North. Towns found in this period are not found as ruins, but rather on the outskirts of modern towns in both Chechnya and Ingushetia, suggesting much continuity. There is bone evidence suggesting. Clay and stone were used for all building purposes. Agriculture was developed, as evidenced by the presence of copper flint blades with wooden or bone handles; the term Kharachoi culture denotes the Early Bronze Age of Chechnya. Clay jugs and stone grain containers indicate a high level of development of culture. Earlier finds show. There was a lack of pig bones, demonstrating that the domestication of pigs hadn't yet spread into the region. Bronze artifacts in modern-day Chechnya correspond with those of Hurria at the time, suggesting a cultural affinity. Iron had replaced stone and copper as the main substance for industry by the 10th century BCE, before most of Europe or areas of the Middle East.
The Koban culture was the most advanced culture in Chechnya before recorded history, the most well-known. It first appeared between 1100 and 1000 BCE; the most well-studied site was on the outskirts of Serzhen-Yurt, a major center from around the eleventh to the seventh centuries BCE. The remains include dwellings, cobble bridges, iron objects and clay and stone objects. There were sickles and stone grain grinders. Grains that were grown included wheat and barley. Cattle, goats, donkeys and horses were kept. There were shops, where artisans worked on and sold pottery, stone-casting, bone-carving, stone-carving. There is evidence of an advanced stage of metallurgy. There was differentiation of professionals organized within clans. Jaimoukha argues that while all these cultures were made by people included among the genetic ancestors of the Chechens, it was either the Koban or Kharachoi culture, the first culture made by the cultural and linguistic ancestors of the Chechens. However, many others disagree, holding the Chechens to have lived in their present-day lands for over 10000 years.
Many scholars, such as Johanna Nichols and Bernice Wuethrich hold that the Durdzuks were descended from ancient migrations from the Fertile Crescent to the Caucasus due to population or political pressures back in the Fertile Crescent. Others who believe the so-called “Urartian version”, such as George Anchabadze and Amjad Jaimoukha, still hold that those original migrants contributed to both the genetic and cultural traits of the modern Ingush and Chechens, but that the primary ancestors were Nakh-speaking migrants from what
North Caucasian Emirate
The North Caucasian Emirate was a Avar and Chechen Islamic state that existed in the territory of Chechnya and western Dagestan during the Russian Civil War from September 1919 to March 1920. The emirate's temporary capital was established in the village of Vedeno and its leader, Uzun Haji, was given the title "His Majesty the Imam and the Emir of the North Caucasus Emirate, Sheikh Uzun Khair Haji Khan". In mid-1918, soldiers of the Russian White movement's Volunteer Army under General Anton Denikin began to clash with the Caucasian peoples of the North Caucasus. Uzun Haji, with a small detachment of troops, took the village of Vedeno and declared war against Denikin. In September 1919, Uzun Haji announced the creation of the North Caucasus Emirate as an independent monarchy under the protection of the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI. Ties were established with Kabardian and South Ossetian insurgents and with Georgia, which recognized the emirate's authorities. However, they failed to remove Volunteer Army troops from the territory of the emirate and became dependent on Bolshevik aid until its suspension.
By January 1920, the military and economic situation in the emirate had begun to deteriorate and Uzun Haji consented to the entry of the emirate into the Russian SFSR with promises of autonomy. He soon died but the existence of the state led to the formation of the Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Caucasian Imamate Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus Caucasus Emirate
The Caucasus or Caucasia is an area situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia and Armenia. It is home to the Caucasus Mountains, including the Greater Caucasus mountain range, considered a natural barrier between Eastern Europe and Western Asia. Europe's highest mountain, Mount Elbrus, at 5,642 metres is located in the west part of the Greater Caucasus mountain range. On the southern side, the Lesser Caucasus includes the Javakheti Plateau and grows into the Armenian highlands, part of, located in Turkey; the Caucasus region is separated into northern and southern parts – the North Caucasus and Transcaucasus, respectively. The Greater Caucasus mountain range in the north is within the Russian Federation, while the Lesser Caucasus mountain range in the south is occupied by several independent states, namely Georgia, Armenia and the recognised Artsakh Republic; the region is known for its linguistic diversity: aside from Indo-European and Turkic languages, the Kartvelian, Northwest Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian families are indigenous to the area.
