Moscow State University
Moscow State University is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia. It was founded on 23 January 1755 by Mikhail Lomonosov. MSU was renamed after Lomonosov in 1940 and was known as Lomonosov University, it houses the tallest educational building in the world. Its current rector is Viktor Sadovnichiy. According to the 2018 QS World University Rankings, it is the highest-ranking Russian educational institution and is considered the most prestigious university in the former Soviet Union. Ivan Shuvalov and Mikhail Lomonosov promoted the idea of a university in Moscow, Russian Empress Elizabeth decreed its establishment on 23 January 1755; the first lectures were given on 7 May. Russians still celebrate 25 January as Students' Day. Saint Petersburg State University and Moscow State University engage in friendly rivalry over the title of Russia's oldest university. Though Moscow State University was founded in 1755, its competitor in St. Petersburg has had a continuous existence as a "university" since 1819 and sees itself as the successor of an academy established on 24 January 1724, by a decree of Peter the Great.
The present Moscow State University occupied the Principal Medicine Store on Red Square from 1755 to 1787. Catherine the Great transferred the University to a Neoclassical building on the other side of Mokhovaya Street. In the 18th century, the University had three departments: philosophy and law. A preparatory college was affiliated with the University until its abolition in 1812. In 1779, Mikhail Kheraskov founded a boarding school for noblemen which in 1830 became a gymnasium for the Russian nobility; the university press, run by Nikolay Novikov in the 1780s, published the most popular newspaper in Imperial Russia: Moskovskie Vedomosti. In 1804, medical education split into clinical and obstetrics faculties. During 1884–1897, the Department of Medicine—supported by private donations, the municipal and imperial governments—built an extensive, 1.6-kilometer-long, state-of-the-art medical campus in Devichye Pole, between the Garden Ring and Novodevichy Convent. The campus, medical education in general, were separated from the Moscow University in 1930.
Devichye Pole was operated by the independent I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University and by various other state and private institutions; the roots of student unrest in the University reach deep into the nineteenth century. In 1905, a social-democratic organization emerged at the University and called for the overthrow of the Czarist government and the establishment of a republic in Russia; the imperial government threatened to close the University. In 1911, in a protest over the introduction of troops onto the campus and mistreatment of certain professors, 130 scientists and professors resigned en masse, including such prominent men as Nikolay Dimitrievich Zelinskiy, Pyotr Nikolaevich Lebedev, Sergei Alekseevich Chaplygin. After the October Revolution of 1917, the institution began to admit the children of the proletariat and peasantry. In 1919, the University abolished fees for tuition and established a preparatory facility to help working-class children prepare for entrance examinations.
During the implementation of Joseph Stalin's first five-year plan, prisoners from the Gulag were forced to construct parts of the newly expanded University. After 1991, nine new faculties were established; the following year, the University gained a unique status: it is funded directly from the state budget, thus providing the University a significant level of independence. On 6 September 1997, the French electronic musician Jean Michel Jarre, whom the mayor of Moscow had specially invited to perform, used the entire front facade of the University as the backdrop for a concert: the frontage served as a giant projection screen, with fireworks and searchlights all launched from various points around the building; the stage stood directly in front of the building, the concert, entitled "The Road To The 21st Century" in Russia but renamed "Oxygen In Moscow" for worldwide release in video/DVD, attracted a world-record crowd of 3.5 million people. On 19 March 2008, Russia's most powerful supercomputer to date, the SKIF MSU was launched at the University.
Its peak performance of 60 TFLOPS makes it the fastest supercomputer in the Commonwealth of Independent States. Since 1953, most of the faculties have been situated on Sparrow Hills, in the southwest of Moscow, 5 km from the city centre; the main building was designed by architect Lev Vladimirovich Rudnev. In the post-war era, Joseph Stalin ordered seven huge tiered neoclassic towers to be built around the city, it was built using Gulag labour. Located on Moscow's outskirts at the time of its construction, the location of the main building is now about half-way between the center of Moscow a
Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process; the official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire and the German Empire; the Nazi regime ended. Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg, on 30 January 1933; the NSDAP began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934 and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the offices and powers of the Chancellery and Presidency. A national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany.
