Cycling called biking or bicycling, is the use of bicycles for transport, exercise or sport. People engaged in cycling are referred to as "cyclists", "bikers", or less as "bicyclists". Apart from two-wheeled bicycles, "cycling" includes the riding of unicycles, quadracycles and similar human-powered vehicles. Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century and now number one billion worldwide, they are the principal means of transportation in many parts of the world. Cycling is regarded as a effective and efficient mode of transportation optimal for short to moderate distances. Bicycles provide numerous benefits in comparison with motor vehicles, including the sustained physical exercise involved in cycling, easier parking, increased maneuverability, access to roads, bike paths and rural trails. Cycling offers a reduced consumption of fossil fuels, less air or noise pollution, much reduced traffic congestion; these lead to less financial cost to the user as well as to society at large. By fitting bicycle racks on the front of buses, transit agencies can increase the areas they can serve.
Among the disadvantages of cycling are the requirement of bicycles to be balanced by the rider in order to remain upright, the reduced protection in crashes in comparison to motor vehicles longer travel time, vulnerability to weather conditions, difficulty in transporting passengers, the fact that a basic level of fitness is required for cycling moderate to long distances. Cycling became an activity after bicycles were introduced in the 19th century. Today, over 50 percent of the human population knows. In many countries, the most used vehicle for road transport is a utility bicycle; these have frames with relaxed geometry, protecting the rider from shocks of the road and easing steering at low speeds. Utility bicycles tend to be equipped with accessories such as mudguards, pannier racks and lights, which extends their usefulness on a daily basis; as the bicycle is so effective as a means of transportation various companies have developed methods of carrying anything from the weekly shop to children on bicycles.
Certain countries rely on bicycles and their culture has developed around the bicycle as a primary form of transport. In Europe and the Netherlands have the most bicycles per capita and most use bicycles for everyday transport. Road bikes tend to have a more upright shape and a shorter wheelbase, which make the bike more mobile but harder to ride slowly; the design, coupled with low or dropped handlebars, requires the rider to bend forward more, making use of stronger muscles and reducing air resistance at high speed. The price of a new bicycle can range from US$50 to more than US$20,000, depending on quality and weight. However, UCI regulations stipulate. Being measured for a bike and taking it for a test ride are recommended before buying; the drivetrain components of the bike should be considered. A middle grade dérailleur is sufficient for a beginner, although many utility bikes are equipped with hub gears. If the rider plans a significant amount of hillclimbing, a triple-chainrings crankset gear system may be preferred.
Otherwise, the lighter and less expensive double chainring may be better. Much simpler fixed wheel bikes are available. Many road bikes, along with mountain bikes, include clipless pedals to which special shoes attach, via a cleat, enabling the rider to pull on the pedals as well as push. Other possible accessories for the bicycle include front and rear lights, bells or horns, child carrying seats, cycling computers with GPS, bar tape, baggage racks, baggage carriers and pannier bags, water bottles and bottle cages. For basic maintenance and repairs cyclists can carry a pump, a puncture repair kit, a spare inner tube, tire levers and a set of allen keys. Cycling can be more efficient and comfortable with special shoes and shorts. In wet weather, riding can be more tolerable with waterproof clothes, such as cape, jacket and overshoes and high-visibility clothing is advisable to reduce the risk from motor vehicle users. Items required in some jurisdictions, or voluntarily adopted for safety reasons, include bicycle helmets, generator or battery operated lights and audible signalling devices such as a bell or horn.
