A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Nuclear chemistry is a sub-discipline of chemistry that involves the reactions of unstable. The substance initially involved in a reaction are called reactants or reagents. Chemical reactions are characterized by a chemical change, and they yield one or more products. Reactions often consist of a sequence of individual sub-steps, the elementary reactions. Chemical reactions are described with chemical equations, which present the starting materials, end products. Chemical reactions happen at a characteristic reaction rate at a given temperature, typically, reaction rates increase with increasing temperature because there is more thermal energy available to reach the activation energy necessary for breaking bonds between atoms. Reactions may proceed in the forward or reverse direction until they go to completion or reach equilibrium, Reactions that proceed in the forward direction to approach equilibrium are often described as spontaneous, requiring no input of free energy to go forward. Non-spontaneous reactions require input of energy to go forward. Different chemical reactions are used in combinations during chemical synthesis in order to obtain a desired product, in biochemistry, a consecutive series of chemical reactions form metabolic pathways. These reactions are catalyzed by protein enzymes. Chemical reactions such as combustion in fire, fermentation and the reduction of ores to metals were known since antiquity, in the Middle Ages, chemical transformations were studied by Alchemists. They attempted, in particular, to lead into gold, for which purpose they used reactions of lead. The process involved heating of sulfate and nitrate minerals such as sulfate, alum. In the 17th century, Johann Rudolph Glauber produced hydrochloric acid and sodium sulfate by reacting sulfuric acid, further optimization of sulfuric acid technology resulted in the contact process in the 1880s, and the Haber process was developed in 1909–1910 for ammonia synthesis. From the 16th century, researchers including Jan Baptist van Helmont, Robert Boyle, the phlogiston theory was proposed in 1667 by Johann Joachim Becher. It postulated the existence of an element called phlogiston, which was contained within combustible bodies. This proved to be false in 1785 by Antoine Lavoisier who found the explanation of the combustion as reaction with oxygen from the air
A thermite reaction using iron(III) oxide. The sparks flying outwards are globules of molten iron trailing smoke in their wake.
Antoine Lavoisier developed the theory of combustion as a chemical reaction with oxygen
Sodium chloride is formed through the redox reaction of sodium metal and chlorine gas
Solid heterogeneous catalysts are plated on meshes in ceramic catalytic converters in order to maximize their surface area. This exhaust converter is from a Peugeot 106 S2 1100