U.S. Route 79
U. S. Route 79 is a United States highway; the route is considered and labeled as a north-south highway, but it is more of a diagonal northeast-southwest highway. The highway's northern/eastern terminus is in Russellville, Kentucky, at an intersection with U. S. Highway 68 and KY 80, its southern/western terminus is in Round Rock, Texas, at an intersection with Interstate 35, ten miles north of Austin. US 79, US 68, Interstate 24/US 62 are the primary east–west access points for the Land Between the Lakes recreation area straddling the Kentucky/Tennessee border. US 79 begins at Interstate 35's Exit #253 north of Austin in Round Rock; the route travels eastward through Hutto and Taylor to Rockdale, where it intersects US 77. In Milano, US 79 begins a concurrency with US 190 until Hearne, Texas; the route continues through Franklin and Jewett before reaching Buffalo, where it intersects Interstate 45 at its Exit #178. US 79 has a brief duplex with US 84 that begins near Oakwood and continues through Palestine before separating.
The route continues to the northeast through Jacksonville, where it has a junction with US 69, Henderson, where it crosses US 259. The highway travels due east to Carthage, where it meets US 59, before resuming a northeasterly direction and crossing into Louisiana near Panola. US 79 is entwined with two tragedies of country music. Johnny Horton was killed by a drunk driver on the highway near Milano in 1960 and Jim Reeves, killed in a plane crash in 1964, is buried and memorialized on US 79 in his hometown of Carthage. US 79 joins US 80 near Greenwood, the two routes are cosigned through Shreveport. US 79/80 continue into Bossier City; the routes parallel Interstate 20 through the old Bossier City Entertainment District until Minden, where the two routes separate: US 80 continues eastward, while US 79 turns to the northeast toward Homer. In Homer, the route resumes a more northerly direction, traveling through Haynesville before crossing the Arkansas border about 7 miles south of Emerson, Arkansas.
US 79 continues northward from Louisiana into Emerson and Magnolia, where it has a brief concurrency with US 82 through the city. From here, the route turns to the northeast, through Camden, where it intersects US 278, Fordyce, in which it has a brief concurrency with US 167. East of Kingsland, the highway travels in a more northerly direction as it prepares to enter the Pine Bluff metropolitan area. In Pine Bluff, U. S. 79 joins the Interstate 530 freeway. After the freeway ends, US 79 and US 63, with which it is cosigned, leave the city toward the north; the two routes stay joined until Stuttgart. US 79 continues to the east and northeast, through Marianna and Hughes, before turning due north to an intersection with Interstate 40 near Jennette. US 79 joins I-40 and the two routes stay cosigned through the concurrency with Interstate 55 in West Memphis, before US 79 joins I-55 to cross the Mississippi River at the Memphis & Arkansas Bridge into Memphis. U. S. Route 79 enters Memphis with U. S. Route 70, U.
S. Route 64 and Tennessee State Route 1, travelling east along E. H. Crump Boulevard, turns north on Third Street and travels through Downtown Memphis along both Second and Third Streets, it continues east on Union Avenue, north along East Parkway, east along Summer Avenue. At Stage Road in Bartlett, it continues along Summer Avenue with US 70 while US 64 turns east along Stage Rd. From here, US 79 continues north from Bartlett, passing through the rest of Shelby County as a 4-lane undivided highway. In Arlington, the road narrows to 2 lanes and passes through Fayette County, Tipton County, Haywood County until Brownsville, Tennessee. In Brownsville, U. S 79, along with U. S. 70 and SR 1, goes to the south along a bypass. On the east side of the city, U. S. 70 and SR 1 turn east while US 79 and 70A continue to the northeast, passing through Crockett and Gibson Counties. The section from Milan, Tennessee to the Carroll County line was widened to 4 lanes. U. S. 70A splits off from US 79 near Atwood, Tennessee and US 79 continues to the northeast into Henry County, passing through the city of Paris and crosses the Tennessee River.
