South Park (season 2)
The second season of South Park, an American animated television series created by Trey Parker and Matt Stone, began airing on April 1, 1998. The second season concluded after 18 episodes on January 20, 1999. While most of the episodes were directed by series creator Trey Parker, Season 2 includes two episodes directed by Eric Stough. Trey Parker as Stan Marsh, Eric Cartman, Randy Marsh, Mr. Garrison, Clyde Donovan, Mr. Hankey, Mr. Mackey, Stephen Stotch, Jimmy Valmer, Timmy Burch and Phillip. Matt Stone as Kyle Broflovski, Kenny McCormick, Butters Stotch, Gerald Broflovski, Stuart McCormick, Craig Tucker, Jimbo Kern, Tweek Tweak and Jesus. Mary Kay Bergman as Liane Cartman, Sheila Broflovski, Shelly Marsh, Sharon Marsh, Mrs. McCormick and Wendy Testaburger. Isaac Hayes as Chef Henry Winkler as the Kid-Eating Monster. Jay Leno as Himself. Brent Musburger as Scuzzlebutt's leg. Jonathan Katz as Dr. Katz Dian Bachar as the Cow Days' announcer Multiple musicians and bands made guest appearances in the episode "Chef Aid".
These include: Joe Strummer Rancid Ozzy Osbourne Ween Primus Elton John Meat Loaf Rick James DMX Devo Special FeaturesIntroductions by Trey Parker and Matt Stone in 12 episodes. Documentary: "Goin' Down to South Park" "Chocolate Salty Balls" music videoRegion 1 – June 3, 2003 Region 2 – October 22, 2007 Region 4 – October 4, 2007 South Park Studios – official website with streaming video of full episodes; the Comedy Network – full episodes for Canada
South Park (season 15)
The fifteenth season of the American animated sitcom South Park began airing on Comedy Central on April 27, 2011 and ended on November 16, 2011. In response to reactions to the mid-season finale episode "You're Getting Old", which seemed to insinuate that creators Trey Parker and Matt Stone were wrapping up the series, Comedy Central proclaimed through the media that South Park was renewed for two more seasons, the duo were signed through 2013. Shortly before the airing of the season finale episode "The Poor Kid", South Park was extended again until 2016, taking the show to 20 seasons. Parker was the director and writer for all episodes, Robert Lopez was the writer in this eleventh episode for the fifteenth season. South Park Studios – official website with streaming video of full episodes
South Park is an American adult animated sitcom created by Trey Parker and Matt Stone and developed by Brian Graden for the Comedy Central television network. The show revolves around four boys—Stan Marsh, Kyle Broflovski, Eric Cartman, Kenny McCormick—and their exploits in and around the titular Colorado town. Much like The Simpsons, South Park uses a large ensemble cast of recurring characters, it became infamous for its profanity and dark, surreal humor that satirizes a wide range of topics towards a mature audience. Parker and Stone developed the show from The Spirit of two consecutive animated shorts; the latter became one of the first Internet viral videos leading to South Park's production. Since its debut on August 13, 1997, 297 episodes of South Park have been broadcast, it debuted with great success earning the highest ratings of any basic cable program. Subsequent ratings have varied but it remains one of Comedy Central's highest rated shows, is slated to air in new episodes through 2019.
The pilot episode was produced using cutout animation, leading to all subsequent episodes being produced with computer animation that emulated the cutout technique. Parker and Stone perform most of the voice acting for the show's male characters. Since 2000, each episode has been written and produced in the week preceding its broadcast, with Parker serving as the primary writer and director; the show's twenty-second season premiered on September 26, 2018. South Park has received numerous accolades, including five Primetime Emmy Awards, a Peabody Award, numerous inclusions in various publications' lists of greatest television shows; the show's popularity resulted in a feature-length theatrical film, South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut, released in June 1999, less than two years after the show's premiere, became a commercial and critical success garnering a nomination for an Academy Award. In 2013, TV Guide ranked South Park the tenth Greatest TV Cartoon of All Time; the show follows the exploits of four boys, Stan Marsh, Kyle Broflovski, Eric Cartman and Kenny McCormick.