All power was centralised in Hitler's person and his word became the highest law. The government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitler's favour. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy. Extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen; the return to economic stability boosted the regime's popularity. Racism antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime; the Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the master race, the purest branch of the Aryan race. Discrimination and persecution against Jews and Romani people began in earnest after the seizure of power; the first concentration camps were established in March 1933. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, liberals and communists were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. Christian churches and citizens that opposed Hitler's rule were oppressed, many leaders imprisoned.
Education focused on racial biology, population policy, fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed. Recreation and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased Germany on the international stage. Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, Hitler's hypnotic oratory to influence public opinion; the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. The Nazi regime dominated neighbours through military threats in the years leading up to war. Nazi Germany made aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if these were not met, it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the USSR, invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, launching World War II in Europe. By early 1941, Germany controlled much of Europe. Reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas and a German administration was established in the remainder of Poland.
Germany exploited labour of both its occupied territories and its allies. In the Holocaust, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, or shot. While the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 was successful, the Soviet resurgence and entry of the US into the war meant the Wehrmacht lost the initiative on the Eastern Front in 1943 and by late 1944 had been pushed back to the pre-1939 border. Large-scale aerial bombing of Germany escalated in 1944 and the Axis powers were driven back in Eastern and Southern Europe. After the Allied invasion of France, Germany was conquered by the Soviet Union from the east and the other Allies from the west, capitulated in May 1945. Hitler's refusal to admit defeat led to massive destruction of German infrastructure and additional war-related deaths in the closing months of the war; the victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.
The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945, while common English terms are "Nazi Germany" and "Third Reich". The latter, adopted by Nazi propaganda as Drittes Reich, was first used in Das Dritte Reich, a 1923 book by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck; the book counted the Holy Roman Empire as the German Empire as the second. Germany was known as the Weimar Republic during the years 1919 to 1933, it was a republic with a semi-presidential system. The Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, contentious relationships with the Allied victors of World War I, a series of failed attempts at coalition government by divided political parties. Severe setbacks to the German economy began after World War I ended because of reparations payments required under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles; the government printed money to make the payments and to repay the country's war debt, but the resulting hyperinflation led to inflated prices for consumer goods, economic chaos, food riots.
When the government defaulted on their reparations payments in January 1923, French troops occupied German industrial areas along the Ruhr and widespread civil unrest followed. The National Socialist German Workers' Party (National
Ivan Karpovich Golubets was a Soviet sailor with the Black Sea Fleet. He was posthumously made a Hero of the Soviet Union. Ivan Golubets was born in the city of Taganrog on 8 May 1916 into the family of a Ukrainian worker, he worked at the iron and steel factory after 7 years in Taganrog's high school No. 2. In 1937, Ivan Golubets enrolled into the Soviet Navy. In 1939, he graduated from the Coast-guard school in Balaklava, served at the 2nd and in the 1st divisions of the Black Sea Fleet's coast-guard ships in the city of Novorossiysk, he participated in World War II beginning in June 1941, serving as steersman on the corvette SK-0183, making the brave feat in the spring of 1942 in Sevastopol. On 25 March 1942 German artillery fired at the Streletskaya Bay, the engine department of another guard ship, SK-0121, was hit and burst into flames. Ivan Golubets took necessary measures for extinguishing the fire. After the second shell hit the Soviet ship, there was an explosion of the fuel tanks, which could lead to the explosion of anti-submarine bombs on board, threatening a chain explosion on other ships in the Bay.
Golubets understood the situation and started rolling the anti-submarine depth bombs off the ship, until the last bomb exploded, but many other ships and people's lives were saved. On 14 June 1942, Presidium of the Supreme Soviet issued a decree posthumously naming Ivan Golubets the Hero of the Soviet Union. In 1948 one of the streets in Taganrog was named after Ivan Golubets. A Ukrainian trawler was named after Golubets. Шмульян Г.Т. Голубец Иван Карпович // Энциклопедия Таганрога. — Таганрог: Антон, 1998. — С. 232. — ISBN 5-88040-017-4. И дольше века льётся сталь / Под ред. Н. И. Фартушного. — Ростов-на-Дону: Принт-Сервис, 2006. — 288 с. Два века Таганрогской гимназии. — Таганрог: БАННЭРплюс, 2007. — 288 с. — ISBN 978-5-98472-011-3
The Taganrog Drama Theater named after Anton Chekhov and decorated with Order of Honor is a traditional Russian drama theater based in Taganrog, Rostov Oblast. The Taganrog Theater was established in 1827 by governor Alexander Dunaev; the theater was subsidized by the Taganrog's City Council since 1828, its first director was Alexander Gor. The first group of Russian drama artists was directed by Perovsky and toured around the region, giving performances in Rostov on Don, Bahmut; the repertoire consisted of dramas and vaudevilles. Since 1861, Italian opera performed in Taganrog. In 1865 was created a stock company to finance the construction of the new theater building. Forty-five thousand silver rubles of stocks were issued, for the total budget of 55,000 rubles. In 1866, Taganrog established its own Italian opera in a new opera theater building by the project of the architect Londeron from Odessa; the interiors of the theater were designed after the image of the Milano opera theater La Scala.
