Chemical Markup Language is an approach to managing molecular information using tools such as XML and Java. It was the first domain specific implementation based on XML, first based on a DTD and on an XML Schema, the most robust and used system for precise information management in many areas, it has been developed over more than a decade by Murray-Rust and others and has been tested in many areas and on a variety of machines. Chemical information is traditionally stored in many different file types which inhibit reuse of the documents. CML uses XML's portability to help CML chemists design interoperable documents. There are a number of tools that can generate and view CML documents. Publishers can distribute chemistry within XML documents by using e.g. in RSS documents. CML is capable of supporting a wide range of chemical concepts including: molecules reactions spectra and analytical data computational chemistry chemical crystallography and materialsDetails of CML and points under discussion are now posted on the CML Blog.
Versions of the schema are available at Sourceforge. As of April 2012, the latest frozen schema is CML v2.4. Some constructs in CML v1 are now deprecated. JUMBO began life as the Java Universal Molecular Browser for Objects but is now a Java library that supports validation and writing of CML as well as conversion of several legacy formats to CML and, for example, a reaction in CML to an animated SVG representation of the reaction. JUMBO has evolved into CMLDOM, supporting all elements in the schema. Although JUMBO used to be a browser, the preferred approach is to use the Open Source tools Jmol and JChemPaint, some of which use alternative CML libraries. See Blue Obelisk. List of document markup languages Comparison of document markup languages Software importing and exporting a valid CML format Bioclipse CDK JOELib OpenBabel Avogadro Joint Committee on Atomic and Molecular Physical Data Blue Obelisk community for Open Source chemical software MathML Rzepa, H. S.. "The Internet as a Chemical Information Tool", Chem.
Soc. Rev. 26: 1–10, doi:10.1039/CS9972600001 Murray-Rust, P.. 25: 618–634, doi:10.1039/b008780g Chemical Markup Language This includes the CML Schema, links to tools and source code Discussion list CML Blog The original site The Jmol Browser's site
Phodopus, a genus of rodents in the hamster subfamily Cricetinae—a division of the larger family Cricetidae—is a lineage of small hamsters native to central Asia that display unusual adaptations to extreme temperatures. They are the only known hamsters that live in groups and, in some cases, rely on significant contributions by males to the raising of offspring, they are active throughout the year. Species of Phodopus, together with members of the genera Cricetulus and Tscherskia are called dwarf hamsters because of their small size relative to other hamsters. Like other hamsters, members of Phodopus have a round body shape, short tails and cheek pouches in which they can store food, they all live in dry conditions with extreme temperatures. They inhabit the forests and semi-deserts of Mongolia, Siberia and Kazakhstan. Fossils of Phodopus have been found in Pliocene deposits in Europe and Asia. Phodopus species are sold as small pets, they are used as laboratory organisms for a variety of studies involving seasonal endocrine variation.
Some species are considered to be agricultural pests. All three species are widespread and abundant, are assessed as Least Concern by the IUCN Red List, unlike their larger cousin, the golden hamster, kept as a pet and is listed as Vulnerable. However, their ecology and population dynamics are not well understood. Historical records indicate, they are listed in the Kazakhstan Government Regulation of Approval of Rare and Endangered Animal and Plant Species Index. Phodopus is one of seven genera within the subfamily Cricetinae, a group of rodents distributed throughout Eurasia, it contains hamsters distinguished from other hamsters by small size, short tails and fur covered feet. Fossils assignable to the genus occur in the Pleistocene in Europe and in the Late Pliocene of Kazakhstan, despite the fact that molecular data suggest the lineage is no younger than 8.5 million years. G. S. Miller first described the genus Phodopus in 1910, designating Cricetulus bedfordiae as its type species; the genus name derives from ancient Greek phodos and pous and refers to the large pad on the sole of each foot.
Morphology has proved inadequate in providing characters for phylogenetic analyses of the subfamily Cricetinae, but the group appears to be monophyletic based on molecular analyses. The genus Phodopus is one of three well-supported lineages in Cricetinae, the other two being the genus Mesocricetus and the Cricetus-related group. Analysis of chromosomes supports these three lineages. Phodopus is sister to all other Cricetinae. Using several molecular dating techniques, researchers have determined that the Phodopus lineage may have originated 8.5 to 12.2 million years ago. Other genetic dating analyses suggest a somewhat earlier origination of 13.5–14.1 mya. Fossils assignable to the genus are unknown before about 2.5 million years ago, but failure to identify the remains may contribute to the apparent lack of older fossils. As shown in the cladogram, Phodopus roborovskii is sister to Phodopus campbelli + Phodopus sungorus; the validity of P. campbelli as a species has been controversial. Some biologists consider it to be a subspecies of P. sungorus.