The portion from McKenzie, Tennessee to the Tennessee River is 4-lanes, plans are in the works to widen the portion in between this section and the Milan section. The section from Brownsville to the Tennessee River is part of the "Austin Peay Memorial Highway". Once US 79 comes into Stewart County, it passes to the south of the Land Between the Lakes recreation area and crosses the Cumberland River; the portion between the rivers is known as Donelson Parkway. It enters Montgomery County and the city of Clarksville, Tennessee; this portion between Dover and Clarksville is known as Dover Road. One through Clarksville, US 79 enters Kentucky. Wilma Rudolph Boulevard is the name given to the portion of U. S. Route 79 in Clarksville, Tennessee between the Interstate 24 in Clarksville to the Red River bridge near the Kraft Street intersection; this section of Highway 79 in Clarksville was called the Guthrie Highway, for nearby Guthrie, but in 1994, the name was changed to honor Wilma Rudolph, an Olympic runner from Clarksville, who won three gold medals in the 1960 Rome Summer Olympic Games.
Between Clarksville and Dover, the road is known as "Dover Road". US 7
U.S. Route 69 in Texas
U. S. Route 69 is a north–south United States highway that runs from Port Arthur, Texas to Albert Lea, Minnesota. In Texas, US 69 runs from Port Arthur near the Gulf of Mexico to the Texas–Oklahoma state line just north of Denison. US 69 begins at its southern terminus with SH 87 in Port Arthur; this intersection is the southern terminus for US 96 and US 287, which are concurrent with US 69. US 69, US 96, US 287 continue in a northwest west, route until its intersection with Interstate 10 in southern Beaumont. At this intersection, US 69, US 96, US 287 merge with I-10. I-10/US 69/US 96/US 287 continue in a northerly direction through Beaumont for several miles. Just after the intersection with US 90, I-10 splits from the multiplex and resumes its easterly course, leaving US 69, US 96, US 287 heading northwest through Beaumont. US 69 north of I-10 is known known as Eastex Freeway, is an official evacuation route, just as Interstate 69/US 59 heading north from Houston is known as Eastex Freeway as well.
In Lumberton, US 96 splits from US 69 and US 287 and heads northeast towards Jasper, while US 69 and US 287 continue on a northwest path towards Woodville. In Woodville, US 69 splits from US 287 a few blocks north of US 190. US 287 continues northwest towards Corrigan. In this area, between US 190 in Woodville and FM 256 in Colmesneil, US 69 is a part of the Texas Forest Trail. Before reaching Lufkin, US 69 forms another segment of the Texas Forest Trail between SH 63 in Zavalla and FM 1818 northwest of Zavalla. In Lufkin, US 69 is concurrent with US 59 and State Loop 287 while the route through the city is named Business US 69. US 69, State Loop 287, US 59 continue around the east side of Lufkin until US 59 separates at the intersection with US 59 Business northeast of Lufkin. US 69 and State Loop 287 continue until the intersection of SH 103 and Business US 69 on the northwest section of Lufkin. At that point, US 69 is concurrent for a short distance with SH 103 and State Loop 287. At the intersection of US 69, State Loop 287 and SH 103, US 69 departs Lufkin and heads northwest while SH 103 and State Loop 287 head south.
US 69 continues on a north to northwest path through the towns of Alto, Rusk and Bullard. Just south of Bullard, US 69 has a short concurrency with FM 2493. US 69 continues northward into Tyler. In Tyler, US 69 continues northward through the city until the intersection of SH 110 and SH 155, where US 69 heads west and merges with SH 110 and SH 155 through Tyler. Around seven blocks from the intersection of US 69, SH 110, SH 155, SH 155 separates from the concurrency and travels in a southwesterly direction, leaving US 69 and SH 110 traveling in a northwesterly direction; this continues. At this intersection, SH 110 heads west. US 69 crosses Interstate 20 at Lindale where it is signed as "Main Street". At FM 16 in Lindale, US 69 begins its last segment as part of the Texas Forest Trail. US 69 continues north to northwest to Mineola. Before leaving town, at its intersection with SH 37, the Texas Forest Trail turns off of US 69 to share a segment with SH 37. US 69 takes a more northwest turn on its way through several small towns, including Emory, on its way to Greenville.