Extras include a bicycle computer. Bikes can be customized, with different seat designs and handle bars, for example. Many schools and police departments run educational programs to instruct children in bicycle handling skills and introduce them to the rules of the road as they apply to cyclists. In different countries these may be known as bicycle rodeos or operated as schemes such as Bikeability. Education for adult cyclists is available from organizations such as the League of American Bicyclists. Beyond riding, another skill is riding efficiently and safely in traffic. One popular approach to riding in motor vehicle traffic is vehicular cycling, occupying road space as car does. Alternately, in countries such as Denmark and the Netherlands, where cycling is popular, cyclists are segregated into bike lanes at the side of, or more separate from, main highways and roads. Many primary schools participate in the national road test in whi
North West England
North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the five counties of Cheshire, Greater Manchester and Merseyside. The North West had a population of 7,052,000 in 2011, it is the third-most populated region in the United Kingdom after the South Greater London. The largest settlements are Manchester, Warrington and Blackpool. North West England is bounded to the west by the Irish Sea; the region extends from the Scottish Borders in the north to the West Midlands region in the south. To its southwest is North Wales. Amongst the better known of the North West's physiographical features are the Lake District and the Cheshire Plain; the highest point in North West England is Cumbria, at a height of 3,209 feet. Windermere is the largest natural lake in England. Broad Crag Tarn on Broad Crag is England's highest lake. Wast Water is England's deepest lake, being 74m deep. A mix of rural and urban landscape, two large conurbations, centred on Liverpool and Manchester, occupy much of the south of the region.
The north of the region, comprising Cumbria and northern Lancashire, is rural, as is the far south which encompasses parts of the Cheshire Plain and Peak District. The region includes parts of three National parks and three areas of Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the official region consists of the following subdivisions: *metropolitan county After abolition of the Greater Manchester and Merseyside County Councils in 1986, power was transferred to the Metropolitan Boroughs making them Unitary Authorities. In April 2011, Greater Manchester gained a top-tier administrative body in the form of the Greater Manchester Combined Authority, which means the 10 Greater Manchester Boroughs are once again second-tier authorities. Source: Office for National Statistics Mid Year Population Estimates North West England's population accounts for just over 13% of England's overall population. 37.86% of the North West's population resides in Greater Manchester, 21.39% in Lancashire, 20.30% in Merseyside, 14.76% in Cheshire and 7.41% live in the largest county by area, Cumbria.
According to 2009 Office for National Statistics estimates, 91.6% of people in the region describe themselves as'White': 88.4% White British, 1.0% White Irish and 2.2% White Other. During the Industrial Revolution hundreds of thousands of Welsh people migrated to the North West of England to work in the coal mines. Parts with notably high populations with Welsh ancestry as a result of this include Liverpool, Widnes, Wallasey, Ashton-in-Makerfield and Birkenhead; the Mixed Race population makes up 1.3% of the region's population. There are 323,800 South Asians, making up 4.7% of the population, 1.1% Black Britons. 0.6% of the population are Chinese and 0.5% of people belong to another ethnic group. North West England is a diverse region, with Manchester and Liverpool amongst the most diverse cities in Europe. 19.4% of Blackburn with Darwen's population are Muslim, the third-highest among all local authorities in the United Kingdom and the highest outside London. Areas such as Moss Side in Greater Manchester are home to a 30%+ Black British population.
In contrast, the town of St. Helens in Merseyside, unusually for a city area, has a low percentage of ethnic minorities with 98% identifying as White British; the City of Liverpool, over 800 years old, is one of the few places in Britain where ethnic minority populations can be traced back over dozens of generations: being the closest major city in England to Ireland, it is home to a significant ethnic Irish population, with the city being home to one of the first Afro-Caribbean communities in the UK, as well as the oldest Chinatown in Europe. Summarised There are around 400,000 people living in the North West of any Asian ethnicity Around 125,000 people from the North West are of full or partial Sub-African and/or Caribbean descent The single largest non-white ethnic group in the North West are Pakistanis, numbering at least 144,400 The list below is not how many people belong to each ethnic group; the fifteen most common countries of birth in 2001 for North West citizens were as follows England – 6,169,753 Scotland – 109,163 Wales – 73,850 Ireland – 56,887 Pakistan – 46,529 Northern Ireland – 34,879 India – 34,600 Germany – 19,931 China and Hong Kong – 15,491 Bangladesh – 13,746 South Africa – 7,740 United States – 7,037 Jamaica – 6,661 Italy – 6,325 Australia – 5,880 Poland – The table below is based on the 2011 UK Census.
