The Gibson Hummingbird is an acoustic guitar model/series produced by the Gibson Guitar Corporation. Unlike the other flat-top Gibson acoustics, the Hummingbird was Gibson's first square-shoulder dreadnought, similar to the dreadnoughts produced by C. F. Martin & Company. Introduced in 1960, the Hummingbird was Gibson's second-most expensive acoustic guitar, behind the Gibson J-200, until the introduction of the Gibson Dove in 1962, has remained in production since. In 2000 the Gibson Hummingbird was the winner of Acoustic Guitar's Player's Choice Award for the Dreadnought Category, was described thus: "The Hummingbird has a wide range of sound, from gutsy and loud, to sweet and soft. Superb for all styles of playing, whether just chording or playing intricate solos." The first wave of Hummingbirds came with a solid Sitka spruce solid mahogany back. The sides are mahogany, they have adjustable rosewood or ceramic saddles, three-ply maple bridge plates, single X-bracing, engraved hummingbird-butterfly trumpet-flower pickguards with two points on the upper treble bout and one point level with the bridge, as well as bound fretboards with double parallelogram inlays, a crown peghead inlay on the headstock, golden green button tulip tuners, a cherryburst finish.
A limited number of Hummingbirds produced in 1962 and 1963 have maple sides. A natural top with cherry back-and-sides finish was available in 1963. Since the size of the pickguard has been reduced; some Hummingbirds produced in 1965 had their sides around the neck and at the endpin painted black to hide where Gibson had over-sanded the body, sanded through the top layer of the mahogany laminated sides. During 1965 the nut width decreased from 1 11/16 to 1 5/8 and in 1968 the bottom belly bridge became more square. At the same time the bracing became bulkier. A percentage of Hummingbirds with tobacco sunburst finish were produced and the pickguards were attached with five screws for between one and two years. A double X-bracing has been used between the mid-80's. Since 1970, the saddles are no longer adjustable, the necks are made of laminated three-piece mahogany; the fretboard inlays were changed to block ones restored to double parallelograms in 1984. The name of standard models varies during the years, which could be Hummingbird with no suffix, Hummingbird Modern Classic or Hummingbird Standard.
They have AA or AAA-grade solid Sitka spruce tops, with mahogany back and sides. A Hummingbird of this category features a rosewood fretboard with double parallelogram inlays, a crown peghead inlay headstock, nickel Grover rotomatic tuners and a custom-made Hummingbird tortoiseshell pickguard. An L. R. Baggs Element Active pickup system is installed; this model is available in different cherryburst variations from strong orange to yellow, heritage cherryburst and natural finishes. They are seen in wine red and black. Hummingbird Vintage, or formally Hummingbird True Vintage, features a vintage appearance and sound, from its "thermally cured" spruce top, it has gold Gotoh green button tulip tuners and a vintage cherryburst finish, which make the guitar resemble its 1960s ancestors. It has the famous adored, pickguard wildlife motif engraved and hand-painted, not embedded as the standard; the vintage model has no electronics from the factory. The Icon'60s Hummingbird is a natural-finished model with block inlays in the fretboard rather than the double parallelograms.
It has an adjustable tusq saddle and an original 1960s-style Hummingbird pickguard. The Hummingbird Custom KOA model is a custom model, with back and sides constructed from highly-figured koa wood, it has gold Grover mother of pearl keystone tuners, a custom in-flight hummingbirds peghead logo and a hummingbird floral tortoiseshell pickguard, all expressed in genuine abalone and mother-of-pearl. It has an ebony fretboard with rolled edges and Orpheum-style abalone inlays; this model has an antique natural finish. Introduced as the monthly limited edition of December 2016, featuring select Adirondack red spruce top with mahogany back and sides. In 2010, Gibson introduced the Limited Edition 50th Anniversary 1960 Hummingbird series, including the Standard, the Rosewood and the KOA models. In 2016, Gibson produced a limited number of "Hummingbird Dark" guitars which are thinner than a standard Hummingbird, use a black translucent finish, a red-filled pickguard, carry the signature of country artist Eric Church.
