The Electric Oxygen Iodine Laser, or ElectricOIL, or EOIL, is an infrared hybrid electrical / chemical laser. Its output wavelength is µm, the wavelength of transition of atomic iodine; the lasing state I* is produced by near-resonant energy transfer with the singlet oxygen metastable O2. EOIL technology represents a unique class of hybrid electric gas high-energy laser with the potential to have inherently higher beam quality than solid state systems, while being more logistically friendly than current Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser systems; the principal advantage of such an inherently high beam quality system is the trade of a small fixed mass in electrical generation and heat exchanger hardware for the massive fluid supply and large tankage associated with COIL devices. Since the first reporting of a viable electric discharge-driven oxygen-iodine laser system by CU Aerospace and the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, there have been a number of other successful demonstrations of gain and laser power.
Computational modeling of the discharge and post-discharge kinetics has been an invaluable tool in EOIL development, allowing analysis of the production of various discharge species and determination of the influence of NOX species on system kinetics. Ionin et al. and Heaven provide comprehensive topical reviews of discharge production of O2 and various EOIL studies. The highest gain in an EOIL device reported to date is 0.30% / cm, the highest output power reported is 538 W. Over the past five years of research and development of the EOIL device, higher performance and efficiency have been obtained by moving towards higher operating flow rates and pressures
An optical fiber is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass or plastic to a diameter thicker than that of a human hair. Optical fibers are used most as a means to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber and find wide usage in fiber-optic communications, where they permit transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths than electrical cables. Fibers are used instead of metal wires. Fibers are used for illumination and imaging, are wrapped in bundles so they may be used to carry light into, or images out of confined spaces, as in the case of a fiberscope. Specially designed fibers are used for a variety of other applications, some of them being fiber optic sensors and fiber lasers. Optical fibers include a core surrounded by a transparent cladding material with a lower index of refraction. Light is kept in the core by the phenomenon of total internal reflection which causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. Fibers that support many propagation paths or transverse modes are called multi-mode fibers, while those that support a single mode are called single-mode fibers.
Multi-mode fibers have a wider core diameter and are used for short-distance communication links and for applications where high power must be transmitted. Single-mode fibers are used for most communication links longer than 1,000 meters. Being able to join optical fibers with low loss is important in fiber optic communication; this is more complex than joining electrical wire or cable and involves careful cleaving of the fibers, precise alignment of the fiber cores, the coupling of these aligned cores. For applications that demand a permanent connection a fusion splice is common. In this technique, an electric arc is used to melt the ends of the fibers together. Another common technique is a mechanical splice, where the ends of the fibers are held in contact by mechanical force. Temporary or semi-permanent connections are made by means of specialized optical fiber connectors; the field of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers is known as fiber optics.
The term was coined by Indian physicist Narinder Singh Kapany, acknowledged as the father of fiber optics. Guiding of light by refraction, the principle that makes fiber optics possible, was first demonstrated by Daniel Colladon and Jacques Babinet in Paris in the early 1840s. John Tyndall included a demonstration of it in his public lectures in London, 12 years later. Tyndall wrote about the property of total internal reflection in an introductory book about the nature of light in 1870:When the light passes from air into water, the refracted ray is bent towards the perpendicular... When the ray passes from water to air it is bent from the perpendicular... If the angle which the ray in water encloses with the perpendicular to the surface be greater than 48 degrees, the ray will not quit the water at all: it will be reflected at the surface.... The angle which marks the limit where total reflection begins is called the limiting angle of the medium. For water this angle is 48°27′, for flint glass it is 38°41′, while for diamond it is 23°42′.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, light was guided through bent glass rods to illuminate body cavities. Practical applications such as close internal illumination during dentistry appeared early in the twentieth century. Image transmission through tubes was demonstrated independently by the radio experimenter Clarence Hansell and the television pioneer John Logie Baird in the 1920s. In the 1930s, Heinrich Lamm showed that one could transmit images through a bundle of unclad optical fibers and used it for internal medical examinations, but his work was forgotten. In 1953, Dutch scientist Bram van Heel first demonstrated image transmission through bundles of optical fibers with a transparent cladding; that same year, Harold Hopkins and Narinder Singh Kapany at Imperial College in London succeeded in making image-transmitting bundles with over 10,000 fibers, subsequently achieved image transmission through a 75 cm long bundle which combined several thousand fibers. Their article titled "A flexible fibrescope, using static scanning" was published in the journal Nature in 1954.
