Larimer County, Colorado
Larimer County is one of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 299,630; the county seat and most populous city is Fort Collins. The county was named for Jr. the founder of Denver. Larimer County comprises CO Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county is located at the northern end of the Front Range, at the edge of the Colorado Eastern Plains along the border with Wyoming. Larimer County was created in 1861 as one of seventeen original counties in the Colorado Territory. Controversy existed as to whether Larimer County ended at the Medicine Bow Range or at the Continental Divide thirty miles farther west. An 1886 Colorado Supreme Court decision set the boundary at the Continental Divide, although the land between the Medicine Bow Range and the divide was made part of Jackson County in 1909. Unlike that of much of Colorado, founded on the mining of gold and silver, the settlement of Larimer County was based entirely on agriculture, an industry that few thought possible in the region during the initial days of the Colorado Gold Rush.
The mining boom entirely passed the county by. It would take the introduction of irrigation to the region in the 1860s to bring the first widespread settlement to the area. At the time of the arrival of Europeans in the early 19th century, the present-day county was occupied by Native Americans, with the Utes occupying the mountainous areas and the Cheyenne and Arapaho living on the piedmont areas along the base of the foothills. French fur trappers infiltrated the area in the early decades of the 19th century, soon after the area became part of the United States with the Louisiana Purchase and was organized as part of the Missouri Territory. In 1828 William H. Ashley ascended the Cache la Poudre River on his way to the Green River in present-day Utah; the river itself received its name in the middle 1830s from an obscure incident in which French-speaking trappers hid gunpowder along its banks, somewhere near present-day Laporte or Bellvue. In 1848 a group of Cherokee crossed through the county following the North Fork of the Poudre to the Laramie Plains on their way to California along a route that became known as the Cherokee Trail.
The area of county was opened to white settlement following negotiations with the Cheyenne and Arapaho in the 1858 Treaty of Fort Laramie, by which time the area was part of the Nebraska Territory. The first U. S. settlers arrived. Janis, who had visited the area near Bellvue in 1844 and proclaimed it "the most beautiful place on earth", returned to file his official claim and helped found the first U. S. settlement in present-day Colorado, called Colona, just west of Laporte. Nearly Mariano Medina established Fort Namaqua along the Big Thompson River just west of present-day Loveland; the first irrigation canals were established along the Poudre in the 1860s. In 1862 the settlement established by Janis became a stagecoach stop along the Overland Stage Route, established because of threats of attacks from Native Americans on the northern trails in Wyoming. In 1861, Laporte was designated as the first county seat after the organization of the Colorado Territory. In 1862, the United States Army established an outpost near Laporte, designated as Camp Collins.
A devastating flood in June 1864 wiped out the outpost. At the urging of Joseph Mason, who had settled along the Poudre in 1860, the Army relocated its post downstream adjacent to Mason's land along the Overland stage route; the site of the new post became the nucleus of the town of Fort Collins, incorporated in 1873 after the withdrawal of the Army. By that time and others had convinced the Colorado Territorial Legislature to designate the new town as the county seat. In 1870, the legislature designated Fort Collins as the location of the state agricultural college, although the institution would exist only on paper for another decade while local residents sought money to construct the first campus buildings. In 1873, Robert A. Cameron and other members of the Greeley Colony established the Fort Collins Agricultural Colony, which expanded the grid plan and population of Fort Collins. One of the primary goals of the early citizens of the county was the courting of railroads. County residents were disappointed when the Denver Pacific Railroad bypassed the county in 1870 in favor of Greeley.