In 2007, Gibson produced a small batch of silver burst Hummingbird. In 2008 Gibson released a few Hummingbird Modern Classics with a Vintage Sunburst finish, the same finish seen on a J-45 Standard; the Gibson label found on the inside of this Hummingbird says "Hummingbird, Fuller's Vintage Edition". All the other specifications, such as materials and tuning keys, are the same as the specifications of the standard model; the Hummingbird Artist model is quite different. It is an Guitar Center exclusive release, it forward shifted bracing of the Songwriter, only in mahogany. It does not have a Hummingbird pickguard. An L. R. Baggs Element Active pickup system is installed; this model has a washed heritage cherry finish. The Hummingbird Pro model was released by Guitar Center and Musicians Friend but is available from other dealers, specially in Europe, it has the same shape as the Artist model. A cutaway model is also
Standard Chinese known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese, or Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese, the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order, it has more initial consonants but final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. There are two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters.
Many characters are identical between the two systems. In Chinese, the standard variety is known as: 普通话 in the People's Republic of China, as well as Hong Kong and Macau. Standard Chinese is commonly referred to by generic names for "Chinese", notably 中文. In total, there have been known over 20 various names for the language; the term Guoyu had been used by non-Han rulers of China to refer to their languages, but in 1909 the Qing education ministry applied it to Mandarin, a lingua franca based on northern Chinese varieties, proclaiming it as the new "national language". The name Putonghua has a long, albeit unofficial, history, it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese. For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or "common tongue/speech", was conceptually different from the Guoyu, or "national language"; the former was a national prestige variety. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, different.
Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called "the common speech of the modern man", the spoken language adopted as a national lingua franca by conventional usage; the use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai and Lu Xun influenced the People's Republic of China government to adopt that term to describe Mandarin in 1956. Prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the official term for Standard Chinese; the term Guoyu however, is less used in the PRC, because declaring a Beijing dialect-based standard to be the national language would be deemed unfair to speakers of other varieties and to the ethnic minorities. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca. During the government of a pro-Taiwan independence coalition, Taiwan officials promoted a different reading of Guoyu as all of the "national languages", meaning Hokkien and Formosan as well as Standard Chinese.
Huayu, or "language of the Chinese nation" simply meant "Chinese language", was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name "Huayu" to refer to Mandarin; this name avoids choosing a side between the alternative names of Putonghua and Guoyu, which came to have political significance after their usages diverged along political lines between the PRC and the ROC. It incorporates the notion that Mandarin is not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live. Hanyu, or "language of the Han people", is another umbrella term used for Chinese. However, it has confusingly two different meanings: Standard Chinese; this term, as well as Hànzú, is a modern concept. A related concept is Hànzì; the term "Mandarin" is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire. The Chinese term is obsolete as a name for the standard language, but is used by linguists to refer to the major group of Mandarin dialects spoken natively across most of northern and southwestern China.
In English, "Mandarin" may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name "Modern Standard Mandarin" is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the shared language from other northern and historic dialects; the Chinese have different languages in different provinces, to such an extent
Stanley Huang is a Taiwanese-American singer and actor. Huang was born in Taipei and raised in Orange County, California, he is cousin of Steven Lin. His other cousin is Hollywood film producer Dan Lin. Huang started his career out in the boyband L. A. Boyz with his older brother and his cousin, Steven Lin. After leaving the band, Huang started a solo career with his debut album, Your Side, in 2000 and has made five studio albums as of 2008, one compilation album in 2003. Most notable are Circus Monkey and Shades of My Mind; the latter garnered him several nominations at the 16th Golden Melody Awards, Taiwan's version of the Grammys. He ended up winning the Best Male Mandarin Artist award, beating media favorites such as Leehom Wang and Jay Chou. Over his career, Huang has collaborated with several singers, including Elva Hsiao, Rene Liu, Jolin Tsai. Huang has remained active in writing and producing songs for his older brother's hip-hop band, Machi. Huang has received criticism for his music. In 2006, Huang wrote and featured in Jolin Tsai song, "Nice Guy", for the 2006 album Dancing Diva, after signing to Capitol Music.
