Chemical bond

A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions as in ionic bonds or through the sharing of electrons as in covalent bonds; the strength of chemical bonds varies considerably. Since opposite charges attract via a simple electromagnetic force, the negatively charged electrons that are orbiting the nucleus and the positively charged protons in the nucleus attract each other. An electron positioned between two nuclei will be attracted to both of them, the nuclei will be attracted toward electrons in this position; this attraction constitutes the chemical bond. Due to the matter wave nature of electrons and their smaller mass, they must occupy a much larger amount of volume compared with the nuclei, this volume occupied by the electrons keeps the atomic nuclei in a bond far apart, as compared with the size of the nuclei themselves.

In general, strong chemical bonding is associated with the sharing or transfer of electrons between the participating atoms. The atoms in molecules, crystals and diatomic gases—indeed most of the physical environment around us—are held together by chemical bonds, which dictate the structure and the bulk properties of matter. All bonds can be explained by quantum theory, but, in practice, simplification rules allow chemists to predict the strength and polarity of bonds; the octet rule and VSEPR theory are two examples. More sophisticated theories are valence bond theory, which includes orbital hybridization and resonance, molecular orbital theory which includes linear combination of atomic orbitals and ligand field theory. Electrostatics are used to describe bond polarities and the effects they have on chemical substances. A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms; this attraction may be seen as the result of different behaviors of the outermost or valence electrons of atoms. These behaviors merge into each other seamlessly in various circumstances, so that there is no clear line to be drawn between them.

However it remains useful and customary to differentiate between different types of bond, which result in different properties of condensed matter. In the simplest view of a covalent bond, one or more electrons are drawn into the space between the two atomic nuclei. Energy is released by bond formation; this is not as a reduction in potential energy, because the attraction of the two electrons to the two protons is offset by the electron-electron and proton-proton repulsions. Instead, the release of energy arises from the reduction in kinetic energy due to the electrons being in a more spatially distributed orbital compared with each electron being confined closer to its respective nucleus; these bonds exist between two particular identifiable atoms and have a direction in space, allowing them to be shown as single connecting lines between atoms in drawings, or modeled as sticks between spheres in models. In a polar covalent bond, one or more electrons are unequally shared between two nuclei.

Covalent bonds result in the formation of small collections of better-connected atoms called molecules, which in solids and liquids are bound to other molecules by forces that are much weaker than the covalent bonds that hold the molecules internally together. Such weak intermolecular bonds give organic molecular substances, such as waxes and oils, their soft bulk character, their low melting points; when covalent bonds link long chains of atoms in large molecules, however, or when covalent bonds extend in networks through solids that are not composed of discrete molecules the structures that result may be both strong and tough, at least in the direction oriented with networks of covalent bonds. The melting points of such covalent polymers and networks increase greatly. In a simplified view of an ionic bond, the bonding electron transferred. In this type of bond, the outer atomic orbital of one atom has a vacancy which allows the addition of one or more electrons; these newly added electrons occupy a lower energy-state than they experience in a different atom.

Thus, one nucleus offers a more bound position to an electron than does another nucleus, with the result that one atom may transfer an electron to the other. This transfer causes one atom to assume a net positive charge, the other to assume a net negative charge; the bond results from electrostatic attraction between the positive and negatively charged ions. Ionic bonds may be seen as extreme examples of polarization in covalent bonds; such bonds have no particular orientation in space, since they result from equal electrostatic attraction of each ion to all ions around them. Ionic bonds are strong but brittle, since the forces between ions are short-range and do not bridge cracks and fractures; this type of bond gives rise to the physical characteristics of crystals of classic mineral salts, such as table salt. A less mentioned type of bonding is metallic bonding. In this type of bonding, each atom in a metal donates one or more electrons to a "sea" of electrons that reside between many m

Jerrell Freeman

Jerrell Alexander Freeman is a former American football linebacker. He played college football for the Mary Hardin-Baylor Crusaders under Pete Fredenburg and was signed as an undrafted free agent by the Tennessee Titans of the National Football League in 2008, he played three seasons in the Canadian Football League for the Saskatchewan Roughriders, where he led the league in tackles 2011. In 2012, he signed with the Indianapolis Colts of the NFL, spent two seasons with the Chicago Bears. Freeman played four seasons of collegiate football for the Mary Hardin-Baylor Crusaders and was twice named a All-American, including being honored as the 2007 Defensive Player of the Year. When he graduated he left as the school's all-time leading tackler. In his senior year he had 59 tackles, 18 tackles for a loss, six quarterback sacks. Jerrell Freeman declared himself eligible for the 2008 NFL Draft. Although he was not drafted he was signed by the Tennessee Titans following the conclusion of the draft.

He became the first Mary Hardin-Baylor Crusader to be offered an NFL contract. Jerrell Freeman was released by the Titans prior to the start of the 2008 NFL season. In March 2009 Freeman signed with the Saskatchewan Roughriders of the CFL. In the 2009 CFL season Jerrell Freeman was used as a special teams tackler, recording a team high 25 special teams tackles, he was nominated as the team's Most Outstanding Rookie. In his second season with the Riders Freeman saw more time as a regular linebacker, he made the starting lineup for one game in the regular season and started in two playoff games and the Grey Cup. Jerrell Freeman won CFL Defensive Player of the Week honors in week 7 after recording 3 sacks against the BC Lions, he led the team in sacks by the end of the season with 7. The 2011 season was a breakout year for Freeman. Freeman lead the CFL in tackles with 105. Freeman won CFL Defensive Player of the Week in week 10 and earned CFL Defensive Player of the Month for the month of September.