The first practical fiber optic semi-flexible gastroscope was patented by Basil Hirschowitz, C. Wilbur Peters, Lawrence E. Curtiss, researchers at the University of Michigan, in 1956. In the process of developing the gastroscope, Curtiss produced the first glass-clad fibers. A variety of other image transmission applications soon followed. Kapany coined the term fiber optics, wrote a 1960 article in Scientific American that introduced the topic to a wide audience, wrote the first book about the new field; the first working fiber-optical data transmission system was demonstrated by German physicist Manfred Börner at Telefunken Research Labs in Ulm in 1965, followed by the first patent application for this technology in 1966. NASA used fiber optics in the television cameras. At the time, the use in the cameras was classified confidential, employees handling the cameras had to be supervised by someone with an appropriate security clearance. Charles K. Kao and George A. Hockham of the British company Standard Telephones and Cables were the first, in 1965, to promote the idea that the attenuation in optical fibers could be reduced below 20 decibels per kilometer, making fibers a practical communication medium.
They proposed th
The Boeing YAL-1 Airborne Laser Testbed weapons system was a megawatt-class chemical oxygen iodine laser mounted inside a modified Boeing 747-400F. It was designed as a missile defense system to destroy tactical ballistic missiles while in boost phase; the aircraft was designated YAL-1A in 2004 by the U. S. Department of Defense; the YAL-1 with a low-power laser was test-fired in flight at an airborne target in 2007. A high-energy laser was used to intercept a test target in January 2010, the following month destroyed two test missiles. Funding for the program was cut in 2010 and the program was canceled in December 2011, it made its final flight on February 14, 2012 to Davis–Monthan Air Force Base in Tucson, Arizona to be kept in storage at the "Boneyard" by the 309th Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Group. It was scrapped in September 2014 after all usable parts were removed; the Airborne Laser Laboratory was a less-powerful prototype installed in a Boeing NKC-135A. It shot down several missiles in tests conducted in the 1980s.
The Airborne Laser program was initiated by the US Air Force in 1996 with the awarding of a product definition risk reduction contract to Boeing's ABL team. In 2001, the program was converted to an acquisition program; the development of the system was being accomplished by a team of contractors. Boeing Defense, Space & Security provides the aircraft, the management team and the systems integration processes. Northrop Grumman was supplying the COIL, Lockheed Martin was supplying the nose turret and the fire control system. In 2001, a retired Air India 747-200 was acquired by the Air Force, trucked without its wings from the Mojave Airport to Edwards Air Force Base where the airframe was incorporated into the System Integration Laboratory building at Edwards' Birk Flight Test Center, to be used to fit check and test the various components; the SIL was built to test the COIL at a simulated operational altitude, during that phase of the program, the laser was operated over 50 times, achieving lasing durations representative of actual operational engagements.
These tests qualified the system so that it could be integrated into the actual aircraft. Following the completion of the tests, the laboratory was dismantled, the 747-200 fuselage was removed. Boeing completed initial modifications to a new 747-400F off the production line in 2002, culminating in its first flight on July 18, 2002 from Boeing's Wichita, Kansas facility. Ground testing of the COIL resulted in its successful firing in 2004; the YAL-1 was assigned to the 417th Flight Test Squadron Airborne Laser Combined Test Force at Edwards AFB. Besides the COIL, the system included two kilowatt-class Target Illuminator Lasers for target tracking. On March 15, 2007, the YAL-1 fired this laser in flight, hitting its target; the target was an NC-135E Big Crow test aircraft, specially modified with a "signboard" target on its fuselage. The test validated the system's ability to track an airborne target and measure and compensate for atmospheric distortion; the next phase in the test program involved the "surrogate high-energy laser", a stand-in for the COIL, demonstrated the transition from target illumination to simulated weapons firing.