Aside from music, Huang participated in the provocative Taiwanese film, Twenty Something Taipei, about the clubbing scene of Taipei. He has been in featured in a 1992 video called Modern Republic when he was part of the L. A. Boyz, he has published a book, Between Stanley, that chronicles and tells the story of being in caught in between two worlds, one of his life in LA and his roots in Taipei. 3 December 2008: 皮在癢 25 August 2011: 向完美說不 16 March 2010: 成吉思汗 – Genghis Khan 5 December 2010: 我是明星 – I'm a Star 14 March 2010: Go, Go Lala Go! Theme Song 5 December 2011: 超新星 – Supernova, Dear Enemy Theme Song 2007: I Love Super! with Show Lo, Jolin Tsai, Rainie Yang. Stanley Huang @ Warner Taiwan Stanley Huang's blog OtherStanley Huang on IMDb Encyclopedia of Asian Stars Profile
Taiwan the Republic of China, is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the northeast, the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state and largest economy, not a member of the United Nations; the island of Taiwan was inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years before the 17th century, when Dutch colonialists opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, ceded to Japan in 1895. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China, which had overthrown and succeeded the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan; the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the loss of the mainland to the Communists and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC government continued to claim to be the legitimate representative of China, since 1950 its effective jurisdiction has been limited to Taiwan and several small islands.
In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of industrialisation. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system; as a founding member, the ROC represented China in the UN until it was replaced by the PRC in 1971. The PRC has claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognises the ROC; as of 2019, Taiwan maintains official ties with 16 out of 193 UN member states. Most international organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Most major powers maintain unofficial ties with Taiwan through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. In Taiwan, the major political division is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a Chinese identity contrasted with those aspiring to independence and promoting a Taiwanese identity, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.
Taiwan is a high-income advanced economy, with a skilled and educated workforce. It has the 22nd-largest economy in the world, its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy, it is urbanised, is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with most of the population concentrated on the western coast. The state is ranked in terms of civil and political liberties, health care and human development. Various names for the island of Taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period; the name Formosa dates from 1542, when Portuguese sailors sighted an uncharted island and noted it on their maps as Ilha Formosa. The name Formosa "replaced all others in European literature" and remained in common use among English speakers into the 20th century. In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan", after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe Taivoan people, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Teijoan, etc.
This name was adopted into the Chinese vernacular as the name of the sandbar and nearby area. The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, seen in various forms in Chinese historical records; the area occupied by modern-day Tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name became official as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. Through its rapid development the entire Formosan mainland became known as "Taiwan". In his Daoyi Zhilüe, Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it closest to Penghu. Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; the name appears in the Book of Sui and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or Luzon. The official name of the state is the "Republic of China".
Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne, the name was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had withdrawn to Taiwan upon losing the Chinese Civil War, it was referred to as "Nationalist China" to differentiate it from "Communist China", it was a member of the United Nations representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts ROC government publications, the name is written as "
The D5000 is a 12.3-megapixel DX-format DSLR Nikon F-mount camera, announced by Nikon on 14 April 2009. The D5000 has many features in common with the D90, it features a 2.7-inch 230,000-dot resolution tilt-and-swivel LCD monitor, live view, ISO 200–3200, 3D tracking Multi-CAM1000 11-point AF system, active D-Lighting system and automatic correction of lateral chromatic aberration. The D5000 seems to have been discontinued in November 2010, it was the second Nikon DSLR camera to feature movie mode after the feature was introduced by the D90, though this capability has now been extended to other models as well, such as the D300S and the D3S. Some newer models are capable of 1080p 24 frame/s video, such as the Nikon D3100, Nikon D5100 and the Nikon D7000; as with the D90, each uninterrupted movie shot at 720p is limited to 5 minutes duration and 20 minutes for all other resolutions. One-button Live View mode face detection auto-focus modes. Nikon's 12.3-megapixel Nikon DX format CMOS sensor. Nikon EXPEED image/video processor.