The boys live in the fictional small town of South Park, located within the real-life South Park basin in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado. The town is home to an assortment of frequent characters such as students, elementary school staff, other various residents, who tend to regard South Park as a bland, quiet place to live. Prominent settings on the show include the local elementary school, bus stop, various neighborhoods and the surrounding snowy landscape, actual Colorado landmarks, the shops and businesses along the town's main street, all of which are based on the appearance of similar locations in Fairplay, Colorado. Stan is portrayed as the everyman of the group, as the show's website describes him as an "average, American 4th grader". Kyle is the lone Jew among the group, his portrayal in this role is dealt with satirically. Stan is modeled after Parker, they are best friends, their friendship, symbolically intended to reflect Parker and Stone's friendship, is a common topic throughout the series.
Eric Cartman is loud and amoral portrayed as an antagonist. His anti-Semitic attitude has resulted in a progressive rivalry with Kyle, although the deeper reason is the strong clash between Kyle's strong morality and Cartman's complete lack of such. Kenny, who comes from a poor family, wears his parka hood so that it covers most of his face and muffles his speech. During the show's first five seasons, Kenny would die in nearly every episode before returning in the next with little-to-no definitive explanation given, he was written out of the show's sixth season in 2002, re-appearing in the season finale. Since Kenny's death has been used by the show's creators. During the show's first 58 episodes, the boys were in the third grade. In the season four episode "4th Grade", they entered the fourth grade, but have remained there since. Plots are set in motion by events, ranging from the typical to the supernatural and extraordinary, which happen in the town; the boys act as the voice of reason when these events cause panic or incongruous behavior among the adult populace, who are customarily depicted as irrational and prone to vociferation.
The boys are frequently confused by the contradictory and hypocritical behavior of their parents and other adults, perceive them as having distorted views on morality and society. Each episode opens with a tongue-in-cheek all persons fictitious disclaimer: "All characters and events in this show—even those based on real people—are fictional. All celebrity voices are impersonated.....poorly. The following program contains coarse language and due to its content it should not be viewed by anyone."South Park was the first weekly program to be rated TV-MA, is intended for adult audiences. The boys and most other child characters use strong profanity, with only the most taboo words being bleeped during a typical broadcast. According to Parker and Stone, when little boys are alone, that's how they talk. South Park makes use of carnivalesque and absurdist techniques, numerous running gags, sexual content, offhand pop-cultural references, satirical portrayal of celebrities. Early episodes featured more slapstick-style humor.
While social satire had been used on the show earlier on, it became more prevalent as the series progressed, with the show retaining some of its focus on the boys' fondness of scatological humor in an attempt to remind adult viewers "what it was like to be eight years old." Park
The term multiculturalism has a range of meanings within the contexts of sociology, of political philosophy, of colloquial use. In sociology and in everyday usage, it is a synonym for "ethnic pluralism", with the two terms used interchangeably, for example, a cultural pluralism in which various ethnic groups collaborate and enter into a dialogue with one another without having to sacrifice their particular identities, it can describe a mixed ethnic community area where multiple cultural traditions exist or a single country within which they do. Groups associated with an aboriginal or autochthonous ethnic group and foreigner ethnic groups are the focus. In reference to sociology, multiculturalism is the end-state of either a natural or artificial process and occurs on either a large national scale or on a smaller scale within a nation's communities. On a smaller scale this can occur artificially when a jurisdiction is established or expanded by amalgamating areas with two or more different cultures.
On a large scale, it can occur as a result of either legal or illegal migration to and from different jurisdictions around the world. Multiculturalism as a political philosophy involves policies which vary widely, it has been described as as a "cultural mosaic" -- in contrast to a melting pot. In the political philosophy of multiculturalism, ideas are focused on the ways in which societies are either believed to or should, respond to cultural and religious differences, it is associated with "identity politics", "the politics of difference", "the politics of recognition". It is a matter of economic interests and political power. In more recent times political multiculturalist ideologies have been expanding in their use to include and define disadvantaged groups such as African Americans, LGBT, with arguments focusing on ethnic and religious minorities, minority nations, indigenous peoples and the disabled, it is within this context in which the term is most understood and the broadness and scope of the definition, as well as its practical use, has been the subject of serious debate.