The COIL system was installed in the aircraft and undergoing ground testing by July 2008. In an April 6, 2009 press conference, the Secretary of Defense Robert Gates recommended the cancellation of the planned second ABL aircraft and said that the program should return to a Research and Development effort. "The ABL program has significant affordability and technology problems and the program's proposed operational role is questionable," Gates said in making the recommendation. There was a test launch off the California coast on June 6, 2009. At that time it was anticipated that the new Airborne Laser Aircraft could be ready for operation by 2013 after a successful test. On August 13, 2009 the first in-flight test of the YAL-1 culminated with a successful firing of the SHEL at an instrumented test missile; the U. S. Missile Defense Agency on August 18, 2009 fired the high-energy laser aboard the aircraft in flight for the first time; the YAL-1 took off from Edwards Air Force Base and fired its high-energy laser while flying over the California High Desert.
The laser was fired into an onboard calorimeter, which measured its power. In January 2010, the high-energy laser was used in-flight to intercept, although not destroy, a test Missile Alternative Range Target Instrument in the boost phase of flight. On February 11, 2010 in a test at Point Mugu Naval Air Warfare Center-Weapons Division Sea Range off the central California coast, the system destroyed a liquid-fuel boosting ballistic missile. Less than an hour after that first missile had been destroyed, a second missile—a solid-fuel design—had, as announced by the MDA, been "successfully engaged", but not destroyed, that all test criteria had been met; the MDA announcement noted that ABL had destroyed an identical solid-fuel missile in flight eight days earlier. This test was the first time that a directed-energy system destroyed a ballistic missile in any phase of flight, it was reported that the first February 11 engagement required 50% less dwell time than expected to destroy the missile, the second engagement on the solid-fuel missile, less than an hour had to be cut short before it could be destroyed because of a "beam misalignment" problem.
Secretary of Defense Gates summarized fundamental concerns with the practicality of the program concept: "I don't know anybody at the Department of Defense, Mr. Tiahrt, who thinks that this program should, or woul
A dye laser is a laser which uses an organic dye as the lasing medium as a liquid solution. Compared to gases and most solid state lasing media, a dye can be used for a much wider range of wavelengths spanning 50 to 100 nanometers or more; the wide bandwidth makes them suitable for tunable lasers and pulsed lasers. The dye rhodamine 6G, for example, can be tuned from 635 nm to 560 nm, produce pulses as short as 16 femtoseconds. Moreover, the dye can be replaced by another type in order to generate an broader range of wavelengths with the same laser, from the near-infrared to the near-ultraviolet, although this requires replacing other optical components in the laser as well, such as dielectric mirrors or pump lasers. Dye lasers were independently discovered by P. P. Sorokin and F. P. Schäfer in 1966. In addition to the usual liquid state, dye lasers are available as solid state dye lasers. SSDL use dye-doped organic matrices as gain medium. A dye laser uses a gain medium consisting of an organic dye, a carbon-based, soluble stain, fluorescent, such as the dye in a highlighter pen.
The dye is mixed with a compatible solvent, allowing the molecules to diffuse evenly throughout the liquid. The dye solution streamed through open air using a dye jet. A high energy source of light is needed to'pump' the liquid beyond its lasing threshold. A fast discharge flashtube or an external laser is used for this purpose. Mirrors are needed to oscillate the light produced by the dye’s fluorescence, amplified with each pass through the liquid; the output mirror is around 80% reflective, while all other mirrors are more than 99.9% reflective. The dye solution is circulated at high speeds, to help avoid triplet absorption and to decrease degradation of the dye. A prism or diffraction grating is mounted in the beam path, to allow tuning of the beam; because the liquid medium of a dye laser can fit any shape, there are a multitude of different configurations that can be used. A Fabry–Pérot laser cavity is used for flashtube pumped lasers, which consists of two mirrors, which may be flat or curved, mounted parallel to each other with the laser medium in between.