One in five of the population in the North West is Catholic, a result of large-scale Irish emigration in the nineteenth century as well as the high number of English recusants in Lancashire. For top-tier authorities, Manchester has the highest teenage pregnancy rate in the region. For council districts, Burnley has the highest rate followed by Hyndburn, both in Lancashire. Of the nine regions of the England, the North West has the fourth-highest GVA per capita—the highest outside southern England. Despite this the region has above average multiple deprivation with wealth concentrated on affluent areas like rural Cheshire, rural Lancashire, south Cumbria; as measured by the Indices of deprivation 2007, the
Cheshire is a county in North West England, bordering Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east and Shropshire to the south and Flintshire and Wrexham county borough to the west. Cheshire's county town is the City of Chester. Other major towns include Crewe, Ellesmere Port, Northwich, Runcorn and Winsford The county covers 905 square miles and has a population of around 1 million, it is rural, with a number of small towns and villages supporting the agricultural and other industries which produce Cheshire cheese, salt and silk. Cheshire's name was derived from an early name for Chester, was first recorded as Legeceasterscir in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, meaning "the shire of the city of legions". Although the name first appears in 980, it is thought that the county was created by Edward the Elder around 920. In the Domesday Book, Chester was recorded as having the name Cestrescir, derived from the name for Chester at the time. A series of changes that occurred as English itself changed, together with some simplifications and elision, resulted in the name Cheshire, as it occurs today.
Because of the close links with the land bordering Cheshire to the west, which became modern Wales, there is a history of interaction between Cheshire and North Wales. The Domesday Book records Cheshire as having two complete Hundreds that became the principal part of Flintshire. Additionally, another large portion of the Duddestan Hundred became known as Maelor Saesneg when it was transferred to North Wales. For this and other reasons, the Welsh language name for Cheshire is sometimes used. After the Norman conquest of 1066 by William I, dissent and resistance continued for many years after the invasion. In 1069 local resistance in Cheshire was put down using draconian measures as part of the Harrying of the North; the ferocity of the campaign against the English populace was enough to end all future resistance. Examples were made of major landowners such as Earl Edwin of Mercia, their properties confiscated and redistributed amongst Norman barons. William I made Cheshire a county palatine and gave Gerbod the Fleming the new title of Earl of Chester.
When Gerbod returned to Normandy in about 1070, the king used his absence to declare the earldom forfeit and gave the title to Hugh d'Avranches. Because of Cheshire's strategic location on Welsh Marches, the Earl had complete autonomous powers to rule on behalf of the king in the county palatine; the earldom was sufficiently independent from the kingdom of England that the 13th-century Magna Carta did not apply to the shire of Chester, so the earl wrote up his own Chester Charter at the petition of his barons. Cheshire in the Domesday Book is recorded as a much larger county, it included two hundreds and Exestan, that became part of North Wales. At the time of the Domesday Book, it included as part of Duddestan Hundred the area of land known as English Maelor in Wales; the area between the Mersey and Ribble formed part of the returns for Cheshire. Although this has been interpreted to mean that at that time south Lancashire was part of Cheshire, more exhaustive research indicates that the boundary between Cheshire and what was to become Lancashire remained the River Mersey.
With minor variations in spelling across sources, the complete list of hundreds of Cheshire at this time are: Atiscross, Chester, Exestan, Middlewich, Roelau, Tunendune and Wilaveston. Feudal baronies or baronies by tenure were granted by the Earl as forms of feudal land tenure within the palatinate in a similar way to which the king granted English feudal baronies within England proper. An example is the barony of Halton. One of Hugh d'Avranche's barons has been identified as Robert Nicholls, Baron of Halton and Montebourg. In 1182 the land north of the Mersey became administered as part of the new county of Lancashire, thus resolving any uncertainty about the county in which the land "Inter Ripam et Mersam" was. Over the years, the ten hundreds consolidated and changed names to leave just seven—Broxton, Eddisbury, Nantwich and Wirral. In 1397 the county had lands in the march of Wales added to its territory, was promoted to the rank of principality; this was because of the support the men of the county had given to King Richard II, in particular by his standing armed force of about 500 men called the "Cheshire Guard".