The first railroad arrived in the county in 1877 when the Colorado Central Railroad extended a line north from Golden via Longmont to Cheyenne. The town council of Fort Collins designated right-of-way through the center of town for the line, creating a contentious issue to this day. Along the new railroad sprung up the new platted towns of Loveland and Berthoud, named after the president and chief surveyor of the Colorado Central. Wellington was named for a railroad employee; the Greeley, Salt Lake and Pacific Railroad arrived three years as a subsidiary of the Union Pacific Railroad, with the intention of creating a transcontinental line over Cameron Pass. Although the line was never extended over the mountains, it opened up the quarrying of stone for the railroad at Stout, furnishing another industry for the region; the brief attempt at the mining of gold in the region centered at the now ghost town of Manhattan in the Poudre Canyon. The early growth of agriculture, which depended on direct river irrigation, experienced a second boom in 1902 with the introduction of the cultivation of sugar beets, accompanied by the construction of th
Fort Smith, Arkansas
Fort Smith is the second-largest city in Arkansas and one of the two county seats of Sebastian County. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 86,209. With an estimated population of 88,037 in 2017, it is the principal city of the Fort Smith, Arkansas-Oklahoma Metropolitan Statistical Area, a region of 298,592 residents that encompasses the Arkansas counties of Crawford and Sebastian, the Oklahoma counties of Le Flore and Sequoyah. Fort Smith has a sister city relationship with Cisterna, site of the World War II Battle of Cisterna, fought by United States Army Rangers commanded by Fort Smith native William O. Darby; the city has a mutual friendship-city relationship with Jining, China. Fort Smith lies on the Arkansas-Oklahoma state border, situated at the confluence of the Arkansas and Poteau rivers known as Belle Point. Fort Smith was established as a western frontier military post in 1817, when it was a center of fur trading; the city developed there. It became well known as a base for migrants' settling of the "Wild West" and for its law enforcement heritage.
In 2007, the city of Fort Smith was selected by the United States Department of the Interior as the site of the new United States Marshals Service National Museum, slated to open in 2019. This area was occupied for thousands of years by indigenous peoples, attracted to the advantageous site near the rivers, they used the waterways for transportation and trading, to supply fish and water for their villages. The French claimed this area as part of their New La Louisiane; some colonial fur traders traveled the Arkansas and other rivers to trade with the native American tribes. The United States acquired this territory and large areas west of the Mississippi River from France in the Louisiana Purchase. Soon after, the government sent the Pike Expedition to explore the areas along the Arkansas River; the US founded Fort Smith in 1817 as a military post. It was named after General Thomas Adams Smith, who commanded the United States Army Rifle Regiment in 1817, headquartered near St. Louis. General Smith had ordered Army topographical engineer Stephen H. Long to find a suitable site on the Arkansas River for a fort.
General Smith never visited the forts that bore his name. A stockade was built and occupied from 1817 until 1822 by a small troop of regulars commanded by Major William Bradford. A small settlement began forming around the fort, but the Army abandoned the first Fort Smith in 1824 and moved 80 miles further west to Fort Gibson. John Rogers, an Army sutler and land speculator, bought up former government-owned lands at this site and promoted growth of the new civilian town of Fort Smith. Due to the strategic location of this site, the federal government re-established a military presence at Fort Smith during the 1830s era of Indian Removal of tribes from the American Southeast to west of the Mississippi River in Indian Territory, now Oklahoma. In 1838 the Army moved back into the old military post near Belle Point, expanded the base, they used troops from their ancestral homelands in the Southeast. Remnants of the Five Civilized Tribes remained in the southeast, their descendants in some cases have reorganized and been federally recognized.
The Cherokee called the forced march the Trail of Tears, as many of their people and African-American slaves died along the way. The army enforced the removal of these peoples to the reserved Indian Territory, where the federal government granted them land. Many displaced Native Americans fell out of the march and settled in Fort Smith and adjoining Van Buren, Arkansas on the other side of the river; the US Army used Fort Smith as a base during the Mexican War. As a result, the US acquired large territories in the Southwest, annexed the Republic of Texas, independent for some years. Sebastian County was formed in 1851, separated from Crawford County north of the Arkansas River. In 1858, Fort Smith was designated as a Division Center of the Butterfield Overland Mail's 7th Division route across Indian Territory from Fort Smith to Texas and as a junction with the mail route from Memphis, Tennessee, an important port on the east side of the Mississippi River. During the early years of the U. S. Civil War, the fort was occupied by the Confederate Army.