Most debates over multiculturalism center around whether or not multiculturalism is the appropriate way to deal with diversity and immigrant integration. The arguments regarding the perceived rights to a multicultural education include the proposition that it acts as a way to demand recognition of aspects of a group's culture subordination and its entire experience in contrast to a melting pot or non-multicultural societies; the term multiculturalism is most used in reference to Western nation-states, which had achieved a de facto single national identity during the 18th and/or 19th centuries. Multiculturalism has been official policy in several Western nations since the 1970s, for reasons that varied from country to country, including the fact that many of the great cities of the Western world are made of a mosaic of cultures; the Canadian government has been described as the instigator of multicultural ideology because of its public emphasis on the social importance of immigration. The Canadian Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism is referred to as the origins of modern political awareness of multiculturalism.
In the Western English-speaking countries, multiculturalism as an official national policy started in Canada in 1971, followed by Australia in 1973 where it is maintained today. It was adopted as official policy by most member-states of the European Union. Right-of-center governments in several European states – notably the Netherlands and Denmark – have reversed the national policy and returned to an official monoculturalism. A similar reversal is the subject of debate in the United Kingdom, among others, due to evidence of incipient segregation and anxieties over "home-grown" terrorism. Several heads-of-state or heads-of-government have expressed doubts about the success of multicultural policies: The United Kingdom's ex-Prime Minister David Cameron, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Australia's ex-prime minister John Howard, Spanish ex-prime minister Jose Maria Aznar and French ex-president Nicolas Sarkozy have voiced concerns about the effectiveness of their multicultural policies for integrating immigrants.
Many nation-states in Africa and the Americas are culturally diverse and are'multicultural' in a descriptive sense. In some, communalism is a major political issue; the policies adopted by these states have parallels with multiculturalist policies in the Western world, but the historical background is different, the goal may be a mono-cultural or mono-ethnic nation-building – for instance in the Malaysian government's attempt to create a'Malaysian race' by 2020. Multiculturalism is seen by its supporters as a fairer system that allows people to express who they are within a society, more tolerant and that adapts better to social issues, they argue that culture is not one definable thing based on one race or religion, but rather the result of multiple factors that change as the world changes. Support for modern multiculturalism stems from the changes in Western societies after World War II, in what Susanne Wessendorf calls the "human rights revolution", in which the horrors of institutionalized racism and ethnic cleansing became impossible to ignore in the wake of the Holocaust.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. The use of the term "racism" does not fall under a single definition; the ideology underlying racism includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different due to their social behavior and their innate capacities, as well as the idea that they can be ranked as inferior or superior. Historical examples of institutional racism include the Holocaust, the apartheid regime in South Africa and segregation in the United States, slavery in Latin America. Racism was an aspect of the social organization of many colonial states and empires. While the concepts of race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science, the two terms have a long history of equivalence in both popular usage and older social science literature. "Ethnicity" is used in a sense close to one traditionally attributed to "race": the division of human groups based on qualities assumed to be essential or innate to the group.
Therefore and racial discrimination are used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, independent of whether these differences are described as racial. According to a United Nations convention on racial discrimination, there is no distinction between the terms "racial" and "ethnic" discrimination; the UN convention further concludes that superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally condemnable unjust and dangerous. It declared that there is no justification for racial discrimination, anywhere, in theory or in practice. Racist ideology can manifest in many aspects of social life. Racism can be present in social actions, practices, or political systems that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices or laws. Associated social actions may include nativism, otherness, hierarchical ranking and related social phenomena. In the 19th century, many scientists subscribed to the belief that the human population can be divided into races.
The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, i.e. subscribing to the belief that the human population can or should be classified into races with differential abilities and dispositions, which in turn may motivate a political ideology in which rights and privileges are differentially distributed based on racial categories. The origin of the root word "race" is not clear. Linguists agree that it came to the English language from Middle French, but there is no such agreement on how it came into Latin-based languages. A recent proposal is that it derives from the Arabic ra's, which means "head, origin" or the Hebrew rosh, which has a similar meaning. Early race theorists held the view that some races were inferior to others and they believed that the differential treatment of races was justified; these early theories guided pseudo-scientific research assumptions. Today, most biologists and sociologists reject a taxonomy of races in favor of more specific and/or empirically verifiable criteria, such as geography, ethnicity, or a history of endogamy.