As a result, the King's title was changed to "King of England and France, Lord of Ireland, Prince of Chester". No other English county has been honoured in this way, although it lost the distinction on Richard's fall in 1399. Through the Local Government Act 1972, which came into effect on 1 April 1974, some areas in the north became part of the metropolitan counties of Greater Manchester and Merseyside. Stockport, Hyde and Stalybridge in the north-east became part of Greater Manchester. Much of the Wirral Peninsula in the north-west, including the county boroughs of Birkenhead and Wallasey, joined Merseyside as the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral. At the same time the Tintwistle Rural District was transferred to Derbyshire; the area of south Lancashire not included within either the Merseyside or Greater Manchester counties, including Widnes and the county b
Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service
Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service for the English county of Cheshire, consisting of the unitary authorities of Cheshire East, Cheshire West and Chester and Warrington. It operates 29 fire stations; the service is led by the Chief Fire Officer Mark Cashin, the Service Management Team. It is managed by the Cheshire Fire Authority, composed of councillors from the local communities of Cheshire and Warrington, they make decisions on issues such as policy and resources. Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service employs over 980 staff and looks after a population of 984,300 people spread across an area of 2,334 square kilometres, it has a headquarters in Winsford. The region features several large urban areas such as Warrington and Chester, an extensive transport infrastructure and one of the highest concentrations of petrochemical industries in the country, it is in close proximity to two major airports: Liverpool. The service responds to emergency incidents - known as Emergency Response across the four unitary council areas of: Halton Warrington Cheshire East Cheshire West and Chester A total of 29 fire stations are strategically sited throughout the county.
These are broken down as: 7 wholetime-only shift fire stations crewed 24/7 2 wholetime shift fire stations crewed 24/7, with an additional on-call crew 6 day-crewed stations crewed during the day and by on-call staff at night 13 stations crewed by on-call personnel 24/7 Water Ladder: P1/P2 Light/Midi Water Ladder: P2 Aerial Ladder Platform: A1 Hydraulic Platform: A1 Water Incident Unit: B2 Incident Command Unit: C1 Light 4x4 Pump: L1 Animal Rescue Unit: R3 Rapid Response Rescue Unit: R1 Rope Rescue Unit: R1 Foam Operating Unit: S2 Major Rescue Unit: S3 Operational Support Unit: S1 Welfare Unit: S1 Breathing Apparatus Command Unit: S5 Co-Responder Vehicle: V1 Prime Mover: T7 / T8 / T9 Incident Response Unit: H9Pods: Environmental Protection Unit: S2 High Volume Pump High Volume Hose Layer Mass Decontamination Disrobe List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service official website
Macclesfield is a market town and civil parish in Cheshire, England. The population of Macclesfield at the 2011 census was 52,044. A person from Macclesfield is sometimes referred to as a "Maxonian". Macclesfield, like many other areas in Cheshire, is a affluent town. Situated in the ancient Hundred of Hamestan, the town is recorded in the Domesday Book as "Maclesfeld" and in 1183 it was referred to as "Makeslesfeld"; the English Place-Name Society gives its name as being derived from the Old English name and field, yielding the meaning "Maccel's open country". Although "Silk Town" seems to be its preferred nickname, the traditional nickname of Macclesfield is "Treacle Town"; this refers to an historical incident when a horse-drawn wagon overturned and split its load of treacle onto the street, after which the poor scooped the treacle off the road. Macclesfield was granted a borough charter by Earl Ranulf III of Chester, in the early 13th century, a second charter was granted by the future King Edward I, in 1261.
The parish church of All Saints was built in 1278, an extension of a chapel built in 1220. The borough had a weekly market and two annual fairs: the Barnaby fair, was on St Barnabas day, the other on the feast of All Saints. In recent years the Barnaby fair has been reinvented as the Barnaby Festival, a cultural festival in mid-June; the weekly market no longer happens but on the last Sunday of each month the Treacle Market is held, a large market selling locally produced food and handmade items such as clothing, handmade goods and pottery. Macclesfield was the administrative centre of the Hundred of Macclesfield, which occupied most of east Cheshire; the Earl of Chester's manor of Macclesfield was large, its boundary extended to Disley. The manor house was on the west of the town; the Earls of Chester established the Forest of Macclesfield, much larger than its present-day namesake. It was used for hunting deer and pasturing sheep and cattle. By the end of the 13th century, large areas of the forest had been ploughed because of the pressure of population growth.