The dye cell is a thin tube equal in length to the flashtube, with both windows and an inlet/outlet for the liquid on each end. The dye cell is side-pumped, with one or more flashtubes running parallel to the dye cell in a reflector cavity; the reflector cavity is water cooled, to prevent thermal shock in the dye caused by the large amounts of near-infrared radiation which the flashtube produces. Axial pumped lasers have a hollow, annular-shaped flashtube that surrounds the dye cell, which has lower inductance for a shorter flash, improved transfer efficiency. Coaxial pumped lasers have an annular dye cell that surrounds the flashtube, for better transfer efficiency, but have a lower gain due to diffraction losses. Flash pumped. A ring laser design is chosen for continuous operation, although a Fabry–Pérot design is sometimes used. In a ring laser, the mirrors of the laser are positioned to allow the beam to travel in a circular path; the dye cell, or cuvette, is very small. Sometimes a dye jet is used to help avoid reflection losses.
The dye is pumped with an external laser, such as a nitrogen, excimer, or frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. The liquid is circulated at high speeds, to prevent triplet absorption from cutting off the beam. Unlike Fabry–Pérot cavities, a ring laser does not generate standing waves which cause spatial hole burning, a phenomenon where energy becomes trapped in unused portions of the medium between the crests of the wave; this leads to a better gain from the lasing medium. The dyes used in these lasers contain rather organic molecules which fluoresce. Most dyes have a short time between the absorption and emission of light, referred to as the fluorescence lifetime, on the order of a few nanoseconds. Under standard laser-pumping conditions, the molecules emit their energy before a population inversion can properly build up, so dyes require rather specialized means of pumping. Liquid dyes have an high lasing threshold. In addition, the large molecules are subject to complex excited state transitions during which the spin can be "flipped" changing from the useful, fast-emitting "singlet" state to the slower "triplet" state.
The incoming light excites the dye molecules into the state of being ready to emit stimulated radiation. In this state, the molecules emit light via fluorescence, the dye is transparent to the lasing wavelength. Within a microsecond or less, the molecules will change to their triplet state. In the triplet state, light is emitted via phosphorescence, the molecules absorb the lasing wavelength, making the dye opaque. Flashlamp-pumped lasers need a flash with an short duration, to deliver the large amounts of energy necessary to bring the dye past threshold before triplet absorption overcomes singlet emission. Dye lasers with an external pump-laser can direct enough energy of the proper wavelength into the dye with a small amount of input energy, but the dye must be circulated at high speeds to keep the triplet molecules out of the beam path. Due to their high absorption, the pumping energy may be concentrated into a rather small volume of liquid. Since organic dyes tend to decompose under the influence of light, the d
Fused quartz or fused silica is glass consisting of silica in amorphous form. It differs from traditional glasses in containing no other ingredients, which are added to glass to lower the melt temperature. Fused silica, has high working and melting temperatures. Although the terms fused quartz and fused silica are used interchangeably, the optical and thermal properties of fused silica are superior to those of fused quartz and other types of glass due to its purity. For these reasons, it finds use in situations such as semiconductor fabrication and laboratory equipment, it transmits ultraviolet better than other glasses, so is used to make lenses and optics for the ultraviolet spectrum. The low coefficient of thermal expansion of fused quartz makes it a useful material for precision mirror substrates. Fused quartz is produced by fusing high-purity silica sand. There are four basic types of commercial silica glass: Type I is produced by induction melting natural quartz in a vacuum or an inert atmosphere.
Type II is produced by fusing quartz crystal powder in a high-temperature flame. Type III is produced by burning SiCl4 in a hydrogen-oxygen flame. Type IV is produced by burning SiCl4 in a water vapor-free plasma flame. Quartz contains only silicon and oxygen, although commercial quartz glass contains impurities; the most dominant impurities are titanium. Melting is effected at 1650°C using either an electrically heated furnace or a gas/oxygen-fuelled furnace. Fused silica can be made from any silicon-rich chemical precursor using a continuous process which involves flame oxidation of volatile silicon compounds to silicon dioxide, thermal fusion of the resulting dust; this results in a transparent glass with an ultra-high purity and improved optical transmission in the deep ultraviolet. One common method involves adding silicon tetrachloride to a hydrogen–oxygen flame, but this precursor results in environmentally unfriendly byproducts including chlorine and hydrochloric acid. Fused quartz is transparent.