To date, there is little evidence in human genome research which indicates that race can be defined in such a way as to be useful in determining a genetic classification of humans. An entry in the Oxford English Dictionary defines racialism as "n earlier term than racism, but now superseded by it", cites it in a 1902 quote; the revised Oxford English Dictionary cites the shortened term "racism" in a quote from the following year, 1903. It was first defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "he theory that distinctive human characteristics and abilities are determined by race". By the end of World War II, racism had acquired the same supremacist connotations associated with racialism: racism now implied racial discrimination, racial supremacism, a harmful intent; as its history indicates, the popular use of the word racism is recent. The word came into widespread usage in the Western world in the 1930s, when it was used to describe the social and political ideology of Nazism, which saw "race" as a given political unit.
It is agreed that racism existed before the coinage of the word, but there is not a wide agreement on a single definition of what racism is and what it is not. Today, some scholars of racism prefer to use the concept in the plural racisms, in order to emphasize its many different forms that do not fall under a single definition, they argue that different forms of racism have characterized different historical periods and geographical areas. Garner summarizes different existing definitions of racism and identifies three common elements contained in those definitions of racism. First, a historical, hierarchical power relationship between groups. Though many countries around the globe have passed laws related to race and discrimination, the first significant international human rights instrument developed by the United Nations
South Park (season 1)
The first season of the animated television series South Park ran for 13 episodes from August 13, 1997 to February 25, 1998 on the American network Comedy Central. The creators Trey Parker and Matt Stone wrote most of the season's episodes; the narrative revolves around four children—Stan Marsh, Kyle Broflovski, Eric Cartman and Kenny McCormick—and their unusual experiences in the titular mountain town. South Park originated from Parker and Stone's 1992 animated short, Frosty; the low-budget, crudely made film featured prototypes of South Park's main characters and was followed in 1995 by another short film, Jesus vs. Santa; the latter became popular and was shared over the Internet, which led to talks for a series with representatives from Fox Network and Comedy Central. It debuted on the latter with an initial run of six episodes; the complete season was released on DVD in November 2002. The first season was a ratings success for Comedy Central; the Nielsen ratings rose from 1.3 to 6.4 from the first to the tenth episode.
Several episodes received award nominations, including for a 1998 Emmy Award in the "Outstanding Animated Program" and a GLAAD Award in the "Outstanding TV – Individual Episode" category for the episode "Big Gay Al's Big Gay Boat Ride". During the season, South Park won a CableACE Award for "Best Animated Series" and was nominated for a 1998 Annie Award in the "Outstanding Achievement in an Animated Primetime or Late Night Television Program"; the show was a financial success for Comedy Central and helped the network transform into "a cable industry power overnight". Despite this, critics gave the season mixed reviews. Parents Television Council rated it so offensive that it "shouldn't have been made": "it doesn't just push the envelope. Trey Parker as Stan Marsh, Eric Cartman, Randy Marsh, Mr. Garrison, Clyde Donovan, Mr. Hankey, Mr. Mackey, Stephen Stotch, Jimmy Valmer, Timmy Burch and Phillip. Matt Stone as Kyle Broflovski, Kenny McCormick, Butters Stotch, Gerald Broflovski, Stuart McCormick, Craig Tucker, Jimbo Kern, Tweek Tweak and Jesus.
Mary Kay Bergman as Liane Cartman, Sheila Broflovski, Shelly Marsh, Sharon Marsh, Mrs. McCormick and Wendy Testaburger. Isaac Hayes as Chef George Clooney as Sparky. Michael Buffer as Himself. Natasha Henstridge as Ms. Ellen. Robert Smith as Himself. Jay Leno as Kitty; the idea for South Park originated in 1992 when creators Trey Parker and Matt Stone met in a film class as students at the University of Colorado. They discussed filming a three-minute short film involving a boy who befriended a talking piece of feces named Mr. Hankey. Although such a short was never made and Stone created a Christmas-related animated short known as "Jesus vs. Frosty"; the crude, low-budget animation featured prototypes for the main characters of South Park, including Cartman and Kyle. Fox Broadcasting Company executive Brian Graden saw the film and in 1995 commissioned Parker and Stone for $1,200 to create a second short film that he could send to his friends as a Christmas video-card. Titled The Spirit of Christmas, but known as "Jesus vs.
