Omaha hold 'em
Omaha hold'em is a community card poker game similar to Texas hold'em, where each player is dealt four cards and must make his or her best hand using two of them, plus three of the five community cards. The exact origin of the game is unknown, but casino executive Robert Turner first brought Omaha into a casino setting when he introduced the game to Bill Boyd, who offered it as a game at the Las Vegas Golden Nugget Casino. Omaha uses a 52-card French deck. Limit Omaha hold'em 8-or-better is the "O" game featured in H. O. R. S. E. Both limit Omaha/8 and pot limit Omaha high are featured in the 8-Game. Omaha hold. In the original Omaha poker game, players were only dealt two hole cards and had to use both to make a hand combined with community cards; this version of Omaha is defined in the glossary of Super/System as being interchangeable with "Tight hold'em". Across all the variations of the game, the requirement of using two hole cards is the only consistent rule; the "Omaha" part of the name represents this aspect of the game.
"Hold'em" refers to a game using community cards that are shared by all players. This is opposed to draw games, where each player's hand is composed only of hole cards, stud games, where each player hand contains a mix of non-community cards that are visible to the other players and concealed hole cards. In North American casinos, the term "Omaha" can refer to several poker games; the original game is commonly known as "Omaha high". A high-low split version called "Omaha Hi-Lo", or sometimes "Omaha eight-or-better" or "Omaha/8", is played. In Europe, "Omaha" still refers to the high version of the game played pot-limit. Pot-limit Omaha is abbreviated as "PLO." Pot-limit and no-limit Omaha eight-or-better can be found in some casinos and online, though no-limit is rarer. It is said that Omaha is a game of "the nuts", i.e. the best possible high or low hand, because it takes "the nuts" to win a showdown. It is a game where between the cards in his hand and the community cards a player may have drawing possibilities to multiple different types of holdings.
For example, a player may have both a draw to a flush and a full house using different combinations of cards. At times seasoned players may need additional time to figure what draws are possible for their hand; the basic differences between Omaha and Texas hold'em are these: first, each player is dealt four hole cards instead of two. The betting rounds and layout of community cards are identical. At showdown, each player's hand is the best five-card hand made from three of the five cards on the board, plus two of the player's own cards. Unlike Texas hold'em, a player cannot play four or five of the cards on the board with fewer than two of his own, nor can a player use three or four hole cards to disguise a strong hand; some specific things to notice about Omaha hands are: As in Texas hold'em, three or more suited cards on the board makes a flush possible, but unlike that game, a player always needs two of that suit in hand to play a flush. For example, with a board of K♠ 9♠ Q♠ Q♥ 5♠, a player with A♠ 2♥ 4♥ 5♣ cannot play a flush using the ace as would be possible in Texas hold'em.
A player with 2♠ 3♠ K♦ J♦ can play the spade flush. The same concept applies to straights. In Omaha, a player can not use four cards on the board to play a straight. For example, with a board of 5♠ 6♥ 7♦ 8♥ A♠, a player with J♦ J♠ 4♦ 9♠ or J♦ J♠ 9♦ 9♠ cannot play a straight, but a player with J♦ J♠ 4♦ 3♠ can play a straight from 3 to 7. For example, with a board of J♠ J♦ 9♦ 5♥ 9♣, a player with a hand of A♠ 2♠ J♥ K♦ cannot play a full house. A player with J♣ 2♣ 9♠ 10♠ can use his J-9 to play the full house J♠ J♦ J♣ 9♠ 9♦. A player with 10♠ 5♣ 5♠ 2♣ can use his 5-5 to play the full house J♠ J♦ 5♥ 5♣ 5♠. With three of a kind on the board, a player must have a pair in hand to make a full house. For example, with a board of J♠ J♦ A♦ J♥ K♣, a player with A♠ 2♠ 3♥ K♦ does not have a full house, the player only has three jacks with an ace-king kicker, will lose to a player with only a pair of deuces; this is the most misread hand in Omaha. In Omaha hi-low split-8 or better, each player makes a separate five-card high hand and five-card ace-to-five low hand, the pot is split between the high and low.