D-Movie mode. Selectable from 320 x 216 pixels, 640 x 424 pixels or 1,280 x 720 pixels. Active D-Lighting. Automatic correction of lateral chromatic aberration for JPEGs. Correction-data is additionally stored in RAW-files and used by Nikon Capture NX, View NX and some other RAW tools. Auto lens distortion correction and Perspective Control as well as image rotation via playback menu 2.7-inch articulated 230,000-dot resolution TFT LCD with +180/-90 degree tilt and 180 degree rotation. Live View shooting mode with Contrast Detect and subject tracking auto focus. Continuous Drive up to 4 frames per second. 3D Color Matrix Metering II with Scene Recognition System. 3D Tracking Multi-CAM 1000 autofocus sensor module with 11 AF points. ISO sensitivity 200 to 3200. Nikon F-mount lenses. I-TTL flash exposure system without built-in wireless control. Compatibility: SB-400, SB-600, SB-700, SB-800, SB-900, SB-910, R1C1 and third party manufacturers Auto scene recognition mode with 19 pre-programmed scenes. Inbuilt time-lapse photography intervalometer Quiet shooting mode.
Shutter rated to 100,000 cycles. Built-in sensor cleaning system and airflow control system. HDMI HD video output. Support for GP-1 GPS geotagging unit. File formats: JPEG, NEF, AVI. EN-EL9a Lithium-ion Battery, Battery Life approx.: 510 shots. Like the Nikon D40, Nikon D40X, Nikon D60, Nikon D3000, Nikon D3100 and Nikon D5100, the D5000 has no in-body autofocus motor, automatic autofocus requires a lens with an integrated autofocus-motor. With any other lenses the camera's electronic rangefinder can be used to manually adjust focus. Can mount unmodified A-lenses with support of the electronic rangefinder and without metering. Dxomark published a detailed analysis where they rated the sensor of the D5000 in terms of image noise, dynamic range and color depth about 2/3 stops better than the Canon 500D / T1i, visible in real-life comparisons made by Camera Labs. DxOmark's camera sensor ranking places the D5000 above its competitors and higher priced cameras like the Canon EOS-1D Mark III and Canon EOS 5D due to a high dynamic range.
The Nikon D5000 has been tested by many independent reviewers. In late July 2009, there was a recall due to a problem, discovered with the camera's power systems; the flaw would cause the system to cease powering on, both when running on battery or wall outlet power. For affected serial numbers, see Nikon advisory; the service includes fast shipping both ways to the repair shop with most people receiving their fixed camera within 2 weeks. On August 12, 2009, Nikon notified that some registered users of the Nikon D5000 who sent their camera in for repairs would need to send it in for additional repairs. List of Nikon F-mount lenses with integrated autofocus motors Nikon D5000 Product Page at Nikon Global
Mayday (Taiwanese band)
Mayday, is a Taiwanese band that debuted in 1999 with five members, Ashin, Stone and Guan You. So Band, they came to be known as Mayday in 1997, with the name originating from Masa's online nickname. Mayday won the Golden Melody Award for Best Musical Group in 2001, 2004, 2009 and 2012. Mayday evolved from So Band, formed by Ashin and the first drummer Qian You Da in 1995 while they were studying in The Affiliated Senior High School of National Taiwan Normal University, they were joined by Masa and Stone, who were attending the same school. After graduation, the members went to different universities but continued to perform in pubs and eateries, they were actively involved in promoting the growing rock music trend in Taiwan. In 1997, the band registered under the moniker Mayday; this would become the official name of the musical crew. Shortly after participating in the Formoz Festival, the band began to send demo tapes to various record companies in the hope of sealing a record deal, their demo impressed Rock Records executive Jonathan Lee who described them as "the ones who would usher in the sound of the future".