Santa", the short resembled the style of the series more closely. In 1997, The Spirit of Christmas won the Los Angeles Films Critics Association award for "Best Animation", thus further bringing the two filmmakers to the attention of industry representatives; the "Jesus vs. Santa" video was copied and shared over the Internet. George Clooney was reported to have made 300 copies for his friends, the short was subsequently regarded as the first viral video; when the shorts began to generate interest for a possible television series and Stone conceived the idea of a South Park-like show with four child characters but planned to call it The Mr. Hankey Show by featuring a talking stool named Mr. Hankey as the main protagonist, they pitched the idea, but Brian Graden rejected it and said, according to Stone, "I'm not putting poo on my network." Parker and Stone adapted their original idea into a show revolving around four children in the South Park town, dropping Mr. Hankey as a protagonist but planning to use the character in the future in a minor supporting role.
Doug Herzog from Comedy Central saw the Jesus vs. Santa short and considered it to be "literally the funniest thing'd seen," and requested Parker and Stone to develop a show for his network. During the negotiations and Stone brought up the idea of a Mr. Hankey episode, with Parker claiming to have asked "one thing we have to know before we go any further: how do you feel about talking poo?" The network's executives were receptive to the idea, which would be one of the main reasons Parker and Stone decided to sign on with the channel. The first episode of the series, "Cartman Gets an Anal Probe", debuted on Comedy Central on August 13, 1997, while Mr. Hankey debuted a few months in the ninth episode, "Mr. Hankey, the Christmas Poo"; the pilot episode received poor results from test audiences. Parker conceded that regarding the language, he and Stone felt pressure to live up to their previous two shorts and "tried to push things... maybe further than we should." In contrast, they allowed subsequent episodes to "be more natural", focusing more on making fun of topics considered taboo "without just throwing a bunch of dirty words
South Park (season 4)
The fourth season of South Park, an American animated television series created by Trey Parker and Matt Stone, began airing on April 5, 2000. The fourth season concluded after airing 17 episodes on December 20, 2000; the first four episodes in this season has the year 2000 at the end of their episode titles. As explained in the FAQ section on the official website: "When the year 2000 was coming up, everyone and their brother had'2000' in the titles of their products and TV shows. America was obsessed with 2000, so Trey Parker put'2000' in the titles to make fun of the ubiquity of the phrase."This is the first season not to feature Mary Kay Bergman as a series regular, who provided many of the female voices on the show. Bergman committed suicide on November 11, 1999. Eliza Schneider and Mona Marshall replaced Mary Kay Bergman in season four after her suicide in 1999 meant that there were no female cast members; this is the first season to feature Eliza Schneider and Mona Marshall as a series regulars, who would go on to provide many of the female voices on the show.
They replaced Mary Kay Bergman, who committed suicide on November 11, 1999. Trey Parker as Stan Marsh, Eric Cartman, Randy Marsh, Mr. Garrison, Clyde Donovan, Mr. Hankey, Mr. Mackey, Stephen Stotch, Jimmy Valmer, Timmy Burch and Phillip. Matt Stone as Kyle Broflovski, Kenny McCormick, Butters Stotch, Gerald Broflovski, Stuart McCormick, Craig Tucker, Jimbo Kern and Jesus. Eliza Schneider as Liane Cartman, Sheila Broflovski, Shelly Marsh, Sharon Marsh, Mayor McDaniels, Mrs. McCormick, Wendy Testaburger, Principal Victoria and Ms. Crabtree. Mona Marshall as Sheila Broflovski and Linda Stotch. Isaac Hayes as Chef. Richard Belzer as Loogie Cheech Marin as Carlos Ramirez Tommy Chong as Chief Running Pinto Dian Bachar Malcolm McDowell as narrator Louis Price as Cornwallis's singing voice South Park Studios – official website with streaming video of full episodes; the Comedy Network – full episodes for Canada