There, as it begins to enter the city, a Business route of US 69 turns off to the right to serve the downtown Greenville area, on to a junction with Interstate 30. At the intersection with I-30, US 69 becomes concurrent with US 380 at its terminus; the concurrency continues around the southern and western sides of Greenville until an intersection with Spur 302. At that intersection, US 380 heads west while US 69 continues north, until it reaches the northern end of its Business route, which has passed through the downtown Greenville area US 69 turns northwest, from Greenville to Leonard, where it encounters a brief concurrency with SH 78. In Whitewright, SH 11 becomes concurrent with US 69 southeast of town; this continues until the intersection with SH 160, at which time SH 11 continues on a northwestward route and US 69 continues north through Whitewright. US 69 continues north northwest until Denison, where it turns right to go north, at an intersection with Spur 503. US 69 goes north through downtown Denison at the north side of town, US 69 intersects and merges with US 75, at which time US 69 becomes concurrent with US 75.
Both head northeast across the Oklahoma/Texas border at the Red River
The Hasinai Confederacy was a large confederation of Caddo-speaking Native Americans located between the Sabine and Trinity rivers in eastern Texas. Today they are enrolled in the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma. Hasinai is spelled Hasini; the Caddo word táyshaʼ, meaning "friend," was adopted by colonists as the name of Texas. Earlier Spanish explorers referred to the Hasinai as Tejas, their transliteration of the name in old Spanish spelling, they are referred to as Hasini, Asinai, Assoni', Cenis and Sannaye. At the time of the Spanish and French encounter with the Hasinai in the 1680s the Hasinai were a centrally organized chiefdom under the control of a religious leader known as the Grand Xinesi; the Xinesi lived in a secluded house. He met with a council of councilors; the Hasinai chieftainship consisted of several sub-divisions which have been designated "contonments". Each of these was under the control of a Caddi. There was men designated as Canahas and Chayas who helped the Caddi run the system.
During the 17th century the Hasinai carried on trade with the Jumano at the western Hasinai city of Nabedache. Some consider the residents of Nabedache to have been a distinct people designated by that name, it is estimated that in 1520 the people who would become the Hasinai, the Kadohadacho and the Natchitoches, numbered about 250,000. Over the next 250 years the population of these Caddoan-speaking peoples was reduced by epidemics of endemic diseases carried by Spanish and French coming to the Americas and spread through contact by indigenous trading networks. Native Americans suffered high mortality. In 1690 the Hasinai numbered in the vicinity of 10,000 people or a little more. By 1720 as a result of infectious diseases such as smallpox, the Hasinai population had fallen to 2,000. Arikara Chitimacha Kadohadacho Natchitoches Pawnee Tula Caddoan Mississippian culture Caddo Caddo language Yowani Choctaw Edmonds, Randlett. Nusht'uhtiʔtiʔ Hasinay: Caddo Phrasebook. Richardson, TX: Various Indian Peoples Publishing, 2003.
ISBN 1-884655-00-9. The Hasinai Society of the Caddo Nation Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture — The Hasinai Tides.sfasu.ed−Texas Tides: Location of the Tribes of the Hasinai Confederacy in 1716 Texasbeyondhistory.net: Life and Times of the Caddo
Mexican Texas is the historiographical name used to refer to the era of Texan history between 1821 and 1836, when it was part of Mexico. Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821 after winning its war. Mexican Texas operated to Spanish Texas. Ratification of the 1824 Constitution of Mexico created a federal structure, the province of Tejas was joined with the province of Coahuila to form the state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1821, a total of about 3500 settlers lived in the whole of Tejas, concentrated in San Antonio and La Bahia, although authorities had tried to encourage development along the frontier; the settler population was overwhelmingly outnumbered by indigenous people in the province. To increase settler numbers, Mexico enacted the General Colonization Law in 1824, which enabled all heads of household, regardless of race, religion or immigrant status, to acquire land in Mexico; the first empresarial grant had been made under Spanish control to Stephen F. Austin, whose settlers, known as the Old Three Hundred, settled along the Brazos River in 1822.
The grant was ratified by the Mexican government. Twenty-three other empresarios brought settlers to the state, the majority coming from the American South, while only one colony was settled by Mexican nationals, two by European immigrants. Mexico officials became concerned about attitudes among the Anglo-Americans in Tejas, for instance their insistence on bringing slaves into the territory; the legislature passed the Law of April 6, 1830 that prohibited further immigration by U. S. citizens. The government established several new presidios in the region to monitor immigration and customs practices. Angry colonists held a convention in 1832 to demand that U. S. citizens be allowed to immigrate to Tejas. At a convention the following year, colonists proposed. Although Mexico implemented several measures to appease the colonists, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's measures to transform Mexico from a federalist to a centralist state appeared to be the catalyst for the Anglo-Texan colonists to revolt; the first violent incident occurred on June 1832, at the Battle of Velasco.
