Forest County, Wisconsin
Forest County is a county in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,304, its county seat is Crandon. The Forest County Potawatomi Community and the Sokaogon Chippewa Community have reservations in Forest County. Forest County was created by the Wisconsin State Legislature in 1885 from portions of neighboring Langlade and Oconto counties; the county was named for the forests contained within its limits. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,046 square miles, of which 1,014 square miles is land and 32 square miles is water. Florence County - northeast Marinette County - east Oconto County - southeast Langlade County - southwest Oneida County - west Vilas County - northwest Iron County, Michigan - north Y55 - Crandon Municipal Airport Nicolet National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 10,024 people, 4,043 households, 2,769 families residing in the county; the population density was 10 people per square mile. There were 8,322 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 85.86% White, 11.30% Native American, 1.18% Black or African American, 0.17% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, 1.22% from two or more races. 1.08% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 34.3% were of German, 11.4% Polish, 7.4% Irish and 5.4% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 95.5 % spoke 1.0 % Potawatomi as their first language. Out of the 4,043 households, 29.20% have children under the age of 18, 54.00% have a married couple living together, 9.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.50% were non-families. 28.20% of all households were made up of individuals living alone, 13.20%, of individuals of 65 years of age or older living alone. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.89. The age distribution in the county's population is as follows: 25.30% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 23.90% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, 19.30% 65 years of age or older.
The median age is 40 years. For every 100 females there were 100.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.00 males. Crandon Argonne Laona Mole Lake Newald Wabeno Bagdad Keith National Register of Historic Places listings in Forest County, Wisconsin Youth Community Conservation Improvement Program. Memories of Forest County: A Historical Research Project. N.p. n.p. 1980. Forest County Forest County map from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation Forest County tourism Forest County Potawatomi City of Crandon
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars. In forestry, the term logging is sometimes used narrowly to describe the logistics of moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest a sawmill or a lumber yard. In common usage, the term may cover a range of forestry or silviculture activities. Illegal logging refers to, it can refer to the harvesting, purchase, or sale of timber in violation of laws. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corrupt means to gain access to forests. Clearcut logging is not considered a type of logging but a harvesting or silviculture method, is called clearcutting or block cutting. In the forest products industry logging companies may be referred to as logging contractors, with the smaller, non-union crews referred to as "gyppo loggers". Cutting trees with the highest value and leaving those with lower value diseased or malformed trees, is referred to as high grading, it is sometimes called selective logging, confused with selection cutting, the practice of managing stands by harvesting a proportion of trees.
Logging refers to above-ground forestry logging. Submerged forests exist on land, flooded by damming to create reservoirs; such trees are by the lowering of the reservoirs in question. Ootsa Lake and Williston Lake in British Columbia, Canada are notable examples where timber recovery has been needed to remove inundated forests. Clearcutting, or clearfelling, is a method of harvesting that removes all the standing trees in a selected area. Depending on management objectives, a clearcut may or may not have reserve trees left to attain goals other than regeneration, including wildlife habitat management, mitigation of potential erosion or water quality concerns. Silviculture objectives for clearcutting, a focus on forestry distinguish it from deforestation. Other methods include shelterwood cutting, group selective, single selective, seed-tree cutting, patch cut, retention cutting; the above operations can be carried out by different methods, of which the following three are considered industrial methods: Trees are felled and delimbed and topped at the stump.
The log is transported to the landing, where it is bucked and loaded on a truck. This leaves the slash in the cut area, where it must be further treated if wild land fires are of concern. Trees and plants are felled and transported to the roadside with top and limbs intact. There have been advancements to the process which now allows a logger or harvester to cut the tree down and delimb a tree in the same process; this ability is due to the advancement in the style felling head. The trees are delimbed and bucked at the landing; this method requires. In areas with access to cogeneration facilities, the slash can be chipped and used for the production of electricity or heat. Full-tree harvesting refers to utilization of the entire tree including branches and tops; this technique removes both nutrients and soil cover from the site and so can be harmful to the long term health of the area if no further action is taken, depending on the species, many of the limbs are broken off in handling so the end result may not be as different from tree-length logging as it might seem.
