Cheilitis is inflammation of the lips. This inflammation may include the vermilion border, or the labial mucosa; the skin and the vermilion border are more involved, as the mucosa is less affected by inflammatory and allergic reactions. It is a general term, there are many recognized types and different causes. Cheilitis can be either chronic. Most cheilitis is caused by exogenous factors such as acute sun exposure. Patch testing may identify allergens. Chapped lips are characterized by cracking and peeling of the skin of the lips, are one of the most common types of cheilitis. While both lips may be affected, the lower lip is the most common site. There may be burning or the formation of large, painful cracks when the lips are stretched. Chronic cheilitis simplex can progress to bleeding. Lip licking, biting, or rubbing habits are involved. Counterintuitively, constant licking of the lips causes drying and irritation, the mucosa splits or cracks; the lips have a greater tendency to dry out in dry weather.

Digestive enzymes present in saliva may irritate the lips, the evaporation of the water in saliva saps moisture from them. Some children have a habit of sucking and chewing on the lower lip, producing a combination of cheilitis and demarcated perioral erythema. Treatment is successful with barrier lubricants, such as lip salve or Vaseline. Medical grade lanolin accelerates repair of the lips, is used in some lip repair products. Sometimes the term "cheilitis simplex" is used as a synonym for cheilitis however, exfoliative cheilitis is sometimes stated to be the equivalent of chapped lips. Termed "solar cheilosis", this condition is the result of chronic over-exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight, it occurs on the lower lip, dry and wrinkled grey-white in appearance. It is common in people with light skin types who live in sunny climates, in persons who spend a lot of time outdoors. There is a small risk that this condition can develop into squamous cell carcinoma in the long term, but lip cancer is noticed early and hence has a good prognosis compared to oral cancer generally.

Angular cheilitis is both of the corners of the mouth. It is a common condition, affects elderly people. There are many possible causes, including nutritional deficiencies, contact allergy and edentulism, others. Termed "lip dermatitis", eczematous cheilitis is a diverse group of disorders which have an unknown cause. Chronic eczematous reactions account for the majority of chronic cheilitis cases, it is divided into endogenous, exogenous. The main cause of endogenous eczematous cheilitis is atopic cheilitis, the main causes of exogenous eczematous cheilitis is irritant contact cheilitis and allergic contact cheilitis; the latter is characterized by a dryness, fissuring and crusting. It affects females more than males, in a ratio of about 9:1; the most common causes of allergic contact cheilitis is lip cosmetics, including lipsticks and lip balm, followed by toothpastes. A lipstick allergy can be difficult to diagnose in some cases as it is possible that cheilitis can develop without the person wearing lipstick.

Instead, small exposure such as kissing someone, wearing lipstick is enough to cause the condition. Allergy to Balsam of Peru can manifest as cheilitis. Allergies to metal, wood, or other components can cause cheilitis reactions in musicians players of woodwind and brass instruments, e.g. the so-called "clarinetist's cheilitis", or "flutist's cheilitis". "Pigmented contact cheilitis" is one type of allergic cheilitis in which a brown-black discoloration of the lips develops. Patch testing is used to identify the substance triggering allergic contact cheilitis. Infectious cheilitis refers to cheilitis caused by infectious disease; the terms "Candidal cheilitis" and "bacterial cheilitis" are sometimes used, denoting the involvement of Candida organisms and bacterial species respectively. The term "cheilocandidiasis" describes exfoliative lesions of the lips and the skin around the lips, is caused by a superficial candidal infection due to chronic lip licking. Impetigo, can manifest as an exfoliative cheilitis-like appearance.

Herpes labialis is a common cause of infectious cheilitis. A lesion caused by recurrence of a latent herpes simplex infection can occur in the corner of the mouth, be mistaken for other causes of angular cheilitis. In fact this is herpes labialis, is sometimes termed "angular herpes simplex". Orofacial granulomatosis is enlargement of lips due to the formation of non-caseating granulomatous inflammation, which obstruct lymphatic drainage of the orofacial soft tissues, causing lymphedema. Granulomatous cheilitis refers to the lip swelling that accompanies this condition. "Median cheilitis" may be seen, fissuring in the midline of the lips due to the enlargement of the lips. Angular cheilitis may be associated with orofacial granulomatosis. A related condition is Melkersson–Rosenthal syndrome, a

Taiichi Ohno

Taiichi Ohno was a Japanese industrial engineer and businessman. He is considered to be the father of the Toyota Production System, which inspired Lean Manufacturing in the U. S, he devised the seven wastes as part of this system. He wrote several books about the system, including Toyota Production System: Beyond Large-Scale Production. Born in 1912 in Dalian, a graduate of the Nagoya Technical High School, he joined the Toyoda family's Toyoda Spinning upon graduation in 1932 during the Great Depression thanks to the relations of his father to Kiichiro Toyoda, the son of Toyota's founding father Sakichi Toyoda, he moved to the Toyota motor company in 1943 where he worked as a shop-floor supervisor in the engine manufacturing shop of the plant, rose through the ranks to become an executive. In what is considered to be a slight because he spoke publicly about the production system, he was denied the normal executive track and was sent instead to consult with suppliers in his career. Ohno's principles influenced areas outside of manufacturing, have been extended into the service arena.