Union troops under General Steele took control of Fort Smith on September 1, 1863. A small fight occurred there on July 31, 1864, but the Union army maintained command in the area until the war ended in 1865; as a result, many refugee slaves, Southern Unionists, others came here to escape the guerrilla warfare raging in Arkansas and the Border States. The slaves were freed under the Emancipation Proclamation of January 1863 by President Abraham Lincoln. Federal troops abandoned the post of Fort Smith for the last time in 1871; the town continued to thrive despite the absence of federal troops. Two of Fort Smith's most notable historic figures were Judge Isaac Parker and William Henry Harrison Clayton known as W. H. H. Clayton. In 1874, William Henry Harrison Clayton was appointed United States Attorney for the Western District of Arkansas by President Ulysses S. Grant. Fort Smith was a bustling community full of brothels and outlaws, just across the river from Indian Territory. William Clayton realized a strong judge would be necessary to bring order to the region.
He knew. But Judge Parker had been confirmed by the US Senate. With the help of President Grant and US Senator Powell Clayt
The Rocky Mountains known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than 4,800 kilometers from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico in the Southwestern United States. Located within the North American Cordillera, the Rockies are somewhat distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, the Sierra Nevada, which all lie farther to the west; the Rocky Mountains formed 80 million to 55 million years ago during the Laramide orogeny, in which a number of plates began sliding underneath the North American plate. The angle of subduction was shallow, resulting in a broad belt of mountains running down western North America. Since further tectonic activity and erosion by glaciers have sculpted the Rockies into dramatic peaks and valleys. At the end of the last ice age, humans began inhabiting the mountain range. After Europeans, such as Sir Alexander Mackenzie, Americans, such as the Lewis and Clark expedition, began exploring the range and furs drove the initial economic exploitation of the mountains, although the range itself never experienced dense population.
Public parks and forest lands protect much of the mountain range, they are popular tourist destinations for hiking, mountaineering, hunting, mountain biking and snowboarding. The name of the mountains is a translation of an Amerindian name, related to Algonquian; the first mention of their present name by a European was in the journal of Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre in 1752, where they were called "Montagnes de Roche". The Rocky Mountains are defined as stretching from the Liard River in British Columbia south to the Rio Grande in New Mexico; the Rockies vary in width from 110 to 480 kilometres. The Rocky Mountains are notable for containing the highest peaks in central North America; the range's highest peak is Mount Elbert located in Colorado at 4,401 metres above sea level. Mount Robson in British Columbia, at 3,954 metres, is the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies; the eastern edge of the Rockies rises above the Interior Plains of central North America, including the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of New Mexico and Colorado, the Front Range of Colorado, the Wind River Range and Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming, the Absaroka-Beartooth ranges and Rocky Mountain Front of Montana and the Clark Range of Alberta.
The western edge of the Rockies includes ranges such as the Wasatch near Salt Lake City and the Bitterroots along the Idaho-Montana border. The Great Basin and Columbia River Plateau separate these subranges from distinct ranges further to the west. In Canada, the western edge of the Rockies is formed by the huge Rocky Mountain Trench, which runs the length of British Columbia from its beginnings in the middle Flathead River valley in western Montana to the south bank of the Liard River. Geographers define three main groups of the Canadian Rockies: the Continental Ranges, Hart Ranges, Muskwa Ranges; the Rockies do not extend into central British Columbia. Other mountain ranges continue beyond the Liard River, including the Selwyn Mountains in Yukon, the Brooks Range in Alaska, but those are not part of the Rockies, though they are part of the American Cordillera; the Continental Divide of the Americas is located in the Rocky Mountains and designates the line at which waters flow either to the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans.
Triple Divide Peak in Glacier National Park is so named because water falling on the mountain reaches not only the Atlantic and Pacific but Hudson Bay as well. Farther north in Alberta, the Athabasca and other rivers feed the basin of the Mackenzie River, which has its outlet on the Beaufort Sea of the Arctic Ocean. Human population is not dense in the Rocky Mountains, with an average of four people per square kilometer and few cities with over 50,000 people. However, the human population grew in the Rocky Mountain states between 1950 and 1990; the forty-year statewide increases in population range from 35% in Montana to about 150% in Utah and Colorado. The populations of several mountain towns and communities have doubled in the last forty years. Jackson, increased 260%, from 1,244 to 4,472 residents, in forty years; the rocks in the Rocky Mountains were formed. The oldest rock is Precambrian metamorphic rock. There is Precambrian sedimentary argillite, dating back to 1.7 billion years ago. During the Paleozoic, western North America lay underneath a shallow sea, which deposited many kilometers of limestone and dolomite.