The term Caucasus is not only used for the mountains themselves but includes Ciscaucasia and Transcaucasia. According to Alexander Mikaberidze, Transcaucasia is a "Russo-centric" term. Pliny the Elder's Natural History derives the name of the Caucasus from Scythian kroy-khasis. German linguist Paul Kretschmer notes that the Latvian word Kruvesis means "ice". In the Tale of Past Years, it is stated that Old East Slavic Кавкасийскыѣ горы came from Ancient Greek Καύκασος ), according to M. A. Yuyukin, is a compound word that can be interpreted as the "Seagull's Mountain" According to German philologists Otto Schrader and Alfons A. Nehring, the Ancient Greek word Καύκασος is connected to Gothic Hauhs as well as Lithuanian Kaũkas and Kaukarà. British linguist Adrian Room points out that Kau- means "mountain" in Pelasgian; the Transcaucasus region and Dagestan were the furthest points of Parthian and Sasanian expansions, with areas to the north of the Greater Caucasus range impregnable. The mythological Mount Qaf, the world's highest mountain that ancient Iranian lore shrouded in mystery, was said to be situated in this region.
In Middle Persian sources of the Sasanian era, the Caucasus range was referred to as Kaf Kof. The term resurfaced in Iranian tradition on in a variant form when Ferdowsi, in his Shahnameh, referred to the Caucasus mountains as Kōh-i Kāf. "Most of the modern names of the Caucasus originate from the Greek Kaukasos and the Middle Persian Kaf Kof"."The earliest etymon" of the name Caucasus comes from Kaz-kaz, the Hittite designation of the "inhabitants of the southern coast of the Black Sea". It was noted that in Nakh Ков гас means "gateway to steppe" The modern name for the region is similar in the many languages, is between Kavkaz and Kawkaz; the North Caucasus region is known as the Ciscaucasus, whereas the South Caucasus region is known as the Transcaucasus. The Ciscaucasus contains most of the Greater Caucasus mountain range, it consists of Southern Russia the North Caucasian Federal District's autonomous republics, the northernmost parts of Georgia and Azerbaijan. The Ciscaucasus lies between the Black Sea to its west, the Caspian Sea to its east, borders the Southern Federal District to its north.
The two Federal Districts are collectively referred to as "Southern Russia." The Transcaucasus borders the Greater Caucasus range and Southern Russia to its north, the Black Sea and Turkey to its west, the Caspian Sea to its east, Iran to its south. It contains surrounding lowlands. All of Armenia and Georgia are in the South Caucasus; the watershed along the Greater Caucasus range is perceived to be the dividing line between Europe and Southwest Asia. The highest peak in the Caucasus is Mount Elbrus located in western Ciscaucasus, is considered as the highest point in Europe; the Caucasus is one of the culturally diverse regions on Earth. The nation states that comprise the Caucasus today are the post-Soviet states Georgia, Azerbaijan and the Russian Federation; the Russian divisions include Dagestan, Ingushetia, North Ossetia–Alania, Kabardino–Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia, Krasnodar Krai and Stavropol Krai, in clockwise order. Three territories in the region claim independence but are recognized as such by only a handful entities: Artsakh and South Ossetia.
Abkhazia and South Ossetia are recognized by the world community as part of Georgia, Artsakh as part of Azerbaijan. The region has language families. There are more than 50 ethnic groups living in the region. No fewer than three language families are unique to the area. In addition, Indo-European languages, such as Armenian and Ossetian, Turkic languages, such as Azerbaijani, Kumyk language and Karachay–Balkar, are spoken in the area. Russian is used as a lingua franca most notably in the North Caucasus; the peoples of the northern and southern Caucasus tend to be either Sunni Muslims, Eastern Orthodox Christians and Armenian Christians. Twelver Shi'