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A chemoreceptor known as chemosensor, is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces a chemical substance and generates a biological signal. This signal may be in the form of an action potential if the chemoreceptor is a neuron, or in the form of a neurotransmitter that can activate a nearby nerve fiber if the chemosensor is a specialized sensory receptor cell, such as the taste receptor in a taste bud or in an internal peripheral chemoreceptor such as the carotid body. In more general terms, a chemosensor detects toxic or hazardous chemicals in the internal or external environment of the human body and transmits that information to the central nervous system, in order to expel the biologically active toxins from the blood, prevent further consumption of alcohol and/or other acutely toxic recreational intoxicants. Plants have various mechanisms to perceive danger in their environment. Plants are able to detect microbes through surface level receptor kinases. Additionally, receptor-like proteins containing ligand binding receptor domains capture pathogen-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular patterns which initiates the plant's innate immunity for a defense response.

Plant receptor kinases are used for growth and hormone induction among other important biochemical processes. These reactions are triggered by a series of signaling pathways which are initiated by plant chemically sensitive receptors. Plant hormone receptors can either be integrated in plant cells or situate outside the cell, in order to facilitate chemical structure and composition. There are 5 major categories of hormones that are unique to plants which once bound to the receptor, will trigger a response in target cells; these include auxin, abscisic acid, gibberellin and ethylene. Once bound, hormones can inhibit, or maintain function of the target response. There are two main classes of chemoreceptor: distance. Examples of distance chemoreceptors are: olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory system: Olfaction involves the ability to detect chemicals in the gaseous state. In vertebrates, the olfactory system detects pheromones in the nasal cavity. Within the olfactory system there are two anatomically distinct organs: the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ.

It was thought that the MOE is responsible for the detection of odorants, while the VNO detects pheromones. The current view, however, is that both systems can detect pheromones. Olfaction in invertebrates differs from olfaction in vertebrates. For example, in insects, olfactory sensilla are present on their antennae. Examples of direct chemoreceptors include: Taste receptors in the gustatory system: The primary use of gustation as a type of chemoreception is for the detection of tasteants. Aqueous chemical compounds come into contact with chemoreceptors in the mouth, such as taste buds on the tongue, trigger responses; these chemical compounds can either trigger an appetitive response for nutrients, or a defensive response against toxins depending on which receptors fire. Fish and crustaceans, who are in an aqueous environment, use their gustatory system to identify certain chemicals in the mixture for the purpose of localization and ingestion of food. Insects use contact chemoreception to recognize certain chemicals such as cuticular hydrocarbons and chemicals specific to host plants.

Contact chemoreception is more seen in insects but is involved in the mating behavior of some vertebrates. The contact chemoreceptor is specific to one type of chemical. Olfaction: In terrestrial vertebrates, olfaction occurs in the nose. Volatile chemical stimuli enter the nose and reach the olfactory epithelium which houses the chemoreceptor cells known as olfactory sensory neurons referred to as OSNs. Embedded in the olfactory epithelium are three types of cells: supporting cells, basal cells, OSNs. While all three types of cells are integral to normal function of the epithelium, only OSN serve as receptor cells, i.e. responding to the chemicals and generating an action potential that travels down the olfactory nerve to reach the brain. In insects, antennae act as distance chemoreceptors. For example, antennae on moths are made up of long feathery hairs that increase sensory surface area; each long hair from the main antenna has smaller sensilla that are used for volatile olfaction. Since moths are nocturnal animals, the development of greater olfaction aids them in navigating the night.

Gustation: In many terrestrial vertebrates, the tongue serves as the primary gustatory sensory organ. As a muscle located in the mouth, it acts to manipulate and discern the composition of food in the initial stages of digestion; the tongue is rich in vasculature, allowing the chemoreceptors located on the top surface of the organ to transmit sensory information to the brain. Salivary glands in the mouth allow for molecules to reach chemoreceptors in an aqueous solution; the chemoreceptors of the tongue fall into two distinct superfamilies of G protein-coupled receptors. GPCR's are intramembrane proteins than bind to an extracellular ligand- in this case chemicals from food- and begin a diverse array of signaling cascades that can result in an action potential registering as input in an organism's brain. Large quantities of chemoreceptors with discrete ligand-binding domains provide for the five basic tastes: sour, bitter and savory; the salty and sour tastes work directly through the ion channels, the sweet and bitter taste work through G protein-coupled receptors, the savory sensation is