The material can, become translucent if small air bubbles are allowed to be trapped within. The water content is determined by the manufacturing process. Flame-fused material always has a higher water content due to the combination of the hydrocarbons and oxygen fuelling the furnace, forming hydroxyl groups within the material. An IR grade material has an content of <10 parts per million. Most of the applications of fused silica exploit its wide transparency range, which extends from the UV to the near IR. Fused silica is the key starting material for optical fiber, used for telecommunications; because of its strength and high melting point, fused silica is used as an envelope for halogen lamps and high-intensity discharge lamps, which must operate at a high envelope temperature to achieve their combination of high brightness and long life. Vacuum tubes with silica envelopes allowed for radiation cooling by incandescent anodes; because of its strength, fused silica was used in deep diving vessels such as the bathysphere and benthoscope.
Fused silica is used to form the windows of manned spacecraft, including the Space Shuttle and International Space Station. The combination of strength, thermal stability, UV transparency makes it an excellent substrate for projection masks for photolithography, its UV transparency finds uses in the semiconductor industry. EPROMs are recognizable by the transparent fused quartz window which sits on top of the package, through which the silicon chip is visible, which permits exposure to UV light during erasing. Due to the thermal stability and composition, it is used in semiconductor fabrication furnaces. Fused quartz has nearly ideal properties for fabricating first surface mirrors such as those used in telescopes; the material behaves in a predictable way and allows the optical fabricator to put a smooth polish onto the surface and produce the desired figure with fewer testing iterations. In some instances, a high-purity UV grade of fused quartz has been used to make several of the individual uncoated lens elements of special-purpose lenses including the Zeiss 105mm f/4.3 UV Sonnar, a lens made for the Hasselblad camera, the Nikon UV-Nikkor 105mm f/4.5 lens.
These lenses are used for UV photography, as the quartz glass has a lower extinction rate than lenses made with more common flint or crown glass formulas. Fused quartz can be metallised and etched for use as a substrate for high-precision microwave circuits, the thermal stability making it a good choice for narrowband filters and similar demanding applications; the lower dielectric constant than alumina allows thinner substrates. Fused quartz is the material used for modern glass instruments such as the glass harp and the verrophone, is used for new builds of the historical glass harmonica. Here, the superior strength and structure of fused quartz gives it a greater dynamic range and a clearer sound than the used lead crystal. Fused silica as an industrial raw material is used to make various refractory shapes such as crucibles, trays and rollers for many high-temperature thermal processes including steelmaking, investment casting, glass manufacture. Refractory shapes made from fused silica hav
In metallurgy, stainless steel known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable, is a steel alloy, with highest percentage contents of iron and nickel, with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass and a maximum of 1.2% carbon by mass. Stainless steels are most notable for their corrosion resistance, which increases with increasing chromium content. Additions of molybdenum increase corrosion resistance in reducing acids and against pitting attack in chloride solutions. Thus, there are numerous grades of stainless steel with varying chromium and molybdenum contents to suit the environment the alloy must endure. Stainless steel's resistance to corrosion and staining, low maintenance, familiar luster make it an ideal material for many applications where both the strength of steel and corrosion resistance are required. Stainless steels are rolled into sheets, bars and tubing to be used in: cookware, surgical instruments, major appliances. Stainless steel's corrosion resistance, the ease with which it can be steam cleaned and sterilized, no need for surface coatings has influenced its use in commercial kitchens and food processing plants.