Cut-to-length logging is the process of felling, delimbing and sorting at the stump area, leaving limbs and tops in the forest. Harvesters fell the tree and buck it, place the resulting logs in bunks to be brought to the landing by a skidder or forwarder; this method is available for trees up to 900 mm in diameter. Harvesters are employed in level to moderately steep terrain. Harvesters are computerized to optimize cutting length, control harvesting area by GPS, use price lists for each specific log to archive most economical results during harvesting. Felled logs are generally transported to a sawmill to be cut into lumber, to a paper mill for paper pulp, or for other uses, for example, as fence posts. Many methods have been used to move logs from where they were cut to a rail line or directly to a sawmill or paper mill; the cheapest and most common method is making use of a river's current to float floating tree trunks downstream, by either log driving or timber rafting. To help herd the logs to the mill, in 1960 the Alaskan Lumber and Pulp Mill had a specially designed boat, constructed of 1 1⁄2 inch steel.
In the late 1800s and the first half of the 1900s, the most common method was the high-wheel loader, a set of wheels over ten feet tall that the log or logs were strapped beneath. Oxen were at first used with the high-wheel loaders. In 1960 the largest high wheel loader was built for service in California. Called the Bunyan Buggie, the unit was self-propelled and had wheels 24 feet high and a front dozer blade, 30 feet across and 6 feet high. Log transportation can be challenging and costly since trees are far from roads or watercourses. Road building and maintenance may be restricted in National Forests or other wilderness areas since it can cause erosion in riparian zones; when felled logs sit adja
Florence (CDP), Wisconsin
Florence is an unincorporated census-designated place in and the county seat of Florence County, United States. Florence is located in northern Florence County, in the town of Florence. Florence has a post office with ZIP code 54121; the community was named a census-designated place in 2010. As of the 2010 census, its population was 592. Florence is located at 45°55′20″N 88°15′06″W at an elevation of 1,306 feet. Florence is situated in the Northern Highland region of Wisconsin near the Michigan border. Fisher Lake is located to the south of the community, Fisher Creek runs to its east; the community of Commonwealth is 1 mile south of Florence. The nearest city to Florence is Iron Mountain, 11.5 miles to the southeast. US Highway 2 and US Highway 141 run through the community, Wisconsin Highway 70 and Wisconsin Highway 101 terminate in western Florence. Florence High School is the area's public high school. Kenneth L. Greenquist, member of the Wisconsin State Senate, was born in Florence. Charles White Whittlesey, Medal of Honor recipient in World War I, was born in Florence.
Sanborn fire insurance maps: 1884 1891 1898 1904
Park Falls, Wisconsin
Park Falls is a city in Price County, United States. The population was 2,462 at the 2010 census. Located in the woods of north central Wisconsin the Chequamegon National Forest, Park Falls is a small community divided by the North Fork of the Flambeau River, a popular destination for fishing and whitewater rafting; the city began in the late 19th century. It was renamed Park Falls for the scenic beauty surrounding the former falls on the south side of town. With a pulp and paper mill, the town grew and was incorporated as a city in 1912. At the height of the city's industrial success the city's population swelled to more than 4,000 residents. At the same time, commercial development fueled a sizeable downtown, which remains today. Several residential neighborhoods along 1st Avenue North, were constructed of nearly identical homes, this affordable housing stock is one of the community's lasting assets. Recent development, which began in the early 1990s, has been concentrated along Wis. Highway 13, a north-south highway, the city's main thoroughfare.
Several governmental offices are located in Park Falls, including a school district, a National Forest Service office, an outpost of the Wisconsin Department of National Resources, the northern office of the state governor. Park Falls is located at 45°56′5″N 90°26′55″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.83 square miles, of which, 3.60 square miles is land and 0.23 square miles is water. Park Falls is served by the Park Falls Municipal Airport. Located two miles northeast of the city, the airport handles 6,750 operations per year, with 97% general aviation and 3% air taxi; the airport has a 3,200 foot asphalt runway with approved GPS approaches. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,462 people, 1,096 households, 622 families residing in the city; the population density was 683.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,283 housing units at an average density of 356.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.7% White, 0.4% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 2.3% Pacific Islander, 1.6% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.0% of the population. There were 1,096 households of which 25.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.7% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 43.2% were non-families. 36.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.78. The median age in the city was 46.9 years. 21.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.9% male and 51.1% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,793 people, 1,185 households, 718 families residing in the city; the population density was 787.1 people per square mile. There were 1,302 housing units at an average density of 366.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.99% White, 0.11% African American, 0.43% Native American, 0.86% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.07% from other races, 0.50% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.07% of the population. There were 1,185 households out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.1% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.4% were non-families. 35.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.88. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 24.3% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, 23.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $33,860, the median income for a family was $42,930. Males had a median income of $31,855 versus $20,959 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,929. About 5.5% of families and 10.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.1% of those under age 18 and 6.5% of those age 65 or over.