To qualify for low, a player must be able to play lower. A few casinos play with a 9-low qualifier instead; each player can play any two of his four hole cards to make his high hand, any two of his four hole cards to make his low hand. If there is no qualifying low hand, the high hand wins the whole pot; this game is played in the fixed limit version, although pot limit Omaha/8 is becoming more popular. A few low-stakes online tournaments feature no limit Omaha/8; the brief explanation above belies the complexity of the game, so a number of examples will be useful here to clarify it. The table below shows a five-card board of community cards at the end of pl
A tell in poker is a change in a player's behavior or demeanor, claimed by some to give clues to that player's assessment of their hand. A player gains an advantage if they observe and understand the meaning of another player's tell if the tell is unconscious and reliable. Sometimes a player may fake a tell, hoping to induce their opponents to make poor judgments in response to the false tell. More people try to avoid giving out a tell, by maintaining a poker face regardless of how strong or weak their hand is. A tell may be unique to a single player; some possible tells include leaning forward or back, placing chips with more or less force, doing chip tricks, displaying nervous tics or making any changes in one's breathing, tone of voice, facial expressions, direction of gaze or in one's actions with the cards, cigarettes or drinks. An underlying rule to many tells is: "weak means strong, strong means weak." Thus, players who hold weak poker hands attempt to convince other players at the table that they are strong: staring down an opponent, throwing chips down forcefully into the pot in an effort to discourage others from calling.
Alternatively, players who hold strong hands tend to try to disguise their hand as being weak. They attempt to fly under the radar by being a passive player at the table - not making direct eye contact tossing the chips in, being friendly and talkative, they are deliberately trying not to come across as intimidating, so as to entice a call. Non-physical tells exist in both casino and online poker, but tells like speed of play, betting patterns, the quantity of chips that a player plays with, player chat can be revealing online. A player's tell gives information only about that player's assessment of his own cards, hence is reliable only when that player has assessed his own hand. An unskilled player may misread a weak hand as a strong hand and thus their tells will only indicate this misinterpretation. Players can make mistakes that may seem like a tell, like fumbling chips out of clumsiness or betting the wrong amount online when clicking the wrong button. Poker strategy Telegraph Microexpression Mike Caro.
Mike Caro's Book of Tells. Carol Publishing Corporation. ISBN 0-89746-100-2. Poker Tells Basics Poker Tells articles
House rules are modifications to the provided rules of games that are adopted by individual groups of players. In board games, players may agree to subtract, or alter the provided rules of the game. A modification that becomes a permanent feature of a group's play would be considered a "house rule". Monopoly is played with different rules to those provided by the manufacturers, to the extent that, according to one commentator "virtually no-one plays the game with the rules as written". A common use of the term is in role-playing games to signify a deviation of game play from the official rules; the use of house rules is encouraged in a number of official game materials, as a way to personalize the game. Many other games do not explicitly encourage house rules, although house rules are used in casual settings. Games that are played in tournaments have explicit official tournament rules so that house rules are unnecessary; the anime-based RPG Mekton refers to house rules as "changing the laws of physics."
House rules can range from the tiniest of changes or additions to substantial deviations that alter the entire game play, depending on the imagination of the players. Most groups have house rules to some extent. In miniature wargaming, house rules may be used to represent unofficial miniature conversions or can be used as scenario specific rules. House rules date back to the earliest days of role-playing: the original edition of Dungeons & Dragons suggested that players should have a copy of the Chainmail historical wargame for measurement and combat rules and more confusingly, it presumed ownership of the Avalon Hill game Outdoor Survival. Since many players who purchased D&D did not own copies of Chainmail or Outdoor Survival, they made up rules to cover the holes in D&D. Most house rules are made up by the members of a particular group of players and are never published; the companies that produce wargames allow their use alongside official rulesets as long as it is non-commercial, as is the case with Games Workshop.
