Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen. Chemotherapy may be given with a curative intent, or it may aim to prolong life or to reduce symptoms. Chemotherapy is one of the major categories of the medical discipline devoted to pharmacotherapy for cancer, called medical oncology; the term chemotherapy has come to connote non-specific usage of intracellular poisons to inhibit mitosis, cell division. The connotation excludes more selective agents; the development of therapies with specific molecular or genetic targets, which inhibit growth-promoting signals from classic endocrine hormones are now called hormonal therapies. By contrast, other inhibitions of growth-signals like those associated with receptor tyrosine kinases are referred to as targeted therapy; the use of drugs constitutes systemic therapy for cancer in that they are introduced into the blood stream and are therefore in principle able to address cancer at any anatomic location in the body.
Systemic therapy is used in conjunction with other modalities that constitute local therapy for cancer such as radiation therapy, surgery or hyperthermia therapy. Traditional chemotherapeutic agents are cytotoxic by means of interfering with cell division but cancer cells vary in their susceptibility to these agents. To a large extent, chemotherapy can be thought of as a way to damage or stress cells, which may lead to cell death if apoptosis is initiated. Many of the side effects of chemotherapy can be traced to damage to normal cells that divide and are thus sensitive to anti-mitotic drugs: cells in the bone marrow, digestive tract and hair follicles; this results in the most common side-effects of chemotherapy: myelosuppression and alopecia. Because of the effect on immune cells, chemotherapy drugs find use in a host of diseases that result from harmful overactivity of the immune system against self; these include rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis and many others.
There are a number of strategies in the administration of chemotherapeutic drugs used today. Chemotherapy may be given with a curative intent or it may aim to prolong life or to palliate symptoms. Induction chemotherapy is the first line treatment of cancer with a chemotherapeutic drug; this type of chemotherapy is used for curative intent. Combined modality chemotherapy is the use of drugs with other cancer treatments, such as surgery, radiation therapy, or hyperthermia therapy. Consolidation chemotherapy is given after remission in order to prolong the overall disease-free time and improve overall survival; the drug, administered is the same as the drug that achieved remission. Intensification chemotherapy is identical to consolidation chemotherapy but a different drug than the induction chemotherapy is used. Combination chemotherapy involves treating a person with a number of different drugs simultaneously; the drugs differ in their mechanism and side-effects. The biggest advantage is minimising the chances of resistance developing to any one agent.
The drugs can be used at lower doses, reducing toxicity. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is given prior to a local treatment such as surgery, is designed to shrink the primary tumor, it is given for cancers with a high risk of micrometastatic disease. Adjuvant chemotherapy is given after a local treatment, it can be used when there is little evidence of cancer present. It is useful in killing any cancerous cells that have spread to other parts of the body; these micrometastases can be treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and can reduce relapse rates caused by these disseminated cells. Maintenance chemotherapy is a repeated low-dose treatment to prolong remission. Salvage chemotherapy or palliative chemotherapy is given without curative intent, but to decrease tumor load and increase life expectancy. For these regimens, in general, a better toxicity profile is expected. All chemotherapy regimens require. Performance status is used as a measure to determine whether a person can receive chemotherapy, or whether dose reduction is required.
Because only a fraction of the cells in a tumor die with each treatment, repeated doses must be administered to continue to reduce the size of the tumor. Current chemotherapy regimens apply drug treatment in cycles, with the frequency and duration of treatments limited by toxicity; the efficiency of chemotherapy depends on the type of the stage. The overall effectiveness ranges from being curative for some cancers, such as some leukemias, to being ineffective, such as in some brain tumors, to being needless in others, like most non-melanoma skin cancers. Dosage of chemotherapy can be difficult: If the dose is too low, it will be ineffective against the tumor, whereas, at excessive doses, the toxicity will be intolerable to the person receiving it; the standard method of determining chemotherapy dosage is based on calculated body surface area. The BSA is calculat
Euprotomus aurisdianae, common name the Diana conch, is a species of small to medium-sized sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Strombidae, the true conchs. The maximum shell length of this species is up to 90 mm, but it more grows to 70 mm in size. Euprotomus aurisdianae has a solid shell which has a nearly elliptical contour; the shell has a high pointed spire and an irregular body whorl, ornamented with large knobs and distinguishable and divergent ridges. The flaring outer lip has a characteristic posterior expansion, with an aspect similar to that of a spine, that extends itself posteriorly as far as half the length of the apex. Liration is present near the posterior ends of the outer lip; the inner lip is smooth with a thin callus. The siphonal canal is bent, the stromboid notch is deep distinguishable; the shell color can vary from dull cream with irregular darker spots and lines. The ventral callus and inner lip are glossy white; the aperture is rich orange or pink interiorly, becomes paler towards the outer lip margin.
This species occurs in the Indo-West Pacific, from central East Africa, to the north to Japan and south to northern Queensland, Australia. Euprotomus aurisdianae is known to live in intertidal and shallow subtidal zones, it dwells in shallow water coral reef areas, such as coral sand, grassy sand flats and dead coral, to a maximum depth of around 10 m. This species is known to be a herbivore; this sea snail is collected for food wherever it is abundant. The shell of Euprotomus aurisdianae is used in shellcraft, is sold in local markets in the central and northern Philippines. "Euprotomus aurisdianae". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 23 March 2011
Kåre Kleivan was a Norwegian journalist. He was from Tromsø, started his journalistic career in Nordlys in 1937. During the German occupation of Norway he studied law at the University of Oslo and contributed to the illegal press before escaping to neutral Sweden, where he worked in the Norwegian legation in Stockholm, he is known for escorting the Jewish family Smith from Northern Norway to Finland, away from German forces, in 1940. For this he was declared as a Righteous among the Nations in 2006, he worked in Associated Press from 1945 to 1948 in the newspaper Verdens Gang. From 1970 to 1984 he was a leader of the political department in the newspaper, he chaired the local union Oslo Journalistklubb from 1972 to 1975 and was a national board member of the Norwegian Union of Journalists from 1962 to 1968. He was a member of the Workers' Youth League and the Norwegian Labour Party, was a member of the Norwegian Support Committee for Spain and chaired the Norway–Israel Associasion, he was married to a Danish woman and had three children.
He died in February 1998