Neumann et al. determined that, at least for cytochrome b, P. campbelli and P. sungorus do not display the level of genetic divergence characteristic of sister rodent species. Both taxa have 2n=28 chromosomes. However, evidence from hybridization with P. sungorus has suggested to some researchers that they are in fact separate species. P. Roborovskii, on the other hand, has levels of genetic divergence from the other two taxa in the genus characteristic of genera among small mammals. P. roborovskii is distinct from the other species morphologically and ecologically. P. roborovskii has 2n=34 chromosomes. For these reasons, Neumann et al. suggest removing P. sungorus and P. campbelli to the genus Cricetiscus. Biologists recognize three species of Phodopus: P. campbelli, P. sungorus and P. roborovskii. The validity of P. Campbelli is in dispute, it has sometimes been considered a subspecies of P. sungorus. The species of Phodopus do not have stable common names among biologists. "Djungarian" and "Siberian" have been applied to both P. sungorus and P. campbelli in the scientific literature, all three species have been called "desert" hamsters as well.
P. Sungorus is known as: Djungarian hamster Russian white or Russian winter white hamster winter white hamster Siberian hamster striped hairy-footed hamster striped desert hamsterP. Campbelli is known as: Djungarian hamster Campbell's hamster Campbell's desert hamsterP. Roborovskii is known as: desert hamster Roborovski hamster Roborovski's desert hamster Robo hamsterBelow is a key to the four species of dwarf hamster kept as pets; some dwarf hamsters are albino, in which case they will be white and the fur colour characteristics will not serve to distinguish them. The characteristics in brackets will allow identification using characters other than pelage, but the traits are comparative and are more difficult to assess; the key is based on Ross 1998. Has a visible tail. Foot pads not fur covered. → Cricetulus griseus Has no
Malignant pleural effusion is a condition in which cancer causes an abnormal amount of fluid to collect between the thin layers of tissue lining the outside of the lung and the wall of the chest cavity. Lung cancer and breast cancer account for about 50-65% of malignant pleural effusions. Other common causes include pleural lymphoma. Clinical factors predicting the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions are symptoms lasting more than 1 month and the absence of fever; this is needed to confirm the presence of a pleural effusion. Chest radiograph is performed first and may demonstrate an underlying lung cancer as well as the pleural effusion. Ultrasound has a sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 100% at distinguishing malignant pleural effusions from other causes of pleural effusion, based on the presence of visible pleural metastases, pleural thickening greater than 1 cm, pleural nodularity, diaphragmatic thickening measuring greater than 7mm and an echogenic swirling pattern visible in the pleural fluid.
Malignant pleural effusions are exudates. A low pleural fluid pH is associated with reduced pleurodesis efficacy. Pleural fluid cytology is positive in 60% of cases. However, in the remaining cases, pleural biopsy is required. Image guided biopsy and thoracoscopy have replaced blind biopsy due to their greater sensitivity and safety profile. CT guided biopsy has a sensitivity of 87% compared to Abrams' needle biopsy, which has a sensitivity of 47%. Identification of pleural fluid biomarkers to distinguish malignant pleural effusions from other causes of exudative effusions would help diagnosis. Biomarkers that have been shown to be raised in malignant pleural effusions compared to benign disease include vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinases and tumour markers such as carcinoembryonic antigen. Pleural fluid mesothelin has a sensitivity of 71%, greater than that of cytology, a specificity of 89% for the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma; the goal of treatment of malignant pleural effusions is relief of shortness of breath.
Treatment of the underlying cancer can cause resolution of the effusion. This may be the case with types of cancer that respond well to chemotherapy, such as small cell carcinoma or lymphoma. Simple aspiration of pleural fluid can relieve shortness of breath but fluid and symptoms will recur within a couple of weeks. Drainage should be done under ultrasound guidance. For this reason, more permanent treatments are used to prevent fluid recurrence. Standard treatment pleurodesis. However, this treatment requires an inpatient stay of 2–7 days, can be painful and has a significant failure rate; this has led to the development of tunneled pleural catheters, which allow outpatient treatment of effusions. If an infection due to the catheter occurs, antibiotics are given and the catheter is left in. A Cochrane review concluded tentatively in favour of thoracoscopy to remove the fluid and blow talc into the pleural cavity compared to other used methods; this article incorporates public domain material from the U.
S. National Cancer Institute document: "Dictionary of Cancer Terms"
Swanton Novers is a village and a civil parish in the English county of Norfolk. The village is 15.1 miles west-south-west of Cromer, 23.1 miles north-north-west of Norwich and 123 kilometres north-north-east of London. The village lies 6 miles south-west of the town of Holt; the nearest railway station is at Sheringham for the Bittern Line which runs between Sheringham and Norwich. The nearest airport is Norwich International Airport. Swanton Novers has an entry in the Domesday Book of 1086, in which the village is recorded by the name Suanetuna; the main tenant was Bishop William. The survey notes that there were 200 sheep; the name Suanetuna means'town or settlement of the swine-herds'. The land was held by Milo de Nuiers in 1200; this name derives from Noyers-Bocage in Normandy. St Edmund's parish church is a little remote from the village; the church has been restored in recent times as it was in a poor state of repair. The church's tower was rebuilt in 1821. Much of the restoration work has been carried out using old building materials from the original church buildings which dates from Norman times.