Any rule book, not a part of the core rule books if it comes from the original publishers of the game, could be seen as being house rules
In the card game of poker, a bluff is a bet or raise made with a hand, not thought to be the best hand. To bluff is to make such a bet; the objective of a bluff is to induce a fold by at least one opponent. The size and frequency of a bluff determines its profitability to the bluffer. By extension, the phrase "calling somebody's bluff" is used outside the context of poker to describe cases where one person "demand that someone prove a claim" or prove that he or she "is not being deceptive." A pure bluff, or stone-cold bluff, is a bet or raise with an inferior hand that has little or no chance of improving. A player making a pure bluff believes; the pot odds for a bluff are the ratio of the size of the bluff to the pot. A pure bluff has a positive expectation when the probability of being called by an opponent is lower than the pot odds for the bluff. For example, suppose that after all the cards are out, a player holding a busted drawing hand decides that the only way to win the pot is to make a pure bluff.
If the player bets the size of the pot on a pure bluff, the bluff will have a positive expectation if the probability of being called is less than 50%. Note, that the opponent may consider the pot odds when deciding whether to call. In this example, the opponent will be facing 2-to-1 pot odds for the call; the opponent will have a positive expectation for calling the bluff if the opponent believes the probability the player is bluffing is at least 33%. In games with multiple betting rounds, to bluff on one round with an inferior or drawing hand that might improve in a round is called a semi-bluff. A player making a semi-bluff can win the pot two different ways: by all opponents folding or by catching a card to improve the player's hand. In some cases a player may be on a draw but with odds strong enough that he is favored to win the hand. In this case his bet is not classified as a semi-bluff though his bet may force opponents to fold hands with better current strength. For example, a player in a stud poker game with four spade-suited cards showing on the penultimate round might raise, hoping that his opponents believe he has a flush.
If his bluff fails and he is called, he still might be dealt a spade on the final card and win the showdown. Bluffing may be more effective in some circumstances than others. Bluffs have a higher expectation. Several game circumstances may decrease the probability of being called: Fewer opponents who must fold to the bluff; the bluff provides less favorable pot odds to opponents for a call. A scare card comes that increases the number of superior hands that the player may be perceived to have; the player's betting pattern in the hand has been consistent with the superior hand they are representing with the bluff. The opponent's betting pattern suggests the opponent may have a marginal hand, vulnerable to a greater number of potential superior hands; the opponent's betting pattern suggests the opponent may have a drawing hand and the bluff provides unfavorable pot odds to the opponent for chasing the draw. Opponents are not irrationally committed to the pot. Opponents are sufficiently skilled and paying sufficient attention.
The opponent's current state of mind should be taken into consideration. Under certain circumstances external pressures or events can impact an opponent's decision making skills. If a player bluffs too infrequently, observant opponents will recognize that the player is betting for value and will call with strong hands or with drawing hands only when they are receiving favorable pot odds. If a player bluffs too observant opponents snap off his bluffs by calling or re-raising. Occasional bluffing disguises not just the hands a player is bluffing with, but his legitimate hands that opponents may think he may be bluffing with. David Sklansky, in his book The Theory of Poker, states "Mathematically, the optimal bluffing strategy is to bluff in such a way that the chances against your bluffing are identical to the pot odds your opponent is getting." Optimal bluffing requires that the bluffs must be performed in such a manner that opponents cannot tell when a player is bluffing or not. To prevent bluffs from occurring in a predictable pattern, game theory suggests the use of a randomizing agent to determine whether to bluff.