For example, the field of sales process engineering has shown how the concept of Just In Time can improve sales and customer service processes. Ohno was instrumental in developing the way organisations identify waste, with his "Seven Wastes" model which have become core in many academic approaches; these wastes are: 1. Delay, waiting or time spent in a queue with no value being added 2. Producing more than you need 3. Over processing or undertaking non-value added activity 4. Transportation 5. Unnecessary movement or motion 6. Inventory 7. Defects in the Product. Ohno is known for his "Ten Precepts" to think and act to win. You are a cost. First reduce waste. First say, "I can do it." And try before everything. The workplace is a teacher. You can find answers only in the workplace. Do anything immediately. Starting something right now is the only way to win. Once you start something, persevere with it. Do not give up until you finish it. Explain difficult things in an easy-to-understand manner. Repeat things that are easy to understand.

Waste is hidden. Do not hide it. Make problems visible. Valueless motions are equal to shortening one's life. Re-improve what was improved for further improvement. Wisdom is given to everybody; the point is. Shigeo Shingo Just In Time Lean manufacturing Ohno, Toyota Production System: Beyond Large-Scale Production, Productivity Press, ISBN 0-915299-14-3 Ohno, Workplace Management, Productivity Press, ISBN 0-915299-19-4 Ohno, Workplace Management. Translated by Jon Miller, Gemba Press, ISBN 978-0-9786387-5-7, ISBN 0-9786387-5-1

Count noun

In linguistics, a count noun is a noun that can be modified by a numeral and that occurs in both singular and plural forms, that co-occurs with quantificational determiners like every, several, etc. A mass noun has none of these properties, because it cannot be modified by a numeral, cannot occur in plural, cannot co-occur with quantificational determiners. Below are examples of all the properties of count nouns holding for the count noun chair, but not for the mass noun furniture. Occurrence in plural. There is a chair in the room. There are chairs in the room. There is chair in the room. There is a furniture in the room. There are furnitures in the room. There is furniture in the room. Co-occurrence with count determinersEvery chair is man made. There are several chairs in the room; every furniture is man made. There are several furnitures in the room; some determiners can be used with both mass and count nouns, including "some", "a lot", "no". Others cannot: "few" and "many" are used with count items, "little" and "much" with mass.

The concept of a "mass noun" is a grammatical concept and is not based on the innate nature of the object to which that noun refers. For example, "seven chairs" and "some furniture" could refer to the same objects, with "seven chairs" referring to them as a collection of individual objects but with "some furniture" referring to them as a single undifferentiated unit. However, some abstract phenomena like "fun" and "hope" have properties which make it difficult to refer to them with a count noun. Classifiers are sometimes used as count nouns preceding mass nouns, in order to redirect the speaker's focus away from the mass nature. For example, "There's some furniture in the room" can be restated, with a change of focus, to "There are some pieces of furniture in the room". In English, some nouns are used most as mass nouns, with or without a classifier, but less as count nouns Following the work of logicians like Godehard Link and linguists like Manfred Krifka, we know that the mass/count distinction can be given a precise mathematical definition in terms of notions like cumulativity and quantization.

Discussed by Barry Schein in 1993, a new logical framework, called plural logic, has been used for characterizing the semantics of count nouns and mass nouns. Some languages, such as Mandarin Chinese, treat all nouns as mass nouns, need to make use of a noun classifier to add numerals and other quantifiers; the following examples are of nouns which, while innately countable, are still treated as mass nouns: 那个人吃完了 – "That unit person has eaten", "That person has eaten" 那三个人吃完了 – "Those three unit person' have eaten", "Those three people have eaten" 她有七本书 – "She has seven unit book", "She has seven books."A classifier, implies that the object referred to are countable in the sense that the speaker intends them to be enumerated, rather than considered as a unit. Notice that the classifier changes as the unit being counted changes. Words such as "milk" or "rice" are not so countable entities, but they can be counted with an appropriate unit of measure in both English and Mandarin; the use of a classifier is similar to, but not identical with, the use of units of measurement to count groups of objects in English.

For example, in "three shelves of books", "shelves" is used as a unit of measurement. On the other hand, some languages like Turkish treats all the nouns the not so countable entities as count nouns. Pirinçler daha tam pişmemiş. – "The rice hasn't been cooked well yet" Sütler hep yerlere döküldü. -- "The milk has been spilled all over the floor". – "The rivers' water flows nicely" Parasız kişiler için kitaplar dağıtıyorlar. – "They are distributing books for the people without money"Even it's possible to use units of measures with numbers in Turkish with the obviously countable nouns. Note that the Turkish nouns can't take a plural suffix after the numbers and the units of measure. Beş bardak süt – "five glasses of milk" İki kaşık dolusu pirinç – "two spoonfuls of rice" Üç tane kişi – "three units of person" Dört metrekare yer – "Four square meters of floor" Yedi raf kitap – "seven shelves of books" Collective noun Grammatical number Measure word