On March 2, 1836, Texians declared their independence from Mexico. The Texas Revolution ended on April 21, 1836, when Santa Anna was taken prisoner by Texians following the Battle of San Jacinto. Although Texas declared its independence as the Republic of Texas, Mexico refused to recognize it. In 1821, Mexico gained independence from Spain after the brutal and destructive Mexican War for Independence, its territory included much of the former New Spain, including Spanish Texas. The victorious rebels issued the Plan de Iguala; this plan reaffirmed many of the ideals of the Spanish Constitution of 1812 and granted equal citizenship rights to all races. There was disagreement over whether Mexico should be a federal republic or a constitutional monarchy; the first monarch, Agustin I, abdicated in March 1823. The following month the citizens of San Antonio de Bexar established a governing committee for the province of Texas consisting of seven representatives from San Antonio, one from La Bahia, one from Nacogdoches.
In July, a new national provisional government named Luciano Garcia as the political chief of Texas. On November 27, 1823, the people of Mexico elected congressional representatives and set out to create a new constitution. Texas was represented in congress by Erasmo Seguin. A new Mexican constitution was adopted on October 4, 1824, making the country a federal republic with nineteen states and four territories; the constitution was modelled on the constitution of the United States of America, but the Mexican constitution made Roman Catholicism the official, only, religion of the country. Because it was sparsely populated, Texas was combined with Coahuila to create the state of Coahuila y Tejas. Texas had asked to become a territory if its statehood claim was denied, but after realizing that states controlled their own public lands, while as a territory public land would be controlled by the national government, Seguin chose not to request territorial status; the Congress did allow Texas the option of forming its own state "'as soon as it feels capable of doing so.'"
The new state, the poorest in the Mexican federation, covered the boundaries of Spanish Texas but did not include the area around El Paso, which belonged to the state of Chihuahua and the area of Laredo, which became part of Tamaulipas. The capital of Texas moved from San Antonio to Monclova and to Saltillo. Along with the states of Tamaulipas and Nuevo León, Coahuila y Tejas was under a unified military organization. With the formation of a new state government, the Texas provincial governing committee was forced to disband. Many Tejanos were reluctant to give up their self-rule; the 1824 constitution dismantled the mission system, requiring missions more than ten years old to be converted into parishes, while newer missions would be given until 1842 to become secularized. Most of the missions had been secularized before the 1820s, only Missions Refugio, Espiritu Santo and Rosario were not secularized. By 1830, these missions had been converted into parishes, most of the mission Natives moved to other settlements in Texas.
As the missions were secularized, the mission lands were distributed amongst the Natives, who would be taxed on the profits. The new Mexican government had little money to devote to the military. Settlers were empowered to create their own militias to help control hostile Native American tribes. Texas faced raids from both the Apache and Comanche tribes, with little military support the few settlers in the region needed help. In the hopes that an influx of settlers could control the
Republic of Texas
The Republic of Texas was a sovereign state in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846. It was bordered by Mexico to the west and southwest, the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast, the two U. S. states of Louisiana and Arkansas to the east and northeast, United States territories encompassing parts of the current U. S. states of Oklahoma, Colorado and New Mexico to the north and west. The citizens of the republic were known as Texians; the region of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas referred to as Mexican Texas declared its independence from Mexico during the Texas Revolution in 1836. The Texas war of independence ended on April 21, 1836, but Mexico refused to recognize the independence of the Republic of Texas, intermittent conflicts between the two states continued into the 1840s; the United States recognized the Republic of Texas in March 1837 but declined to annex the territory. The Republic-claimed borders were based upon the Treaties of Velasco between the newly created Texas Republic and Antonio López de Santa Anna of Mexico.