Stainless steels do not suffer uniform corrosion, like carbon steel, when exposed to wet environments. Unprotected carbon steel rusts when exposed to the combination of air and moisture; the resulting iron oxide surface layer is fragile. Since iron oxide occupies a larger volume than the original steel this layer expands and tends to flake and fall away exposing the underlying steel to further attack. In comparison, stainless steels contain sufficient chromium to undergo passivation, spontaneously forming a microscopically thin inert surface film of chromium oxide by reaction with the oxygen in air and the small amount of dissolved oxygen in water; this passive film prevents further corrosion by blocking oxygen diffusion to the steel surface and thus prevents corrosion from spreading into the bulk of the metal. This film is self-repairing if it is scratched or temporarily disturbed by an upset condition in the environment that exceeds the inherent corrosion resistance of that grade; the resistance of this film to corrosion depends upon the chemical composition of the stainless steel, chiefly the chromium content.
Corrosion of stainless steels can occur. It is customary to distinguish between 4 forms of corrosion: uniform, galvanic and SCC. Uniform corrosion takes place in aggressive environments chemical production or use and paper industries, etc; the whole surface of the steel is attacked and the corrosion is expressed as corrosion rate in mm/year Corrosion tables provide guidelines This is the case when stainless steels are exposed to acidic or basic solutions. Whether a stainless steel corrodes depends on the kind and concentration of acid or base, the solution temperature. Uniform corrosion is easy to avoid because of extensive published corrosion data or easy to perform laboratory corrosion testing. However, stainless steels are susceptible to localized corrosion under certain conditions, which need to be recognized and avoided; such localized corrosion is problematic for stainless steels because it is unexpected and difficult to predict. Acidic solutions can be categorized into two general categories, reducing acids such as hydrochloric acid and dilute sulfuric acid, oxidizing acids such as nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid.
Increasing chromium and molybdenum contents provide increasing resistance to reducing acids, while increasing chromium and silicon contents provide increasing resistance to oxidizing acids. Sulfuric acid is one of the largest tonnage industrial chemical manufactured. At room temperature Type 304 is only resistant to 3% acid while Type 316 is resistant to 3% acid up to 50 °C and 20% acid at room temperature, thus Type 304 is used in contact with sulfuric acid. Type 904L and Alloy 20 are resistant to sulfuric acid at higher concentrations above room temperature. Concentrated sulfuric acid possesses oxidizing characteristics like nitric acid and thus silicon bearing stainless steels find application. Hydrochloric acid will damage any kind of stainless steel, should be avoided. All types of stainless steel resist attack from phosphoric acid and nitric acid at room temperature. At high concentration and elevated temperature attack will occur and higher alloy stainless steels are required. In general, organic acids are less corrosive than mineral acids such as hydrochloric and sulfuric acid.
As the molecular weight of organic acids increase their corrosivity decreases. Formic acid is a strong acid. Type 304 can be used with formic acid. Acetic acid is the most commercially important of the organic acids and Type 316 is used for storing and handling acetic acid. Stainless steels Type 304 and 316 are unaffected by any of the weak bases such as ammonium hydroxide in high concentrations and at high temperatures; the same grades of stainless exposed to stronger bases such as sodium hydroxide at high concentrations and high temperatures will experience some etching and cracking. Increasing chromium and nickel contents provide increasing resistance. All grades resist damage from aldehydes and amines, though in the latter
TRW Inc. was an American corporation involved in a variety of businesses aerospace and credit reporting. It was a pioneer in multiple fields including electronic components, integrated circuits, computers and systems engineering. TRW built many spacecraft, including Pioneer 1, Pioneer 10, several space-based observatories, it was #57 on the 1986 Fortune 500 list, had 122,258 employees. In 1958 the company was called Thompson Ramo Wooldridge, after three prominent leaders; this was shortened to TRW. The company's roots were founded in 1901, it lasted for more than a century until being acquired by Northrop Grumman in 2002, it helped create a variety of corporations, including Pacific Semiconductors, the Aerospace Corporation, Bunker-Ramo, TRW Automotive, now part of ZF Friedrichshafen. People coming from TRW were important to building up corporations like SpaceX. In 1953, the company was recruited to lead the development of the United States' first ICBM. Starting with the initial design by Convair, the multi-corporate team launched Atlas in 1957.