For example, a player might use the colors of his hidden cards, the second hand on his watch, or some other unpredictable mechanism to determine whether to bluff. Example Here is an example from The Theory of Poker: when I bet my $100, creating a $300 pot, my opponent was getting 3-to-1 odds from the pot; therefore my optimum strategy was... the odds against my bluffing 3-to-1. Since the dealer will always bet with in this situation, he should bluff with "Weakest hands/bluffing range" 1/3 of the time in order to make the odds 3-to-1 against a bluff. Ex: On the last betting round, Worm has been betting a "semi-bluff" drawing hand with: A♠ K♠ on the board: 10♠ 9♣ 2♠ 4♣ against Mike's A♣ 10♦ hand; the river comes out: 2♣ The pot is 30 dollars, Worm is contemplating a 30-dollar bluff on the river. If Worm does bluff in this situation, he is giving Mike 2-to-1 pot odds. In these hypothetical circumstances, Worm will have the nuts 50% of the time, be on a busted draw 50% of the time. Worm will bet the nut
Casino tokens are small discs used in lieu of currency in casinos. Colored metal, injection-molded plastic or compression molded clay tokens of various denominations are used in table games, as opposed to metal token coins, used in slot machines. Casino tokens are widely used as play money in casual or tournament games; some casinos use rectangular gaming plaques for high-stakes table games. Plaques differ from chips in that they are larger rectangular in shape and contain serial numbers. Money is exchanged for tokens in a casino at the casino cage, at the gaming tables, or at a cashier station; the tokens are interchangeable with money at the casino. They have no value outside of the casino, but certain businesses in gambling towns may honor them informally. Tokens are employed for several reasons; because of the uniform size and patterns of stacks of chips, they are easier to tally compared to currency. This attribute enables the pit boss or security to verify the amount being paid, reducing the chance that a dealer might incorrectly pay a customer.
The uniform weight of the casino's official tokens allows them to weigh great stacks or heaps of chips rather than tally them Furthermore, it is observed that consumers gamble more with replacement currencies than with cash. A more pragmatic reason for casinos using chips in place of cash at table games is to discourage players from grabbing back their bet and attempting to flee should their bet not win, because chips, unlike cash, must be redeemed at the casino cashier and have no value outside the casino in question. Lastly, the chips are considered to be an integral part of the casino environment, replacing them with some alternate currency would be unpopular. Many casinos have eliminated the use of metal tokens in their slot machines, in favor of paper receipts or pre-paid cards, while requiring heavy infrastructure costs to install, eliminate the coin handling expenses, jamming problems encountered in machines which took coins or tokens and can allow more game-specific technology in the space of a machine which would be dedicated to coin mechanisms.
While some casinos which installed the receipt system had kept the $1 tokens around for use as $1 chips, most other casinos using the receipts had scrapped the tokens entirely. Most casinos using receipts have automated machines at which customers may redeem receipts, eliminating the need for coin counting windows and decreasing labor costs. Casino chip collecting is a part of numismatics, more as specialized exonumia collecting; this hobby has become popular with the Casino Chips & Gaming Tokens Collectors Club formed in 1988. Some collectors may value certain casino tokens up to $100,000, which are traded on online auction websites like eBay. Several casinos sell custom-made sets of chips and one or two decks of cards stamped with the name of the casino on them; each set is contained in box. The ancestors of the modern casino token were the counters used to keep score in the card games Ombre and Quadrille. In 1752, French Quadrille sets contained a number of different counters, known as jetons and mils.
Unlike modern poker chips, they were colored differently only to determine player ownership for purposes of settling payments at the end of the game, with different denominations differentiated by different shapes that each counter type had. In the early history of Poker during the 19th century, players seemed to use any small valuable object imaginable. Early poker players sometimes used jagged gold pieces, gold nuggets, gold dust, or coins as well as "chips" made of ivory, wood, a composition made from clay and shellac. Several companies between the 1880s and the late 1930s made clay composition poker chips. There were over 1000 designs from. Most chips were white, red and yellow, but they could be made in any color desired; the vast majority of authentic casino chips are "clay" chips but can be more described as compression molded chips. Contrary to popular belief, no gaming chip going as far back as the 1950s has been 100% clay. Modern clay chips are a composition of materials more durable than clay alone.