The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the Parish of Swanton Novers. Mrs. Valerie Hart: 22 July 2019. Mrs. Rosemary Leeder: 22 July 2019. Media related to Swanton Novers at Wikimedia Commons
Autoracing Club Bratislava known as ARC Bratislava, is an auto racing team based in Slovakia. The team is led by Miro Konôpka, driving for the team since its inception. ARC Bratislava are known for competing in the Asian Le Mans Series, where they are the reigning LMP2 Am Champions; the team has competed in various ACO or SRO-sanctioned championships throughout its existence. ARC Bratislava compete in the local ESET V4 Cup, where Konôpka is a three-time overall champion. Notes ^1 – By winning the LMP2 Am trophy, the team was given an automatic entry for the 2019 24 Hours of Le Mans.* – Season still in progress. Notes ^1 – The team was entered under the name Team Slovakia. ^2 – 12 Hours of Sebring only. ^3 – 24 Hours of Le Mans only
Sir John Pettus was an English royalist and natural philosopher. He was the third son of Sir Augustine Pettus of Rackheath, Norfolk, by his second wife, third daughter of Sir Arthur Heveningham of Heveningham, Suffolk, he matriculated at Pembroke College, Cambridge in 1632. He entered the service of Charles I in 1639, was knighted on 25 November 1641, as a mark of the king's favour to Sir Richard Gurney, his father-in-law. Taken prisoner during the First English Civil War by Oliver Cromwell at Lowestoft, he was exchanged after 14 months' confinement in Windsor Castle. Pettus raised a regiment of horse, at his own expense. At the 1645 siege of Bristol his life was saved by Colonel Charles Fleetwood, a relation by marriage. Four charges were brought against him by the parliamentary committees of Norfolk and Suffolk, to two of which he gave satisfactory answers on his examination by the committee of sequestrations in September 1645. In November 1646 the remaining two charges were still unheard. In that year, however, he compounded, receiving support from Charles Fleetwood, whose friendship for him caused Pettus to be suspected of disloyalty to the royalist cause.
He took part in attempts to save the life of Charles I, had to sell some of his property to meet the expenses. After the king's execution Pettus supplied Charles II with money from time to time, he was confined by John Bradshaw for corresponding with the young king Charles, but after examination by the Council of State he was set free on bail of £4,000. In August 1651 he was assessed again but he was deep in debt, paid only £40. In 1655 he addressed a petition to Cromwell, expressing fidelity to his government, became deputy governor of the royal mines. In 1663 Pettus became a Fellow of the Royal Society, he was elected Member of Parliament for Dunwich on 21 March 1670, in 1672 he was appointed deputy lieutenant for Suffolk, deputy to the vice-admiral, colonel of a regiment of the trained bands. In these post he saw service during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, was instrumental in raising £10,000 for the sick and wounded. Wealthy, Pettus had purchased Cheston Hall and other estates. In July 1679 he wrote to William Sancroft from the King's Bench prison, begging for a loan to set him free, in 1683 he was said to be without financial resources.
He remained deputy governor of the royal mines for more than 35 years, with a short break, died in 1690. Pettus published: Fodinæ Regales; this work was undertaken at the Earl of Shaftesbury. England's Independency upon the Papal Power, London, 1674, consisting of reports by Sir John Davies and Sir Edward Coke, with a preface by Pettus. Volatiles from the History of Adam and Eve, containing many unquestioned Truths and allowable Notions of several Natures’ London, 1674; the Case and Justification of Sir J. Pettus … concerning two charitable Bills now depending in the House of Lords, under his care, one for the better settling of Mr. Henry Smith's Estate … the other for settling of charitable uses in the Town of Kelshall, 1677–8; the Constitution of Parliaments in England, deduced from the time of King Edward II, illustrated by King Charles II, in his Parliament summon'd the 18 of Feb. 1660–1, dissolved 24 Jan. 1678–9, with an Appendix of its Sessions, London, 1680. Fleta Minor, or the Laws of Art and Nature … in … assaying, refining … of confin'd Metals, London, 1683.
Translation from Aula Subterranea by Lazarus Ercker. He left unpublished and unfinished works, including an autobiography to 1645. Pettus married Elizabeth Gurney in 1639, they had two children: Richard, who died in 1662 Elizabeth, who married Samuel Sandys, died on 25 May 1714, aged 74. Relations with his wife were unhappy, she deserted him in 1657, returned after five years' absence, but after a short time left him again and entered a nunnery. In 1672 she secured his excommunication. In defence of his conduct he published A Narrative of the Excommunication of Sir J. Pettus, of the County of Suffolk … obtained against him by his lady, a Roman Catholic … with his … Answers to several aspersions raised against him by her, London, 1674. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Pettus, John". Dictionary of National Biography. 45. London: Smith, Elder & Co