It flew its full range in 1958, was adapted to fly the Mercury astronauts into orbit. TRW led development of the Titan missile, adapted to fly the Gemini missions; the company served the US Air Force as systems engineers on all subsequent ICBM development efforts, but TRW never produced any missile hardware because of the conflict of interest. In 1960, Congress spurred the formation of the non-profit Aerospace Corporation to provide systems engineering to the US government, but TRW continued to guide the ICBM efforts. TRW originated in 1901 with the Cleveland Cap Screw Company, founded by David Kurtz and four other Cleveland residents, their initial products were bolts with heads electrically welded to the shafts. In 1904, a welder named Charles E. Thompson adapted their process to making automobile engine valves, and, by 1915, the company was the largest valve producer in the United States. Charles Thompson was named general manager of the company, which became Thompson Products in 1926, their experimental hollow sodium-cooled valves aided Charles Lindbergh's solo flight across the Atlantic.
In 1937, Thompson Motor Products bought J. A. Drake and Sons; the company made high-performance valves that were used in many racing engines of the day, including the Miller Offy. Dale Drake bought the Offy engine design with his partner Louis Meyer in 1946 and won the Indianapolis 500 twenty-seven times, more than any other engine design. During the period leading up to World War II, through the end of the Korean war, Thompson Products was a key manufacturer of component parts for aircraft engines, including aircraft valves; the TAPCO plant, owned by the US government but operated by Thompson Products, extended for a mile along Cleveland's Euclid Avenue. It employed over 16,000 workers at the peak of WW II production; as jet aircraft replaced piston-engined aircraft, Thompson Products became a major manufacturer of turbine blades for jet engines In 1950, Simon Ramo and Dean Wooldridge while working for Hughes Aircraft, led the development of the Falcon radar-guided missile, among other projects.
They grew frustrated with Howard Hughes' management, formed the Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation in September 1953, with the financial support of Thompson Products. The detonation of a thermonuclear bomb by the Soviet Union spurred Trevor Gardner to form the Teapot Committee in October 1953. Chaired by John von Neumann, its purpose was to study the development of ballistic missiles, including ICBMs. Ramo and Wooldridge were committee members, Ramo-Wooldridge Corp. became the lead contractor of the resulting ICBM development effort, reporting to the United States Air Force. With continued backing from Thompson Products, Ramo-Wooldridge diversified into computers and electronic components, founding Pacific Semiconductors in 1954, they produced scientific spacecraft such as Pioneer 1. Thompson Products and Ramo-Wooldridge merged in October 1958 to form Thompson Ramo Wooldridge Inc. unofficially known as "TRW". In February 1959, Jimmy Doolittle became Chairman of the Board of Space Technology Laboratories, the division which continued to support the Air Force ICBM efforts.
Other aerospace companies challenged that TRW's Air Force advisory role granted it unfair access to its competitors' technology, in September 1959 the United States Congress issued a report recommending that STL be converted to a non-profit organization. With nearly half of STL's employees, The Aerospace Corporation was formed in June 1960, which headed the Atlas conversion for Mercury, Titan conversion for Gemini, provides ongoing systems engineering support for the United States government; the Air Force continued its ICBM work with TRW. Dean Wooldridge retired in January 1962 to become a professor at California Institute of Technology. Simon Ramo became President of the Bunker-Ramo Corp in January 1964, a company jointly owned by TRW and Martin Marietta for the production of computers and computer monitors. Thompson Ramo Wooldridge became TRW Inc. in July 1965. Free of anti-competitive restrictions except regarding ICBM hardware, STL was renamed TRW Systems Group in July 1965. In 1968, the company entered the credit reporting industry by purchasing Credit Data Corporation and renaming it TRW Information Systems and Services Inc. a subsidiary of the company.
The Credit Data group was formed in 1970 to compete with Dun & Bradstreet, from the combination of TRWISS and ESL, acquired in 1978, specializing in technical strategic reconnaissance. TRW Information Systems and Services Division was spun off in 1996 to form Experian. TRW acquired LucasVarity in 1999 sold Lucas Diesel Systems to Delphi Automotive, L