As a result, they signed their first record deal with Rock Records in 1998. In the same year, they took part in the release of the Taiwan Independent Compilation Album 《ㄞ國歌曲》by indie music label TCM which included their first studio recording Motor Rock《軋車》. In June 1998, they released Embrace《擁抱》 compilation album for which they took on most of the songwriting and recording duties. In 1999, after their third drummer Robert from Loh Tsui Kweh Commune had left, the ex-member from a band called "whynot" - Guan You joined the band and completed Mayday, they went on to release their first full-length studio album Mayday's First Album《第一張創作專輯》under Rock Records on 7 July 1999. Their debut received critical acclaim, they gained a following in Taiwan, it went on to sell more than 300,000 copies, a considerable feat for a new band in the pessimistic and saturated music industry. They were nominated for the 11th Golden Melody Awards under the category of Best Band; the tracks Peter and Mary 《志明與春嬌》and Embrace 《擁抱》 caught on among the youth, became the top songs on the KTV Chart.
Peter and Mary was one of the top ten songs of the year according to the Association of Music Workers in Taiwan. In fact and Mary has been acknowledged by Ashin as the "song that brought them from the north of Taiwan to the south, allowing everyone to recognize Mayday." On 28 August, they held their first large-scale performance called The 168th Performance 「第168場演唱會」, cementing their position as one of the rising bands in Taiwan. The band's second album Viva Love 《愛情萬歲》was released 7 July 2000. Sales of Viva Love exceeded their previous album. Additionally, Viva Love won them the "Best Band" award at the 12th Golden Melody Awards. Mayday held a series of concerts called Hundred Thousand Youths Standing Up 《十萬青年站出來演唱會》 in Taipei City, Changhua City, Kaohsiung City. In 2001, Mayday worked for the first time, on a movie soundtrack and accompanying score for the movie Migratory Bird 《候鳥》which starred Rene Liu and Huang Pin Yuan. Two months Mayday released their third album People Life Ocean Wild 《人生海海》, sales of which hit more than 35,000 copies after just a month.
In view of Masa's impending military call up, Mayday decided to take a temporary hiatus at the height of their popularity. This led to their farewell concerts titled Where Are You Going? 「你要去哪裡」from 18 August 2001 to 1 September 2001. Tuo La Ku and Japanese rock band Glay were special guests at the concert. Memorably for many fans, guitarist Stone chose the occasion to propose to his girlfriend and the proposal song was included in the live concert album. In November 2001, the members temporarily disbanded with Masa going into the military, Stone heading to England to learn production techniques and Guan You to Los Angeles in order to hone his drumming skills. Meanwhile and Ashin remained in Taiwan with Rock Records, taking up recording and production duties for other label mates. During their hiatus, Mayday released the autobiographical documentary titled The Wings of Dream 《搖滾本事》, with ticket sales hitting more than NT1.2 million in three days. They released an accompanying soundtrack. After Masa's official release from the military, the band regrouped and made a return to the music industry.
To mark the event, Mayday held their City of the Sky 《天空之城》 concert on 16 August 2004 at the Taipei Municipal Stadium. The concert attracted nearly 40,000 fans, which broke the record for the most concert-goers in Taiwan, a record held by Michael Jackson. On 11 November 2003, the band released their 4th studio album Time Machine 《時光機》. Sales of the album hit more than 15,000 within two days, with Mayday seeing no decline in their popularity despite their hiatus. Time Machine won Mayday their second Best Musical Group award at the 15th Golden Melody Awards. In the summer of 2004, Mayday participated in the making of the soundtrack for the movie Love of May, in which they presented new arrangements of some of their old songs. Stone had a supporting role in the movie. 5 November 2004 saw the release of their critically acclaimed 5th studio album God's Children Are All Dancing/Flying Angels With A Falling Soul 《神的孩子都在跳舞》. This album used the simultaneous recording technique to create the distinctive "band" sound of their past albums and was specia
A Grammy Award, or Grammy, is an award presented by The Recording Academy to recognize achievements in the music industry. The annual presentation ceremony features performances by prominent artists, the presentation of those awards that have a more popular interest; the Grammys are the second of the Big Three major music awards held annually. It shares recognition of the music industry as that of the other performance awards such as the Academy Awards, the Emmy Awards, the Tony Awards, the Game Awards; the first Grammy Awards ceremony was held on May 4, 1959, to honor and respect the musical accomplishments by performers for the year 1958. Following the 2011 ceremony, the Academy overhauled many Grammy Award categories for 2012; the 61st Annual Grammy Awards, honoring the best achievements from October 1, 2017 to September 30, 2018, were held on February 10, 2019, at the Staples Center in Los Angeles. The Grammys had their origin in the Hollywood Walk of Fame project in the 1950s; as the recording executives chosen for the Walk of Fame committee worked at compiling a list of important recording industry people who might qualify for a Walk of Fame star, they realized there were many more people who were leaders in their business who would never earn a star on Hollywood Boulevard.