In 1356, two trees from the forest were given to archer William Jauderell to repair his home. Macclesfield Castle was a fortified town house built by John de Macclesfield in the Middle Ages. Construction began in 1398. Contrary to what some believe, no proof exists of Macclesfield being a walled town; when the settlement was first established and for some centuries afterwards there would have been some sort of ditch and palisade round the western side of the town, not defended. This was necessary in order to keep out stray animals. No physical trace of a ditch remains though measurements and the shape of certain streets suggest where such a ditch could have been and most of the medieval building were within this area, it is unlikely that the ditch and palisade were succeeded by a wall for no record has been found of a murage tax, which would have been levied to keep the wall in repair. The suffix "Gate" in the names of several Macclesfield streets has been taken to indicate the former presence of a gate in the sense of a guarded opening in a wall, this is unlikely as the term'gate' is derived from'gata', Scandinavian for road, which became gate in Middle English.
Therefore, Chester Gate, the Jordan Gate and the Church Wall Gate, are referring to the road to/from Chester or the road leading from the church to the well. These names are preserved in the names of three streets in the town, Chestergate and Back Wallgate. During the Civil War, in 1642 the town was occupied for the King by a Royalist. In the Jacobite Rising of 1745, Charles Stuart and his army marched through Macclesfield as they attempted to reach London; the mayor was forced to welcome the prince, the event is commemorated in one of the town's silk tapestries. Armoury Towers was completed in 1858 and the Bridge Street drill hall was completed in 1871. Macclesfield was once the world's biggest producer of finished silk. There were 71 silk mills operating in 1832. Paradise Mill is a working mill museum which demonstrates the art of silk throwing and Jacquard weaving to the public; the four Macclesfield Museums display a range of information and products from that period. Macclesfield is the original home of Hovis breadmakers, produced in Publicity Works Mill on the canal close to Buxton Road.
It was founded by a baker from Stoke-on-Trent. Hovis is said to derive from the Latin "homo-vitalis" as a way of providing a cheap and nutritious food for poor mill workers and was a dry and dense wholemeal loaf different from the modern version. Between 1826 and 1831 the Macclesfield Canal was constructed, linking Macclesfield to Marple to the north and Kidsgrove to the south; the canal was surveyed for its Act of Parliament by the canal and roads engineer Thomas Telford, built by William Crosley, the Macclesfield Canal Company's engineer. It was the last narrow canal to be completed and had only limited success because within ten years much of the coal and other potential cargo was being transported by rail. Waters Green was once home to a nationally known horse market which features in the legend of the Wizard of Alderley Edge. Waters Green and an area opposite Arighi Bianchi, now hidden under the Silk Road held a sheep and cattle market until the 1980s. Macclesfield is said to be the only mill town left unbombed in World War II.
Macclesfield was first represented in Parliament after the Reform Act of 1832, when it was granted two members o
Wilmslow is a town and civil parish in Cheshire, 11 mi south of Manchester. It is one of the most sought-after places to live in the UK after central London, falls within the Cheshire Golden Triangle; the population of Wilmslow was 30,326 in the 2001 Census, reducing to 24,497 at the 2011 Census due to the separation of Handforth to form its own parish. The town is in the parliamentary constituency of Tatton, represented by Esther McVey MP. Wilmslow derives its name from Anglo-Saxon Wīghelmes hlāw = "mound of a man called Wīghelm." Much about the local Iron Age history of Wilmslow was uncovered with the discovery of Lindow Man, in Lindow Moss. Preserved in the peat bogs for 2,000 years, Lindow Man is one of the most important Iron Age finds in the country. Despite a campaign to keep Lindow Man in the area, he was transferred to the British Museum and is a central feature of the Iron Age exhibition. Lindow Man returned to Manchester Museum in April 2008 for a year-long exhibition. Wilmslow was in the international media in March 1997, when an IRA bomb exploded near the railway station damaging signalling equipment.