On January 16, 2012, Freeman announced that he had signed a contract with the Indianapolis Colts of the NFL. In Week 1 against the Chicago Bears, Freeman returned a Jay Cutler interception for a touchdown in the first quarter. Freeman had an outstanding first season with the Colts finishing with 2 sacks, his 145 tackles was the fifth highest total in the league. Freeman won the AFC Defensive Player of the Week award for his performance in a 23–7 win over the Kansas City Chiefs on December 22, 2013, he finished the game with 7 tackles, 1 quarterback sack, 1 forced fumble, 1 interception, 3 passes defended. He was initially credited with 2 interceptions, but one was adjusted to a strip/sack for teammate Robert Mathis and a fumble recovery for Freeman. In 2014, he recorded 95 combined tackles, 6 pass deflections, 1 forced fumble in 12 games played. On March 5, 2015, the Colts made a qualifying offer to Freeman, which he signed on April 27. On March 12, 2016, Freeman signed a three-year, $12 million contract with the Chicago Bears.

He was suspended four games on November 21, 2016 for violating the league's performance-enhancing drug policy. On September 12, 2017, Freeman was placed on injured reserve after sustaining a pectoral injury and a concussion in Week 1 against the Atlanta Falcons. On October 30, the Chicago Bears announced that Freeman had been suspended for 10 games for violating the NFL's performance-enhancing drug policy for a second time. Freeman apologized for the suspension, adding that his playing career might be in jeopardy due to a head injury and memory loss. On May 2, 2018, Freeman announced his retirement from the NFL, he was suspended an additional two years by the NFL on May 11, 2018, after failing a third drug test. Saskatchewan Roughriders bio

Donald Regan

Donald Thomas "Don" Regan was the 66th United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1981 to 1985 and the White House Chief of Staff from 1985 to 1987 under Ronald Reagan. In the Reagan administration, he advocated "Reaganomics" and tax cuts as a means to create jobs and to stimulate production. Earlier in his life, he had studied at Harvard University before he served in the United States Marine Corps, achieving the rank of lieutenant colonel. In 1946 he started to work for Merrill Lynch, he served as its chairman and CEO from 1971 to 1980. Born in Cambridge, the son of Kathleen and William Francis Regan, he was of Irish Catholic origins. Regan earned his Bachelor of Arts in English from Harvard College in 1940 and attended Harvard Law School before dropping out to join the Marine Corps at the outset of World War II, he reached the rank of lieutenant colonel. He was involved in five major campaigns, including Okinawa. In 1942, Regan married the former Ann George Buchanan with whom he had four children: Donna Regan Lefeve, Donald T. Regan, Jr. Richard William Regan, Diane Regan Doniger.

After the war, he joined Merrill Lynch & Co. Inc. in 1946 as an account executive trainee. He worked up through the ranks taking over as Merrill Lynch's chairman and CEO in 1971, the year the company went public, he held those positions until 1980. Regan was one of the original directors of the Securities Investor Protection Corporation and was vice chairman of the New York Stock Exchange from 1973 to 1975, he was a major proponent of brokerage firms going public, which he viewed as an important step in the modernization of Wall Street. Under his supervision, Merrill Lynch had its initial public offering on June 23, 1971, becoming only the second Wall Street firm to go public. During his tenure in these two positions, Regan pushed hard for an end to minimum fixed commissions for brokers, which were fees that brokerage companies had to charge clients for every transaction they made on the clients' behalf. Regan saw them as a cartel-like restriction, his lobbying played a large part of fixed commissions being abolished in 1975.

President Ronald Reagan selected Donald Regan in 1981 to serve as Treasury Secretary, marking him as a spokesman for his economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics". He helped engineer changes in the tax code, reduce income tax rates, decrease taxes for corporations. Regan unexpectedly swapped jobs with White House Chief of Staff James Baker in 1985; as chief of staff, Regan was involved in the day-to-day management of White House policy, which led Howard Baker, Regan's successor as chief of staff, to give a rebuke that Regan was becoming a "prime minister" inside an increasingly-complex Imperial Presidency. Regan was forced to resign for disagreeing with the First Lady and for being unable to contain the continuing political damage to President Reagan from the Iran–Contra affair. Regan's 1988 memoir, For the Record: From Wall Street to Washington, exposes his disagreements with First Lady Nancy Reagan, revealing publicly that she had a personal astrologer, revealed to be Joan Quigley with whom she consulted and who helped steer the president's decisions.

Regan wrote: Virtually every major move and decision the Reagans made during my time as White House Chief of Staff was cleared in advance with a woman in San Francisco who drew up horoscopes to make certain that the planets were in a favorable alignment for the enterprise. Donald Regan is portrayed by Frank Moore in the 2003 TV movie The Reagans. "And the horse you rode in on" was a favorite saying of Regan. He learned it from a poker buddy in Texas who said "fuck you and the horse you rode in on." Regan adopted the latter part of the phrase. In the portrait of Regan that hangs on the third floor of the treasury, the title of a book in the background reads And the Horse You Rode In On."You've got to give loyalty down if you want loyalty up.""You're gonna have to speed it up", or "Speed it up", was a phrase that Regan infamously said to President Reagan during one of his speeches ordering him to hurry up, as shown in Michael Moore's documentary, Capitalism: A Love Story. Regan retired in Virginia with Ann Regan, his wife of over 60 years.

In late life, he spent nearly 10 hours a day in his art studio painting landscapes. He had nine grandchildren. Regan died of cancer on June 10, 2003, at the age of 84, in a hospital near his home in Williamsburg, Virginia, he was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. Biography as Secretary of the Treasury Donald Regan at Find a Grave