Madison Buffalo Jump State Park

Madison Buffalo Jump State Park is a Montana state park located seven miles south of the Interstate 90 interchange at Logan in Gallatin County, Montana in the United States. The park preserves a canyon cliff used by Native Americans as a buffalo jump, where herds of bison were stampeded over the cliff as an efficient means of slaughter; the main geographic features of the jump site remain unchanged since the days of the jumps. Archaeologists have found tons of bison bones buried at the base of the cliffs, they have uncovered the remains of tipi villages. The buffalo jump at Madison Buffalo Jump State Park was used by numerous Native American tribes for 2000 years, dating as far back as 500 B. C. and ending around 1750 A. D; the indigenous peoples stampeded the herds of bison off the cliff without the aid of guns. They used the bison for food, clothing and shelter; the bison were forced into a stampede by young men known as runners. The runners were trained for speed; the bison were forced into groups by linear cairns and logs that were placed to funnel the bison into specific locations on areas in behind the cliff face.

The introduction of the horse to North America by European explorers and settlers brought about the end of the buffalo jumps. The State park has not changed much over the years; the buffalo jump along the Madison River was used by numerous tribes including the Hidatsa, Lakota, Nez Perce, Arapaho, Cheyenne, Crow, Gros Ventres and Assiniboine. The families of the runners from the tribes would camp at the base of the cliffs. From there they were able to process the bison; the meat was used for food and the meat, not eaten right away was dried. Skins were used for tipis and horns and bones were used for various types of tools; the park is 638 acres of which the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation owns 617 acres, with Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks owning the remaining acreage. There is a small picnic area near the parking lot. An interpretive hiking trail leads visitors to the top of the cliff. Madison Buffalo Jump State Park is a day-use park, open year-round for hiking, wildlife observation, limited picnicking.

Madison Buffalo Jump State Park Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks Madison Buffalo Jump State Park Trail Map Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks

Dynasty (1981 TV series, season 3)

The third season of Dynasty aired in the United States on ABC from September 29, 1982 through April 20, 1983. The series, created by Richard and Esther Shapiro and produced by Aaron Spelling, revolves around the Carringtons, a wealthy family residing in Denver, Colorado. Season three stars John Forsythe as millionaire oil magnate Blake Carrington. In season three, Dynasty introduced Gordon Thomson in the role of Adam Carrington and Alexis's eldest child, kidnapped as an infant never found. According to Thomson, "They had planned on Adam being an impostor but they liked him so much they decided to keep him on, they tested me for 13 shows extended that to 24." Steven Carrington was recast with Jack Coleman in 1983, the change in appearance attributed to plastic surgery after an oil rig explosion. Dynasty was ranked #5 in the United States for season three; the April 1983 episode "The Threat", which features the first use of the word "bitch" in a prime time network series as well as a catfight between Krystle and Alexis in a lily pond, was ranked #67 on the 2009 TV Guide list of "Top 100 Episodes".

In the third season, Alexis acquires his company, ColbyCo. In the meantime, the long-lost son of Alexis and Blake, kidnapped in infancy, reappears in Denver and starts an affair with Fallon before they discover they are siblings. Introduced are Krystle's ex-husband, tennis pro Mark Jennings, Kirby Anders, the daughter of longtime Carrington majordomo Joseph. Kirby weds Jeff after his divorce from Fallon. In the middle of the season, news that Steven has been killed in an accident in Indonesia comes to the Carringtons. In the third-season cliffhanger, Alexis lures Krystle to Steven's cabin and the two are locked inside while the cabin is set ablaze by an unseen arsonist. John Forsythe as Blake Carrington Linda Evans as Krystle Carrington Pamela Sue Martin as Fallon Carrington Pamela Bellwood as Claudia Blaisdel John James as Jeff Colby Lloyd Bochner as Cecil Colby Gordon Thomson as Adam Carrington Kathleen Beller as Kirby Anders Geoffrey Scott as Mark Jennings Heather Locklear as Sammy Jo Carrington Jack Coleman as Steven Carrington Lee Bergere as Joseph Anders Joan Collins as Alexis Carrington Paul Burke as Neal McVane James Hong as Dr. Chen Ling Tim O'Connor as Crayford Christine Belford as Susan Farragut Joanne Linville as Claire Maynard Kabir Bedi as Farouk Ahmed Simon MacCorkindale as Billy Dawson Hank Brandt as Morgan Hess Peter Mark Richman as Andrew Laird David Hedison as Sam Dexter Grant Goodeve as Chris DeeganCast notes In season three, Dynasty was ranked #5 in the United States with a 22.4 Nielsen rating.