The Flambeau River Papers Corporation, a namesake of the Flambeau River, was once the largest employer in the area. The mill, which closed in early 2006, underwent many name changes throughout its more than 100-year history, its closure was a significant economic shock for the community. Local and state officials offered relocation, educational and mental health services for displaced workers. A buyer was found for the mill and it was reopened in August 2006 as Flambeau River Papers. Park Falls is home to St. Croix Rod, a fishing rod company, a factory for Weather Shield, a window manufacturer; the Park Falls School District is geographically the largest school district in Wisconsin. The school district combined with the Glidden school district creating the Chequamegon School District starting from the 2009-10 school year. WPFP AM 980, Freedom Talk WCQM FM 98.3, Country The abundance of public forests and several lakes, including the Turtle-Flambeau Flowage to the east of the city, has made Park Falls a destination for outdoor enthusiasts.
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. National Forests are forest and woodland areas owned collectively by the American people through the federal government, managed by the United States Forest Service, a division of the United States Department of Agriculture; the National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, signed under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison. It was the result of concerted action by Los Angeles-area businessmen and property owners who were concerned by the harm being done to the watershed of the San Gabriel Mountains by ranchers and miners. Abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing 190 million acres of land; these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the mountain ranges of the Western United States.
Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands. The U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two distinctly different types of forests within the National Forest system; those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were acquired by the federal government since 1891, may be second growth forests. The land had long been in the private domain and sometimes logged since colonial times, but was purchased by the United States government in order to create new National Forests; those west of the Great Plains in the Western United States, though established since 1891, are on lands with ownership maintained by the federal government since the U. S. acquisition and settling of the American West. These are lands that were kept in the public domain, with the exception of inholdings and donated or exchanged private forest lands. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection and recreation.
Unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, in many cases encouraged. However, the first-designated wilderness areas, some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands; these conflicts center on endangered species protection, logging of old-growth forests, intensive clear cut logging, undervalued stumpage fees, mining operations and mining claim laws, logging/mining access road-building within National Forests. Additional conflicts arise from concerns that the grasslands and forest understory are grazed by sheep, and, more rising numbers of elk and mule deer due to loss of predators. Many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests. List of U. S. National Forests United States National Grassland National Forests of the United States topics State forest National Forest Management Act of 1976 Protected areas of the United States USDA Forest Service USDA Forest Service - The First Century 100 Years of Federal Forestry
Price County, Wisconsin
Price County is a county in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,159, its county seat is Phillips. Price County was created on March 3, 1879, when Wisconsin Governor William E. Smith signed legislation creating the county; the county was organized in 1882. William T. Price, for whom Price County was named, was President of Wisconsin Senate and an early logger in Price County. S. Congress; the county was formed from portions of Lincoln counties. The first white settler in what is now Price County was Major Isaac Stone, who located on the Spirit River in 1860 to engage in lumbering. Price County continues today to be a large producer of raw timber. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,278 square miles, of which 1,254 square miles is land and 24 square miles is water; the highest natural point in Wisconsin, Timms Hill at 1,951 feet, is located in Price County. KPBH - Price County Airport KPKF - Park Falls Municipal Airport 5N2 - Prentice Airport Chequamegon National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 15,822 people, 6,564 households, 4,417 families residing in the county.
The population density was 13 people per square mile. There were 9,574 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.22% White, 0.10% Black or African American, 0.60% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.15% from other races, 0.60% from two or more races. 0.73% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 44.4% were of German, 6.5% Norwegian, 5.9% Swedish, 5.4% Polish, 5.2% Irish and 5.0% Czech ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 6,564 households out of which 28.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.50% were married couples living together, 6.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.70% were non-families. 28.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.80% under the age of 18, 5.80% from 18 to 24, 25.80% from 25 to 44, 25.70% from 45 to 64, 18.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 101.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.00 males. Park Falls Phillips Catawba Kennan Prentice Ogema Coolidge Kaiser Kennedy Knox Mills National Register of Historic Places listings in Price County, Wisconsin Price County Price County map at Wisconsin Department of Transportation Price County Historical Society
Taylor County, Wisconsin
Taylor County is a county in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 20,689, its county seat is Medford. The earliest recorded event in Taylor county occurred in 1661, when Wisconsin was part of New France. A band of Huron Indians from eastern Ontario had fled the Iroquois and taken refuge near the headwaters of the Black River around Lake Chelsea in the northeast part of the county. Father René Menard, a French Jesuit priest who had travelled up the Great Lakes as far as Keweenaw Bay in upper Michigan, heard that these Hurons were starving, he decided to try to reach them to baptize them, despite scant supplies. In mid-summer he and a French fur trader set out, following rivers and streams in birchbark canoes down into Wisconsin. A day's journey from the Huron camp, Father Menard separated from his travelling companion at a rapids to carry some supplies, he was never seen again. The place where he disappeared is believed to be the dells of the Big Rib River, below Goodrich in the southeast corner of Taylor county.