The eastern boundary had been defined by the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 between the United States and Spain, which recognised the Sabine River as the eastern boundary of Spanish Texas and western boundary of the Missouri Territory. Under the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 the United States had renounced its claim to Spanish land to the east of the Rocky Mountains and to the north of the Rio Grande, which it claimed to have acquired as part of the Louisiana Purchase of 1803; the republic's southern and western boundary with Mexico was disputed throughout the republic's existence. Texas claimed the Rio Grande as its southern boundary, while Mexico insisted that the Nueces River was the boundary. Texas was annexed by the United States on December 29, 1845 and was admitted to the Union as the 28th state on that day, with the transfer of power from the Republic to the new state of Texas formally taking place on February 19, 1846. However, the United States again inherited the southern and western border dispute with Mexico, which became a trigger for the Mexican–American War.
Texas had been one of the Provincias Internas of New Spain, a region known historiographically as Spanish Texas. Though claimed by Spain, it was not formally colonized by them until competing French interests at Fort St. Louis encouraged Spain to establish permanent settlements in the area. Sporadic missionary incursions occurred into the area during the period from the 1690s–1710s, before the establishment of San Antonio as a permanent civilian settlement. Owing to the area's high Native American populations and its remoteness from the population centers of New Spain, Texas remained unsettled by Europeans, although Spain maintained a small military presence to protect Christian missionaries working among Native American tribes, to act as a buffer against the French in Louisiana and British North America. In 1762, France ceded to Spain most of its claims to the interior of North America, including its claim to Texas, as well as the vast interior that became Spanish Louisiana. During the years 1799 to 1803, the height of the Napoleonic Empire, Spain returned Louisiana back to France, which promptly sold the territory to the United States.
The status of Texas during these transfers was unclear and was not resolved until 1819, when the Adams–Onís Treaty ceded Spanish Florida to the United States, established a clear boundary between Texas and Louisiana. Starting in 1810, the territories of New Spain north of the Isthmus of Panama sought independence in the Mexican War of Independence. Many Americans fought on the side of Mexico against Spain in filibustering expeditions. One of these, the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition consisted of a group of about 130 Americans under the leadership of Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara. Gutierrez de Lara initiated Mexico's secession from Spain with efforts contributed by Augustus Magee. Bolstered by new recruits, led by Samuel Kemper, the expedition gained a series of victories against soldiers led by the Spanish governor, Manuel María de Salcedo, their victory at the Battle of Rosillo Creek convinced Salcedo to surrender on April 1, 1813. On April 6, 1813, the victorious Republican Army of the North drafted a constitution and declared the independent Republic of Texas, with Gutiérrez as its president.
Soon disillusioned with the Mexican leadership, the Americans under Kemper returned to the United States. The ephemeral Republic of Texas came to an end following the August 18, 1813 Battle of Medina, where the Spanish Army crushed the Republican Army of the North; the harsh reprisals against the Texas rebels created a deep distrust of the Royal Spanish authorities, veterans of the Battle of Medina became leaders of the Texas Revolution and signatories of the Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico 20 years later. Along with the rest of Mexico, Texas gained its independence from Spain in 1821 following the Treaty of Córdoba, the new Mexican state was organized under the Plan of Iguala, which created Mexico as a constitutional monarchy under its first Emperor Agustín de Iturbide. During the transition from a Spanish territory to part of the independent country of Mexico, Stephen F. Austin led a group of American settlers known as the Old Three Hundred, who negotiated the right to settle in Texas with the Spanish Royal governor of the territory.
Since Mexican independence had been ratified by Spain shortly thereafter, Austin traveled to Mexico City to secure the support of the new country for his right to settle. The establishment of Mexican Texas coincided with the Austin-led settleme
The Brazos River, called the Río de los Brazos de Dios by early Spanish explorers, is the 11th-longest river in the United States at 1,280 miles from its headwater source at the head of Blackwater Draw, Curry County, New Mexico to its mouth at the Gulf of Mexico with a 45,000-square-mile drainage basin. Being one of Texas' largest rivers, it is sometimes used to mark the boundary between East Texas and West Texas; the river is associated with Texas history the Austin settlement and Texas Revolution eras. Today major Texas institutions like Texas A&M University and Baylor University are located close to the river, as are parts of metropolitan Houston; the Brazos proper begins at the confluence of the Salt Fork and Double Mountain Fork, two tributaries of the Upper Brazos that rise on the high plains of the Llano Estacado, flowing 840 miles southeast through the center of Texas. Another major tributary of the Upper Brazos is the Clear Fork Brazos River, which passes by Abilene and joins the main river near Graham.