Dynasty – list of episodes on IMDb

Baruch Levine

Baruch Levine is a Canadian-born American Orthodox Jewish composer and singer whose songs have become popular and classic throughout the Orthodox Jewish world. His slow, heartfelt tunes have gained wide popularity at Shabbat tables and kumzits gatherings. One of his most successful compositions is "Vezakeini", derived from the ancient prayer recited at Shabbat candle lighting. Baruch Levine was raised in Toronto, Canada, he attended Eitz Chaim Day School, where his father, Rabbi Michoel Levine, is a fifth-grade rebbi. He studied at The Toras Moshe and Mir Yeshivas in Jerusalem Levine earned a master's degree in educational leadership, as well as teaching degrees from several institutions, he received his rabbinic ordination from the Jerusalem rabbinical court. After Levine got married, he moved to Connecticut. In 2005, he joined the staff of the Yeshiva Ketana of Connecticut as a fifth-grade rebbi, he is the sgan menahel for the yeshiva. Levine has three children - Nechama and Yisroel. Levine first began singing at the age of 8 in his school choir.

Soon after he began studying keyboard, performed at school and in summer camp during his youth. He tried out for a spot on the album The Marvelous Middos Machine and was not accepted, but he did sing on a Miriam Israeli album. After his marriage, Levine began writing songs. One of his demos came to the attention of several music producers, who asked Levine why he wasn't performing his own songs; this led to the production of Levine's first album, Vezakeini, in 2006. The title song, which took him ten minutes to write, has become a relative classic in the Orthodox Jewish world. Like many of Levine's hits, it is a heartfelt tune with a rising crescendo. On his second album, Chasan Hatorah, Levine performed a medley of his compositions that other performers had made famous. For Levine's 2009 album, Touched by a Niggun, Rabbi Yechiel Spero, author of the Touched by a Story series of books, wrote the English lyrics to the songs, which are based on his stories. In 2010 Levine performed live in concert with Yaakov Shwekey.

Levine was a guest performer at the 12th Siyum HaShas on August 1, 2012, at MetLife Stadium, attended by nearly 100,000 Jews. He performs at charity benefits. On November 27, 2011 he performed together with Shwekey in a concert benefiting Hatzolah in London, he was featured at the HASC 27 "A Time for Music" concert on January 12, 2013. Vezakeini Chasan Hatorah Touched by a Niggun Hashkifah Modim Anachnu Lach Project Relax with Simcha Leiner Bonim Atem Project Relax Again with Simcha Leiner Peduscha Baruch Levine singing Vezakeini


Solms-Hohensolms-Lich was a County with Imperial immediacy in what is today the federal Land of Hessen, Germany. The county was created as a union of the counties of Solms-Hohensolms and Solms-Lich, it was raised to a Principality of the Holy Roman Empire in 1792. Solms-Hohensolms-Lich was mediatised to Austria, Hesse-Darmstadt, Prussia and Württemberg in 1806; the House of Solms had its origins at Hesse. The prince of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich still resides at Schloss Lich in Lich; the House of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich is a Hessian princely family, a line of the House of Solms-Braunfels. The House of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich were imperial counts, raised to the rank of Imperial Prince in 1792

Dennis Scott (rugby league)

Dennis Scott is an Australian former professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1990s and 2000s for the Melbourne Storm, Canterbury Bulldogs and the Brisbane Broncos. Scott began playing junior rugby league for Moranbah Sharks before being graded by Brisbane. Scott made his first grade debut for Brisbane against Auckland in Round 22 1996. Scott played with Brisbane up until the end of 1998 but did not play in the clubs back to back premiership victories. In 1999, Scott joined Canterbury-Bankstown and played more over the next 5 seasons but was not selected to play in the clubs 2004 premiership winning side. In 2005, Scott joined Melbourne Storm and played 1 season with them before retiring at the end of the season. Canterbury Bulldogs profile