The repertoire of that time included Giuseppe Verdi, Gioachino Rossini, Jacques Offenbach, Vincenzo Bellini, Mikhail Glinka, Pyotr Tchaikovsky and others. In 1874, the Taganrog Municipality acquired the theater building by the purchase of its stocks; the newly established theater commission decided to dissolve the Italian opera in 1875 for commercial reasons. One of the Taganrog Italian opera's directors and choirmasters - Gaetano Molla - stayed in Taganrog after the opera theater was closed and contributed to promotion and development of music culture in the city of Taganrog. Anton Chekhov, born in Taganrog in 1860 was in love with theater and literature from his childhood; the first performance that he attended was Offenbach's operette Elena the Beautiful onstage Taganrog City Theater on October 4, 1873. Anton was a 13-year-old Gymnasium student, from that moment on, Chekhov became a great theater lover and spent there all his savings, his favorite seat in the theater was at the back gallery for it was cheap, because Gymnasium students needed a special authorisation to go to the theater.
The permission was given not and for the weekends. Sometimes, Anton Chekhov and other fellow students disguised themselves and wore some makeup, spectacles or a fake beard, trying to fool the regular school staff who checked for unauthorized presence of students. In 1901, the first movie was shown onstage Taganrog City Theater. In 1935, during the 75th Anniversary Celebrations of Anton Chekhov's birthday, the famous artists of the Moscow Art Theater performed onstage of Taganrog Theater: Olga Knipper, Vishnevskaya and others. In 1944, the Soviet of People's Commissars of USSR named the Taganrog City Theater after Anton Pavlovich Chekhov. In 1960, the artists of Taganrog Chekhov Drama Theater performed onstage of the Kremlin Palace of Congress in Moscow within the framework of the centennial celebrations of Anton Chekhov's birthday. In 1965, the Chekhov Drama Theater was praised in the Moscow THEATRE magazine for outstanding production of the Chekhov`s play Ivanov, starring Petr Shelokhonov in the leading role.
In 1977, the theater was decorated with the Order of Honor. Since 1980, the theater festival In the Birthplace of Anton Chekhov has been held with participation of theaters from Russia, Georgia, Croatia, Australia, Belarus and Japan. In 2002 and in 2010, the theater performed at the International Literary & Musical Forum in Badenweiler, staging Anton Chekhov's Proposal and The Wood Demon. In October 2006, the theater participated at the 1st International Blacksea Theater Festival in Nikolaev, Ukraine. In April 2009, the theater won 3 awards at the International Theater Festival "Golden Key" in Donetsk, Ukraine. On January 29, 2010 within the framework of Anton Chekhov's 150th birth anniversary celebrations in Taganrog, the President of Russia Dmitri Medvedev visited the Taganrog theater, where he watched a rehearsal of the performance "Everything Starts in the Childhood", dedicated to Anton Chekhov. In October–November 2012 the Taganrog Drama Theater hosted the international production "Passions of Romeo".