Important tributaries of the Lower Brazos include the Paluxy River, the Bosque River, the Little River, Yegua Creek, the Nolan River, the Leon River, the San Gabriel River, the Lampasas River, the Navasota River. Running east towards Dallas-Fort Worth, the Brazos turns south, passing through Waco and the Baylor University campus, further south to near Calvert, Texas past Bryan and College Station through Richmond, Texas in Fort Bend County, empties into the Gulf of Mexico in the marshes just south of Freeport; the main stem of the Brazos is dammed in three places, all north of Waco, forming Possum Kingdom Lake, Lake Granbury, Lake Whitney. Of these three, Granbury was the last to be completed, in 1969; when its construction was proposed in the mid-1950s, John Graves wrote the book Goodbye to a River. The Whitney Dam, located on the upper Brazos, provides hydroelectric power, flood control, irrigation to enable efficient cotton growth in the river valley. A small municipal dam is near the downstream city limit of Waco at the end of the Baylor campus.
This impoundment of the Brazos through Waco is locally called Lake Brazos. A total of nineteen major reservoirs are located along the Brazos. In 1822, the lower river valley of the Brazos River became one of the major Anglo-American settlement sites in Texas; this was one of the first English-speaking colonies along the Brazos and was founded by Stephen F. Austin at San Felipe de Austin. In 1836, Texas declared independence from Mexico at Washington-on-the-Brazos, a settlement in now Washington County, known as "the birthplace of Texas". Brazos River was the scene of a battle between the Texas Navy and Mexican Navy during the Texas Revolution. Texas Navy ship, it is unclear when it was first named by European explorers, since it was confused with the Colorado River not far to the south, but it was seen by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle. Spanish accounts call it Los Brazos de Dios, for which name there were several different explanations, all involving it being the first water to be found by thirsty parties.
In 1842, Indian commissioner of Texas, Ethan Stroud established a trading post on this river. The river was important for navigation before and after the American Civil War, steam boats sailed as far up the river as Washington-on-the-Brazos. While attempts to improve commercial navigation on the river continued, railroads proved more reliable; the Brazos River flooded seriously, on a regular basis before a piecemeal levee system was replaced, notably in 1913 when a massive flood affected the course of the river. The river is important today as a source of water for power and recreation; the water is administered by the Brazos River Authority. The 2000 book and Sternwheelers: Steam Navigation on the Brazos by Pamela A. Puryear and Nath Winfield, Jr. with introduction by J. Milton Nance, examines the early vessels that attempted to navigate the Brazos. On June 2, 2016, the rising of the river required evacuations for portions of Brazoria County; the Brazos River watershed covers a total area of 119,174 square kilometers.
Within the watershed lie 42 lakes and rivers which have a combined storage capacity of 2.5 million acre-feet. The Brazos watershed has an estimated ground water availability of 119,275 acre-feet per year. 31% of the land use within the watershed is cropland. 61% is grassland shrubland and forest while urban use only makes up 4.6%. The population density within the watershed is 19.5 people per square kilometer. The main water quality issues within the Brazos Watershed are high nutrient loads, high bacterial and salinity levels and low dissolved oxygen; these water quality issues can be attributed to livestock and chemical run off. Sources of run off are croplands and industrial sites among others. Fracking is cause for concern regarding water quality within the Brazos Watershed; the Barnett Shale lies within the watershed, the second largest source of natural gas in the US. Studies have shown that the watershed receiving the most toxic pollution is the lower Brazos river which received 33.4 million pounds of toxic waste in 2012.
Canoeing is a popular recreational activity on the Brazos River with many locations favorable for launching and recovery. The best paddling can be found below Possum Kingdom Lake and Lake Granbury. Sandbar Camping is permitted since the entire streambed of t
Sam Houston was an American soldier and politician. An important leader of the Texas Revolution, Houston served as the 1st and 3rd president of the Republic of Texas, was one of the first two individuals to represent Texas in the United States Senate, he served as the 6th Governor of Tennessee and the seventh governor of Texas, the only American to be elected governor of two different states in the United States. Born in Rockbridge County, Virginia and his family migrated to Maryville, Tennessee when Houston was a teenager. Houston ran away from home and spent time with the Cherokee, becoming known as "Raven." He served under General Andrew Jackson in the War of 1812, after the war he presided over the removal of many Cherokee from Tennessee. With the support of Jackson and others, Houston won election to the United States House of Representatives in 1823, he supported Jackson's presidential candidacies, in 1827 Houston won election as the governor of Tennessee. In 1829, after divorcing his first wife, Houston resigned from office, joined his Cherokee friends in Arkansas Territory.