At least some percentage of the chips is of an earthen material such as sand and clay similar to that found in cat litter. The process used to make these chips is a trade secret, varies by manufacturer, most being expensive and time-consuming per chip; the edge spots, or inserts, are not painted on. Each chip receives a mid-inlay if desired, is placed in a special mold that heats and compresses the chip at 10,000 psi at 300 °F, hence the term compression molded chips; the printed graphics on clay chips is called an inlay. Inlays are made of paper and are clad with a plastic film applied to the chip prior to the compression molding process. During the molding process the inlay becomes permanently fastened to the chip and can not be removed from the chip without destroying the inlay. Ceramic chips were introduced in the mid 1980s as alternative to clay chips, are used in casinos, as well as being available to the home market; the ability
Poker is a popular card game that combines elements of chance and strategy. There are various styles of poker, all of which share an objective of presenting the least probable or highest-scoring hand. A poker hand is a configuration of five cards depending on the variant, either held by a player or drawn from a number of shared, community cards. Players bet on their hands in a number of rounds as cards are drawn, employing various mathematical and intuitive strategies in an attempt to better opponents. Given the game's many different forms and various dynamics, poker strategy becomes a complex subject; this article attempts to introduce only the basic strategy concepts. The fundamental theorem of poker, introduced by David Sklansky, states: Every time you play your hand the way you would if you could see your opponents' cards, you gain, every time your opponents play their cards differently from the way they would play them if they could see your cards, you gain; this theorem is the foundation for many poker strategy topics.
For example and slow-playing are examples of using deception to induce your opponents to play differently from how they would if they could see your cards. There are some exceptions to the fundamental theorem in certain multi-way pot situations, as described in Morton's theorem; the relationship between pot odds and odds of winning is one of the most important concepts in poker strategy. Pot odds are the ratio of the size of the pot to the size of the bet required to stay in the pot. For example, if a player must call $10 for a chance to win a $40 pot, their pot odds are 4-to-1. To have a positive expectation, a player's odds of winning must be better than their pot odds. If the player's odds of winning are 4-to-1, their expected return is to break even. Implied odds is a more complicated concept, though related to pot odds; the implied odds on a hand are based not on the money in the pot, but on the expected size of the pot at the end of the hand. When facing an money situation and holding a strong drawing hand a skilled player will consider calling a bet or opening based on their implied odds.
This is true in multi-way pots, where it is that one or more opponents will call all the way to showdown. By employing deception, a poker player hopes to induce their opponent to act differently from how they would if they could see their cards. David Sklansky has argued that winning at poker is decided by how much one player can force another to change his/her style while maintaining their own strategy. Bluffing is a form of deception where players bet on a weak hand to induce opponents to fold superior hands. Related is the semi-bluff, in which a player who does not have a strong hand, but has a chance to improve it to a strong hand in rounds, bets on the hand in the hopes of inducing other players with weaker "made" hands to fold. Slow-playing is deceptive play in poker, the opposite of bluffing: checking or betting weakly with a strong holding, attempting to induce other players with weaker hands to call or raise the bet instead of folding, to increase the payout. Position refers to the order in which players are seated around the table and the strategic consequences of this.
Players in earlier position need stronger hands to bet/raise or call than players in position. For example, if there are five opponents yet to act behind a player, there is a greater chance one of the yet to act opponents will have a better hand than if there were only one opponent yet to act. Being in late position is an advantage because a player gets to see how their opponents in earlier position act; this information, coupled with a low bet to a late player, may allow the player to "limp in" with a weaker hand when they would have folded the same hand if they'd had to act earlier. Position is one of the most vital elements to understand; as a player's position improves, so too does the range of cards with which they can profitably enter a hand. Conversely this held knowledge can be used to an intelligent poker player's advantage. If playing against observant opponents a raise with any two cards can'steal the blinds,' if executed against passive players at the right time. Unlike calling, raising has an extra way to win: opponents may fold.
An opening bet may be considered a raise from a strategy perspective. David Sklansky gives. To get more money in the pot when a player has the best hand: If a player has the best hand, raising for value enables them to win a bigger pot. To drive out opponents when a player has the best hand: If a player has a made hand, raising may protect their hand by driving out opponents with drawing hands who may otherwise improve to a better hand. To bluff A player raises with an inferior or "trash" hand attempts to deceive other players about the strength of their hand, induce a better hand to fold. To semi-bluff A player with a drawing hand may raise both to bluff and for value. While technically still a bluff, as the player may not end up with a made hand and is trying to drive out players, the player still has the opportunity to make his or her hand and win the pot if the bluff is called. To block Players on drawing hands may put out a "blocking bet" against players who are to bet when checked to, but unlikely to raise when bet into.