The music executives decided to rectify this by creating an award given by their industry similar to the Oscars and the Emmys. This was the beginning of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. After it was decided to create such an award, there was still a question of, they settled on using the name of the invention of Emile Berliner, the gramophone, for the awards, which were first given for the year 1958. The first award ceremony was held in two locations on May 4, 1959 - Beverly Hilton Hotel in Beverly Hills California, Park Sheraton Hotel in New York City, 28 Grammys were awarded; the number of awards given grew and fluctuated over the years with categories added and removed, at one time reaching over 100. The second Grammy Awards held in 1959, was the first ceremony to be televised, but the ceremony was not aired live until the 13th Annual Grammy Awards in 1971; the gold-plated trophies, each depicting a gilded gramophone, are made and assembled by hand by Billings Artworks in Ridgway, Colorado.
In 1990 the original Grammy design was revamped, changing the traditional soft lead for a stronger alloy less prone to damage, making the trophy bigger and grander. Billings developed a zinc alloy named grammium, trademarked; the trophies with the recipient's name engraved on them are not available until after the award announcements, so "stunt" trophies are re-used each year for the broadcast. By February 2009, a total of 7,578 Grammy trophies had been awarded; the "General Field" are four awards. Record of the Year is awarded to the performer and the production team of a single song if other than the performer. Album of the Year is awarded to the performer and the production team of a full album if other than the performer. Song of the Year is awarded to the writer/composer of a single song. Best New Artist is awarded to a promising breakthrough performer who releases, during the Eligibility Year, the first recording that establishes the public identity of that artist; the only two artists to win all four of these awards are Christopher Cross, who won all four in 1980, Adele, who won the Best New Artist award in 2009 and the other three in 2012 and 2017.
Other awards are given for performance and production in specific genres, as well as for other contributions such as artwork and video. Special awards are given for longer-lasting contributions to the music industry; because of the large number of award categories, the desire to feature several performances by various artists, only the ones with the most popular interest - about 10 to 12, including the four General Field categories and one or two categories in the most popular music genres - are presented directly at the televised award ceremony. The many other Grammy trophies are presented in a pre-telecast'Premiere Ceremony' earlier in the afternoon before the Grammy Awards telecast. On April 6, 2011, The Recording Academy announced a drastic overhaul of many Grammy Award categories for 2012; the number of categories was cut from 109 to 78. The most important change was the elimination of the distinction between male and female soloists and between collaborations and duo/groups in various genre fields.
Several categories for instrumental soloists were discontinued. Recordings in these categories now fall under the general categories for best solo performances. In the rock field, the separate categories for hard rock and metal albums were combined and the Best Rock Instrumental Performance category was eliminated due to a waning number of entries. In R&B, the distinction between best contemporary R&B album and other R&B albums has been eliminated, they now feature in general Best R&B Album category. In rap, the categories for best rap soloist and best rap duo or group have been merged into the new Best Rap Performance category; the most eliminations occurred in the roots category. Up to and including 2011, there were separate categories for various regional American music forms, such as Hawaiian music, Native American music and Zydeco/Cajun music. Due to the low number