Houston settled in Texas in 1832. After the Battle of Gonzales, Houston helped organize Texas's provisional government and was selected as the top-ranking official in the Texian Army, he led the Texian Army to victory at the Battle of San Jacinto, the decisive battle in Texas's war for independence against Mexico. After the war, Houston won election in the 1836 Texas presidential election, he left office due to term limits in 1838, but won election to another term in the 1841 Texas presidential election. Houston played a key role in the annexation of Texas by the United States in 1845, in 1846 he was elected to represent Texas in the United States Senate, he joined the Democratic Party and supported President James K. Polk's prosecution of the Mexican–American War. Houston's Senate record was marked by his unionism and opposition to extremists from both the North and South, he voted for the Compromise of 1850, which settled many of the territorial issues left over from the Mexican–American War and the annexation of Texas.
He voted against the Kansas–Nebraska Act because he believed it would lead to increased sectional tensions over slavery, his opposition to that act led him to leave the Democratic Party. He was an unsuccessful candidate for the presidential nomination of the American Party in the 1856 presidential election and the Constitutional Union Party in the 1860 presidential election. In 1859, Houston won election as the governor of Texas. In that role, he opposed secession and unsuccessfully sought to keep Texas out of the Confederate States of America, he was forced out of office in 1861 and died in 1863. Houston's name has been honored in numerous ways, he is the namesake of the city of Houston, the fourth most populous city in the United States. Houston was born in Rockbridge County, Virginia on March 2, 1793, to Samuel Houston and Elizabeth Paxton. Both of Houston's parents were descended from British and Irish immigrants who had settled in British North America in the 1730s. Houston's father was descended from Ulster Scots people.
By 1793, the elder Samuel Houston owned a large farm and a handful of slaves, served as a colonel in the Virginia militia. Houston's uncle, the Presbyterian Rev. Samuel Houston, was an elected member of the "lost" State of Franklin in the western frontier of North Carolina, who advocated for the passage of his proposed "A Declaration of Rights or Form of Government on the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Frankland" at the convention, assembled in Greeneville on November 14, 1785. Rev. Houston returned to Rockbridge County, Virginia after the assembled State of Franklin convention rejected his constitutional proposal. Houston had five brothers and three sisters, as well as dozens of cousins who lived in the surrounding area. According to biographer John Hoyt Williams, Houston was not close with his siblings or his parents, he spoke of them in his life. Houston did take an interest in his father's library, reading works by classical authors like Virgil, as well as more recent works by authors such as Jedidiah Morse.
Houston's father was got into debt, in part because of his militia service. He planned to sell the farm and move west to Tennessee, where land was less expensive, but he died in 1806. Houston's mother followed through on those plans and settled the family near Maryville, the seat of Blount County, Tennessee. At that time, Tennessee was on the American frontier, larger towns like Nashville were vigilant against Native American raids. Houston disliked farming and working in the family store, at the age of sixteen he left his family to live with a Cherokee tribe led by Ahuludegi. Houston formed a close relationship with Ahuludegi and learned the Cherokee language, becoming known as "Raven." He returned to Maryville in 1812, he was hired at age 19 for a term as the schoolmaster of a one-room schoolhouse. In 1812, Houston enlisted in the United States Army, engaged in the War of 1812 against Britain and Britain's Native American allies, he impressed the commander of the 39th Infantry Regiment, Thomas Hart Benton, by the end of 1813, Houston had risen to the rank of the third lieutenant.
In early 1814, the 39th Infantry Regiment became a part of the force commanded General Andrew Jackson, charged with putting an end to raids by a faction of the Muscogee tribe in the Old Southwest. Houston was badly wounded in the Battle of the decisive battle in the Creek War. Although army doctors expected him to die of his wounds, Houston survived a