ChemSpider is a database of chemicals. ChemSpider is owned by the Royal Society of Chemistry; the database contains information on more than 77 million molecules from over 270 data sources including: EPA DSSTox U. S. Food and Drug Administration Human Metabolome Database Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry KEGG KUMGM LeadScope LipidMAPS Marinlit MDPI MICAD MLSMR MMDB MOLI MTDP Nanogen Nature Chemical Biology NCGC NIAID National Institutes of Health NINDS Approved Drug Screening Program NIST NIST Chemistry WebBook NMMLSC NMRShiftDB PANACHE PCMD PDSP Peptides Prous Science Drugs of the Future QSAR R&D Chemicals San Diego Center for Chemical Genomics SGCOxCompounds, SGCStoCompounds SMID Specs Structural Genomics Consortium SureChem Synthon-Lab Thomson Pharma Total TOSLab Building-Blocks UM-BBD UPCMLD UsefulChem Web of Science xPharmEach chemical is given a unique identifier, which forms part of a corresponding URL. For example, acetone is 175, thus has the URL http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.175.html The ChemSpider database can be updated with user contributions including chemical structure deposition, spectra deposition and user curation.
This is a crowdsourcing approach to develop an online chemistry database. Crowdsourced based curation of the data has produced a dictionary of chemical names associated with chemical structures, used in text-mining applications of the biomedical and chemical literature. However, database rights are not waived and a data dump is not available. A number of available search modules are provided: The standard search allows querying for systematic names, trade names and synonyms and registry numbers The advanced search allows interactive searching by chemical structure, chemical substructure, using molecular formula and molecular weight range, CAS numbers, etc; the search can be used to widen or restrict found results. Structure searching on mobile devices can be done using free apps for the Android; the ChemSpider database has been used in combination with text mining as the basis of chemistry document markup. ChemMantis, the Chemistry Markup And Nomenclature Transformation Integrated System uses algorithms to identify and extract chemical names from documents and web pages and converts the chemical names to chemical structures using name-to-structure conversion algorithms and dictionary look-ups in the ChemSpider database.
The result is an integrated system between chemistry documents and information look-up via ChemSpider into over 150 data sources. ChemSpider was acquired by the Royal Society of Chemistry in May, 2009. Prior to the acquisition by RSC, ChemSpider was controlled by ChemZoo Inc.. The system was first launched in March 2007 in a beta release form and transitioned to release in March 2008. ChemSpider has expanded the generic support of a chemistry database to include support of the Wikipedia chemical structure collection via their WiChempedia implementation. A number of services are made available online; these include the conversion of chemical names to chemical structures, the generation of SMILES and InChI strings as well as the prediction of many physicochemical parameters and integration to a web service allowing NMR prediction. SyntheticPages is a free interactive database of synthetic chemistry procedures operated by the Royal Society of Chemistry. Users submit synthetic procedures; these procedures may be original works, but they are more based on literature reactions.
Citations to the original published procedure are made. They are checked by a scientific editor before posting; the pages do not undergo formal peer-review like a scientific journal article but comments can be made by logged-in users. The comments are moderated by scientific editors; the intention is to collect practical experience of how to conduct useful chemical synthesis in the lab. While experimental methods published in an ordinary academic journal are listed formally and concisely, the procedures in ChemSpider SyntheticPages are given with more practical detail. Informality is encouraged. Comments by submitters are included as well. Other publications with comparable amounts of detail include Organic Syntheses and Inorganic Syntheses; the SyntheticPages site was set up by Professors Kevin Booker-Milburn, Stephen Caddick, Peter Scott and Dr Max Hammond. In February 2010 a merger was announced with the Royal Society of Chemistry's chemical structure search engine ChemSpider and the formation of ChemSpider|SyntheticPages.
ChemSpider is serving as the chemical compound repository as part of the Open PHACTS project, an Innovative Medicines Initiative. Open PHACTS will deploy an open standards, open access, semantic web approach to address bottlenecks in small molecule drug discovery - disparate information sources, lack of standards and information overload. NIST PubChem DrugBank ChEBI ChEMBL Software for molecular modeling
The International Pinguicula Study Group Newsletter was the official publication of the International Pinguicula Study Group, a Pinguicula society based in the United Kingdom, active during the 1990s. Typical articles included matters of horticultural interest, field reports, scientific studies. Only 10 issues were released and the newsletter had an irregular publication history. In chronological order, the 10 issues were: volume 1, volume 2, volume 3, volume 4, volume 5, volume 6, volume 7, volume 8, volume 9, volume 10; the International Carnivorous Plant Society hosts an online archive of all ten issues. The International Pinguicula Study Group Newsletter published the formal description of the subspecies Pinguicula macroceras subsp. Nortensis in its February 1997 issue, it established the cultivar name Pinguicula'L'Hautil' in the May/June 1993 issue. Official website
The Tetrapolitan Confession called the Strasbourg Confession or Swabian Confession, was an early Protestant confession of faith drawn up by Martin Bucer and Wolfgang Capito and presented to the Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg on 9 July 1530 on behalf of the four south German cities of Konstanz, Lindau and Strasbourg. The confession was based on an early draft of the Augsburg Confession to which Bucer and Capito had secretly obtained access, but amended in the direction of Zwinglianism, its purpose was to prevent a schism within Protestantism. It is the first confession of the Reformed tradition. Bucer and Capito were called to the Diet of Augsburg by the envoys of Strasbourg, who were aware that Philipp Melanchthon was working on a Saxon Confession that would represent the Lutheran position; the north Germans and thesouth Germans and Swiss had been divided in opinion since 1524 on the subject of the Lord's Supper, with the Lutherans supporting sacramental union and the Zwinglians memorialism.
This division had reached is high point in the Marburg Colloquy between Zwingli and Luther in 1529. The original version of the confession contained the claim authored by Capito, that "Christ the Lord is in the Supper and gives his true body to eat and his blood to drink, but to the spirit, through faith"; the last clause was meant to express a Zwinglian emphasis on the spiritual nature of the sacrament. This was offensive to the Lutherans and at the insistence of Jakob Sturm and Matthis Pfarrer, the Strasbourg envoys, was watered down further; the confession consists of 23 chapters. The first chapter states that nothing should be taught except that, explicitly stated in Scripture, a statement, not found in the Augsburg Confession. For political reasons, the confession was abandoned in practice within a year of its adoption, when the four cities joined the Schmalkaldic League. In 1536, the theologians of Strasbourg signed the Wittenberg Concord that brought the Lutheran and Reformed churches into alignment.
Formally, the Tetrapolitan Confession remained the confession of Strasbourg until 1598. Girolamo Zanchi and Conrad Hubert both appealed to it, but after the 1560s it was regarded as little more than a generic statement of Protestantism. Bucer, stayed true to his confession and recited it on his deathbed. English text