The performance was created with participation of Russian actors in collaboration with the international production group. Anton Chekhov - Russian playwright and short-story writer Ivan Perestiani - People's Artist of the Georgian SSR Sergei Bondarchuk - Soviet film director and actor, People's Artist of the USSR, Academy Award. Elena Obraztsova - opera singer, People's Artist of USSR Gaetano Molla Nestor Kukolnik - Russian playwright and prose writer Samuel Maykapar - Russian composer Petr Shelokhonov - Russian actor Vatslav Dvorzhetsky - Soviet Russian actor Yelizaveta Solodova - Soviet Russian actress Notes Sources Taganrog Encyclopedia, 2nd edition, Taganrog, 2003 Taganrog Drama Theater named after Anton Chekhov - Official Web Site Official web site of Taganrog, Birthplace of Anton Chekhov
Sicherheitsdienst, full title Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsführers-SS, or SD, was the intelligence agency of the SS and the Nazi Party in Nazi Germany. Originating in 1931, the organization was the first Nazi intelligence organization to be established and was considered a sister organization with the Gestapo through integration of SS members and operational procedures. Between 1933 and 1939, the SD was administered as an independent SS office, after which it was transferred to the authority of the Reich Main Security Office, as one of its seven departments/offices, its first director, Reinhard Heydrich, intended for the SD to bring every single individual within the Third Reich's reach under "continuous supervision". Following Germany's defeat in World War II, the tribunal at the Nuremberg Trials declared the SD a criminal organisation, along with the rest of Heydrich's RSHA both individually and as branches of the SS in the collective. Heydrich's successor, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg trials, sentenced to death and hanged in 1946.
The SD, one of the oldest security organizations of the SS, first formed in 1931 as the Ic-Dienst operating out of a single apartment and reporting directly to Heinrich Himmler. Himmler appointed Reinhard Heydrich, to organise the small agency; the office was renamed Sicherheitsdienst in the summer of 1932. The SD became more powerful after the Nazi Party took control of Germany in 1933 and the SS started infiltrating all leading positions of the security apparatus of the Reich. Before Hitler became Chancellor in January 1933, the SD was a veritable "watchdog" over the SS and over members of the Nazi Party and played a critical role in consolidating political-police powers into the hands of Himmler and Heydrich. Once Hitler was appointed Chancellor by German President Paul von Hindenburg, he made efforts to manipulate the aging president. On 28 February 1933, Hitler convinced Hindenburg to declare a state of emergency which suspended all civil liberties throughout Germany, due at least in part to the Reichstag fire the night before.
Hitler assured Hindenburg throughout that he was attempting to stabilize the tumultuous political scene in Germany by taking a "defensive measure against Communist acts of violence endangering the state." Wasting no time, Himmler set the SD in motion as they began creating an extensive card-index of the Nazi regime's political opponents, arresting labor organizers, Jewish leaders and communists in the process, sending them to the newly-established prison facility near Munich, Dachau. Himmler's SS and SD made their presence felt at once by helping rid the regime of its known political enemies and its perceived ones, as well; as far as Heydrich and Himmler were concerned, the SD left their mission somewhat vaguely defined so as to "remain an instrument for all eventualities". One such eventuality would soon arise. For a while, the SS competed with the Sturmabteilung for influence within Germany. Himmler distrusted the SA and came to deplore the "rabble-rousing" brownshirts and what he saw as indecent sexual deviants amid its leadership.
At least one pretext to secure additional influence for Himmler's SS and Heydrich's SD in "protecting" Hitler and securing his absolute trust in their intelligence collection abilities, involved thwarting a plot from Ernst Roehm's SA using subversive means. On 20 April 1934 Hermann Göring handed over control of the Geheime Staatspolizei to Himmler. Heydrich, named chief of the Gestapo by Himmler on 22 April 1934 continued as head of the SD; these events further extended Himmler's control of the security mechanism of the Reich, which by proxy strengthened the surveillance power of Heydrich's SD, as both entities methodically infiltrated every police agency in Germany. Subsequently, the SD was made the sole "Party information service" on 9 June 1934. Under pressure from the Reichswehr leadership and with the collusion of Göring, Joseph Goebbels, the Gestapo and SD, Hitler was led to believe that Röhm's SA posed a serious conspiratorial threat requiring a drastic and immediate solution. For its part, the SD provided fictitious information that there was an assassination plot on Hitler's life and that an SA putsch to assume power was imminent since the SA were amassing weapons.