The original IRA message was confusing and led to the evacuation of the Wilmslow Police Station to the local leisure centre not far from the explosion. Nobody was hurt. In the general election of the same year, the parliamentary constituency of Tatton, in which Wilmslow falls, made headlines as part of the "sleaze" accusations levelled against the Conservative Government. Tatton MP, Neil Hamilton, was accused of accepting cash for tabling Parliamentary questions, subsequently defeated in the election by independent candidate Martin Bell. Bell was supported in his door to door canvasing for votes by David Soul and served a single term as MP. Wilmslow held its first Scarecrow Festival in July 2010 with 85 local businesses taking part and 93 different scarecrows. Organised by the Rotary Club of Wilmslow Dean and the members of the Wilmslow Business Group, the week-long festival has transformed the town centre and received a tremendous response; the Wilmslow Festive 10k organised by Run North West takes part at the end of November each year with runners lining up to take part in the popular event.
The run starts in Wilmslow town centre with 2479 finishers in 2017. Wilmslow was one of the eight ancient parishes of the Macclesfield Hundred of Cheshire, it was subdivided into the townships of Bollinfee, Chorley and Pownall Fee. Under the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 the townships became civil parishes in their own right. Wilmslow was recreated as a civil parish on 30 September 1894 when Pownall Fee and Fulshaw were abolished. Wilmslow gained part of Pownall Fee; the Wilmslow Urban District Council came into being in 1895 consisting only of the previous civil parish of Wilmslow. On 21 June 1951 it was granted its own Coat of Arms. On 1 April 2009 it became part of the Cheshire East unitary authority. On 1 April 1936, Wilmslow lost 19 acres to Alderley Edge; however it gained 3 acres from Chorley and on the abolition of Bollinfee and Styal civil parishes it gained 1, 1,080 and 1,521 acres respectively. Wilmslow along with other towns such as Whitworth and Alderley Edge objected to being part of the metropolitan county Greater Manchester when it was formed in 1974 although the town does form part of the Greater Manchester Urban Area.
According to the United Kingdom Census 2001 the wards of Wilmslow North and Wilmslow South have a combined population of 25,498, of which 13,400 are females and 12,098 are males. In addition, 5197 are aged 16 and under and over. Ethnic white groups account for 95.9% of the population, with ethnic minority groups accounting for 4.1% of the population. A breakdown of religious groups and denominations: Christian – 76.7% Muslim – 1.4% Jewish – 0.7% Hindu – 0.7% Buddhist – 0.4% Sikh – 0.2% Any Other Religion – 0.2% No Religion – 13.3% Religion Not Stated – 6.1% There are three Church of England churches in Wilmslow, St. Bartholomew's, St Anne's and St John's. St Bartholomew's is a 16th-century building, modified in the 19th century, it has a turreted bell tower. The first rector of the church was a Thomas Dale, buried beneath a headstone engraved by him outside the entrance to the church. Wilmslow Methodist Church occupies a modern building close to the town centre, replacing an 1886 building which itself replaced the original 1798 church, built 7 years after John Wesley's death.
The Sacred Heart & St Teresa's Church is the Roman Catholic church and dates from the late 19th century. Dean Row Chapel, 2 miles east of the town centre, is a Grade II* listed building built around the end of the 17th century. Presbyterian, it is now a Unitarian chapel. Situated in the North of England, 11 miles from Manchester city centre and 7 miles from Macclesfield, Wilmslow town centre is focused upon Bank Square, Grove Street and Water Lane. Although Bank Square has traditionally provided the location for many of the town's banks, the name in fact originates from the bank, or slope, leading down to the Carrs and up towards the railway station; the River Bollin flows through The Carrs Park and once provided the power source for nearby Quarry Bank Mill, now a National Trust site, enjoyment for the local population. Before the railway came in 1842, Wilmslow comprised a church. For purposes of the Office for National Statistics, Wilmslow forms part of the Greater Manche
A Christmas carol is a carol whose lyrics are on the theme of Christmas, and, traditionally sung on Christmas itself or during the surrounding holiday season. Christmas carols may be regarded as a subset of the broader category of Christmas music; the first known Christmas hymns may be traced to 4th-century Rome. Latin hymns such as Veni redemptor gentium, written by Ambrose, Archbishop of Milan, were austere statements of the theological doctrine of the Incarnation in opposition to Arianism. Corde natus ex Parentis by the Spanish poet Prudentius is still sung in some churches today. In the 9th and 10th centuries, the Christmas "Sequence" or "Prose" was introduced in Northern European monasteries, developing under Bernard of Clairvaux into a sequence of rhymed stanzas. In the 12th century the Parisian monk Adam of Saint Victor began to derive music from popular songs, introducing something closer to the traditional Christmas carol. In the 13th century, in France and Italy, under the influence of Francis of Assisi a strong tradition of popular Christmas songs in regional native languages developed.