Texas hold 'em
Texas hold'em is a variation of the card game of poker. Two cards, known as hole cards, are dealt face down to each player, five community cards are dealt face up in three stages; the stages consist of a series of three cards an additional single card, a final card. Each player seeks the best five card poker hand from any combination of the seven cards of the five community cards and their two hole cards. Players have betting options to check, raise, or fold. Rounds of betting take place before the flop is dealt and after each subsequent deal; the player who has the best hand and has not folded by the end of all betting rounds wins all of the money bet for the hand, known as the pot. Texas hold'em is the H game featured in HORSE and in HOSE. In Texas hold'em, as in all variants of poker, individuals compete for an amount of money or chips contributed by the players themselves; because the cards are dealt randomly and outside the control of the players, each player attempts to control the amount of money in the pot based either on the hand they are holding, or on their prediction as to what their opponents may be holding and how they might behave.
The game is divided into a series of hands. A hand may end at the showdown, in which case the remaining players compare their hands and the highest hand is awarded the pot; the other possibility for the conclusion of a hand occurs when all but one player have folded and have thereby abandoned any claim to the pot, in which case the pot is awarded to the player who has not folded. The objective of winning players is not to win every individual hand, but rather to make mathematically and psychologically better decisions regarding when and how much to bet, call—or fold. By making such decisions to place influential bets, one can non-verbally represent or suggest holding or not-holding a certain or possible hand by either betting or not-betting pre-flop, by venturing smaller or larger bets or raises at more advantageous times, throughout the stages of the hand being dealt. One's pattern of betting may encourage opponents to bet or to fold, without verbalizing a discouraging or dishonest word; the winning poker players know how to enhance their opponents' betting and maximize their own expected gain on each round of betting, to thereby increase their long-term winnings.
Although little is known about the invention of Texas hold'em, the Texas Legislature recognizes Robstown, Texas, as the game's birthplace, dating it to the early 1900s. After the game spread throughout Texas, hold'em was introduced to Las Vegas in 1963 at the California Club by Corky McCorquodale; the game became popular and spread to the Golden Nugget and Dunes. In 1967, a group of Texan gamblers and card players, including Crandell Addington, Doyle Brunson, Amarillo Slim were playing in Las Vegas; this is. Addington said the first time he saw the game was in 1959. "They didn't call it Texas hold'em at the time, they just called it hold'em.… I thought that if it were to catch on, it would become the game. Draw poker, you bet only twice; that meant. This was more of a thinking man's game."For several years the Golden Nugget Casino in Downtown Las Vegas was the only casino in Las Vegas to offer the game. At that time, the Golden Nugget's poker room was "truly a'sawdust joint,' with…oiled sawdust covering the floors."
Because of its location and decor, this poker room did not receive many rich drop-in clients, as a result, professional players sought a more prominent location. In 1969, the Las Vegas professionals were invited to play Texas hold'em at the entrance of the now-demolished Dunes Casino on the Las Vegas Strip; this prominent location, the relative inexperience of poker players with Texas hold'em, resulted in a remunerative game for professional players. After a failed attempt to establish a "Gambling Fraternity Convention", Tom Moore added the first poker tournament to the Second Annual Gambling Fraternity Convention held in 1969; this tournament featured. In 1970, Benny and Jack Binion acquired the rights to this convention, renamed it the World Series of Poker, moved it to their casino, Binion's Horseshoe, in Las Vegas. After its first year, a journalist, Tom Thackrey, suggested that the main event of this tournament should be no-limit Texas hold'em; the Binions agreed and since no-limit Texas hold'em has been played as the main event.
Interest in the main event continued to grow over the next two decades. After receiving only eight entrants in 1972, the numbers grew to over one hundred entrants in 1982, over two hundred in 1991. During this time, B & G Publishing Co. Inc. published Doyle Brunson's revolutionary poker strategy guide, Super/System. Despite being self-published and priced at $100 in 1978, the book revolutionized the way poker was played, it was one of the first books to discuss Texas hold'em, is today cited as one of the most important books on this game. In 1983, Al Alvarez published The Biggest Game in Town, a book detailing a 1981 World Series of Poker event; the first book of its kind, it described the world of professional poker players and the World Series of Poker. Alvarez's book is credited with begin