On June 8, 1847, before any settlers or loggers, a team of surveyors entered the county southwest of Medford, where County E now enters from Clark County. They were working for the U. S. government, marking a north–south line called the Fourth Principal Meridian, from which much of the land in the state would be measured. For six days they worked their way through woods and swamps, up what is now the southern part of E and across the valley, now the Mondeaux Flowage, before continuing north into what is now Price County; the head of the team wrote of the trip: During four consecutive weeks there was not a dry garment in the party, day or night... we were surrounded and as excoriated by swarms or rather clouds of mosquitoes, still more troublesome insects... On their way through the county and other surveyors recorded a forest dominated by hemlock, yellow birch and sugar maple, with white pine the fourth or sixth most frequent; the mix of tree species resembled today's Gerstberger Pines grove southeast of Rib Lake.
Logging began in the late 1850s. Loggers came from Cortland County, New York, Carroll County, New Hampshire, Orange County and Down East Maine in what is now Washington County and Hancock County, Maine; these were "Yankee" migrants, to say they were descended from the English Puritans who had settled New England during the 1600s. As a result of this heritage many of the towns in Taylor County are named after towns in New England such as Chelsea, named after Chelsea and Westboro, named after Westborough, Massachusetts. Medford was named after Massachusetts. Loggers came up the rivers and floated pine logs out in spring and early summer log drives, down the Big Rib River into the Wisconsin River, down the Black River to the south, west down the Jump and the Yellow River into the Chippewa. In 1872 and 73 the Wisconsin Central Railroad built its line up through Stetsonville, Whittlesey and Westboro, with a spur to Rib Lake, on its way to Ashland. To finance building this line, the U. S. Government gave the railroad half the land, the odd-numbered sections, of a good share of the county.
The railroad began to haul out the trees. Most early settlement was along this railroad, with few settlers in the west or east ends of the county by the 1890s. In 1875 Taylor County with its current boundaries was carved out of the larger Chippewa and Clark counties and a bit of Marathon, with the county seat at Medford; the county was named for Wisconsin's governor at the time, William Robert Taylor. At the time all of Taylor County's inhabitants were Yankee migrants from New England, which influenced the naming of the county, as William Robert Taylor was from Connecticut of English descent, it was divided into four towns—Westboro, Chelsea and Little Black—each stretching the width of the county. From around 1902 to 1905 the Stanley and Phillips Railway ran a line up the west end of the county through Polley, Gilman and Jump River. In 1902 the Eau Claire, Chippewa Falls, Northeastern Railroad pushed in from Holcombe through Hannibal to now-abandoned Hughey on the Yellow River. In 1905 the Wisconsin Central Railroad built its line through Clark, Polley and Donald, heading for Superior.
The SM&P and Omaha were logging railroads, which hauled out lumber and incidentally transported passengers and other cargo. With the lumber gone, the SM&P shut down in 1933. After the good timber was gone, the lumber companies sold many of the cutover forties to farm families, they tried making their living in various ways: selling milk, eggs and wool, growing cucumbers and peas, various other schemes. But before long dairy had become the predominant form of agriculture in the county. By 1923 Medford had the second largest co-op creamery in Wisconsin; the number of dairy farms peaked around 3,300 in the early 1940s and had dropped to 1,090 by 1995. Much of the cut-over north-central part of the county was designated part of the Chequamegon National Forest in 1933. Mondeaux Dam Recreation Area and other parts of the forest were developed by the Civilian Conservation Corps starting in 1933. CCC camps were at Mondeaux and near the current Jump River fire tower. Today hikers can follow the Ice Age National Scenic Trail through the national forest and the northeast corner of the county.
The major early industry was the production of sawlogs and shingles. Large sawmills were at Rib Lake. Medford and Rib Lake had tanneries, which used local hemlock bark i