Christmas carols in English first appear in a 1426 work of John Awdlay, a Shropshire chaplain, who lists twenty five "caroles of Cristemas" sung by groups of'wassailers', who went from house to house. The songs we know as carols were communal songs sung during celebrations like harvest tide as well as Christmas, it was only that carols began to be sung in church, to be associated with Christmas. Many carols which have gained popularity today were printed in Piae Cantiones, a collection of late medieval Latin songs, first published in 1582. Early, Latin forms of carols such as "Christ was born on Christmas Day", "Good Christian Men, Rejoice" and "Good King Wenceslas" can be found in this book. "Adeste Fideles" appears in its current form in the mid-18th century, although the words may have originated in the 13th century. The origin of the tune is disputed. Carols gained in popularity after the Reformation in the countries where Protestant churches gained prominence; this was a consequence of the fact.
The publication of Christmas music books in the 19th century helped to widen the popular appeal of carols. The first appearance in print of "God Rest Ye Merry, Gentlemen", "The First Noel", "I Saw Three Ships" and "Hark! The Herald Angels Sing" was in Christmas Carols Modern by William Sandys. Composers like Arthur Sullivan helped to repopularise the carol, it is this period that gave rise to such favourites as "Good King Wenceslas" and "It Came Upon the Midnight Clear", a New England carol written by Edmund H. Sears and Richard S. Willis; the publication in 1871 of Christmas Carols and Old by Henry Ramsden Bramley and Sir John Stainer was a significant contribution to a revival of carols in Victorian Britain. In 1916, Charles Lewis Hutchins published Carols Old and Carols New, a scholarly collection which suffered from a short print run and is rarely available today; the Oxford Book of Carols, first published in 1928 by Oxford University Press, was a notably successful collection. The singing of carols was further popularised in the 20th century when OUP published one of the most popular carol books in the English-speaking world, Carols for Choirs.
First published in 1961 and edited by David Willcocks and Reginald Jacques, this bestselling series has since expanded to a five-volume set. Along with editor John Rutter, the compilers included many arrangements of carols derived from sources such as Piae Cantiones, as well as pieces by modern composers such as William Walton, Benjamin Britten, Richard Rodney Bennett, William Mathias and John Rutter. Today carols are sung at Christian religious services; some compositions have words that are not of a religious theme, but are still referred to as "carols". For example, the 16th-century song "A Bone, God Wot!" Appears to be a wassailing song, but is described in the British Library's Cottonian Collection as a Christmas carol. As as 1865, Christmas-related lyrics were adopted for the traditional English folk song Greensleeves, becoming the internationally popular Christmas carol "What Child is This?". Little research has been conducted on carol singing, but one of the few sociological studies of caroling in the early 21st century in Finland determined that the sources of songs are misunderstood, that it is simplistic to suggest caroling is related to Christian beliefs, for it reinforces preservation of diverse national customs and local family traditions.
A modern form of the practice of caroling can be seen in "Dial-A-Carol," an annual tradition held by students at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, wherein potential audiences call the singers to request a performance over phone call. It is not clear whether the word carol derives from the French "carole" or the Latin "carula" meaning a circular dance. In any case the dancing seems to have been abandoned quite early; the typical 3/4 time would tend to support the latter meaning. Traditionally, carols have been based on medieval chord patterns, it is this that gives them their uniquely characteristi