Additionally, reports were coming into the SD and Gestapo that the vulgarity of the SA's behavior was damaging the party and was making antisemitism less palatable. On 30 June 1934 the SS and Gestapo acted in coordinated mass arrests; the SS took one of its most decisive steps in eliminating its competition for command of security within Germany and established itself in the Nazi hierarchy, making the SS and its intelligence organ, the SD, responsible only to the Führer. The purge became known with up to 200 people killed in the action. Moreover, the brutal crushing of the SA and its leadership sent a clear message to everyone that opposition to Hitler's regime could be fatal, it struck fear across the Nazi leadership as to the tangible concern of the reach and influence of Himmler's intelligence collection and policing powers. During the autumn of 1937, Hitler secured Mussolini's support to annex Austria and informed his generals of his intentions to invade both Austria and Czechoslovakia. Get
Alexander Pavlovich Chekhov, was a Russian novelist, short story writer and memoirist, the elder brother of Anton Chekhov. Alexander was the father of famed actor and progressive acting theorist Michael Chekhov. Michael studied under Stanislavski before incorporating his father's mystical philosophies with those of Rudolf Steiner to pioneer "Psycho-Physical" acting techniques. Anton Chekhov referred to Alexander as more intelligent - but unable to produce the work to prove it due to his alcoholism. Alexander was born into a petit-bourgeois merchant family, he studied at the Taganrog gymnasium. He graduated from the Natural Sciences Department of the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of Moscow State University, he spoke six languages. In his student years his works were published in comic magazines such as The Spectator and The Alarm Clock contributing to the familiarization of his younger brother Anton with the world of metropolitan journalism. Upon leaving school he worked in the customs service in St. Petersburg and Novorossiysk.
He was dismissed from his post in Taganrog for a sensational story about the abuses of local customs officials, which he published in the Odessa newspaper. He wrote under the pseudonyms Agafopod, Agafopod Edinitsin, Aloe and A. Gray. Married at a young age, Alexander was widowed in 1888, the following year married the governess of his children, Natalya. From this marriage was born a son, the famous actor Michael Chekhov, he died of throat cancer in 1913 and was buried in the literary section of the Volkovo Cemetery in St. Petersburg
Konstantin Apollonovich Savitsky was a Russian realist painter born in the city of Taganrog in the village Frankovka or Baronovka, named after former governor Otto Pfeilizer-Frank. Today this area is occupied by the Taganrog Iron and Steel Factory TAGMET. Savitsky's family lived in the building of the Taganrog Gymnasium for Boys, where his father worked as a doctor. In Frankovka the family rented a summer house. Savitsky spent his youth in Taganrog, he showed an interest for painting in early childhood. Being on the shore of Azov Sea with his parents, he loved to make sketches, drawing lessons at the Gymnasium were his favorite subject; when Konstantin was fifth-grader at Taganrog Gymnasium, his teenager's life changed unexpectedly. Both of his parents died suddenly. Kostya was taken by his uncle who became his guardian. There Savitsky entered a private boarding-school and in 1862 he graduated and left for Saint Petersburg, where he entered The Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg. Personal contacts with outstanding representatives of Russian culture - Ilya Repin, Ivan Shishkin, Viktor Vasnetsov, Mark Antokolski, Nikolai Mikhailovich Karamzin - made a great influence on development of the young artist.
Soon Savitsky became one of the best students of the Imperial Academy of Arts. His student paintings were awarded with silver medals and for his painting "Cain and Abel" he received a gold medal. After graduation from the Imperial Academy of Arts and two years abroad, the artist became co-partner of mobile art exhibitions, a group of Russian realist artists who in protest at academic restrictions formed an artists' cooperative, which evolved into the Society for Traveling Art Exhibitions in 1870; the artwork "Repairing Railway" was one of the first paintings of that time dedicated to the life of the working class. Konstantin Savitsky is a co-author of the famous painting Morning in the Pine Forest. On the original Peredvizhniki exhibition the painting was shown by two authors Ivan Shishkin and Konstantin Savitsky, it was assumed that Savitsky had painted the bears and Shishkin the forest but the scholars found that preparational drawings of the pine forest were made by both Savitsky and Shishkin.
Savitsky withdrew his signature from the painting and it is attributed to Shishkin. The titles of his artworks as "Lost all their possessions in the fire", "To war", "Herdsmen", "Krutchnik", "Argument at the Bound" speak about the direction of his art. After graduation from the Imperial Academy of Arts the artist dedicated more than 20 years to teaching arts in the art schools of Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Penza. In 1897 Konstantin Savitsky became a member of the Imperial Academy of Arts. List of Russian artists Savitsky and Morning in the Pine Forest