In the southern Rocky Mountains, near present-day Colorado, these ancestral rocks were disturbed by mountain building 300 Ma, during the Pennsylvanian. This mountain-building produced the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, they consisted of Precambrian metamorphic rock forced upward through layers of the limestone laid down in the shallow sea. The mountains eroded throughout the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic, leaving extensive deposits of sedimentary rock. Terranes began colliding with the western edge of North America in the Mississippian, causing the Antler orogeny. For 270 million years, the focus of the effects of plate collisions were near the edge of the North American plate boundary, far to the west of the Rocky Mountain region, it was. The current Rocky Mountains arose in the Laramide orogeny from between 55 Ma. For the Canadi
Greeley is the home rule municipality, the county seat and the most populous municipality of Weld County, United States. Greeley is in northern Colorado and is situated 49 miles north-northeast of the Colorado State Capitol in Denver. According to a July 2015 estimate by the U. S. Census Bureau, the population of the city is 100,883, a 2014 population estimate made Greeley the 12th-most populous city in Colorado. Greeley is a major city of the Front Range Urban Corridor; the town was named after Horace Greeley, editor of the New-York Tribune, who came to Colorado in the 1859 Pike's Peak Gold Rush. It was founded as the Union Colony in 1869, an experimental utopian society, but the name was changed in honor of Greeley. Governor Benjamin Harrison Eaton declared Greeley an official city on April 6, 1886. Greeley was built on farming and agriculture, but kept up with most modern technologies as they grew. Telephones were in town by 1883 with electric lights downtown by 1886. Automobiles were on the roads alongside horse drawn buggies by 1910.
KFKA became one of the first radio stations to broadcast in the US in 1922 and the Greeley Municipal Airport was built in 1928. Greeley housed two POW camps in 1943, during World War II. One was for German POWs and the other was for Italian POWs. A vote to allow the sale of alcohol passed by a mere 477 votes in 1969, thus ending temperance in the city; the Greeley Philharmonic Orchestra was started in 1911. In 1958, Greeley became the first city to have a Department of Culture. Greeley is still changing today. Greeley is located in the area occupied by the Overland Trail station of Latham; the Latham station was built in 1862 and named in honor of Milton S. Latham, one of California's early senators; the stagecoach station was at the confluence of the South Platte River and the Cache la Poudre River. It is believed that here occurred the birth of the first white child born in a girl. Fort Latham was the headquarters of the government troops during the Indian conflicts of 1860–1864 and the county seat.
Greeley began as the Union Colony, founded in 1869 as an experimental utopian community "based on temperance, agriculture and family values." By Nathan C. Meeker, a newspaper reporter from New York City. Meeker purchased a site at the confluence of the Cache la Poudre and South Platte Rivers, halfway between Cheyenne and Denver along the tracks of the Denver Pacific Railroad known as the "Island Grove Ranch"; the name Union Colony was changed to Greeley in honor of Horace Greeley, Meeker's editor at the New York Tribune, popularized the phrase "Go West, young man". Greeley is located in the High Plains of northern Colorado about 25 mi east of the Rocky Mountains and north of Denver. Greeley is bordered on the south by the towns of Garden City; the Greeley/Evans area is bounded on the south by the South Platte River, the Cache la Poudre River flows through north Greeley. The city is served by US Route 85 and US Route 34. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 30.0 sq mi, of which 29.9 sq mi is land and 0.1 sq mi is water.
Greeley experiences a semi-arid climate. High temperatures are around 90–95 °F in the summer and 40-45 °F in the winter, although significant variation occurs; the hottest days occur around the third week of July and the coldest in January. Nighttime lows are near 60 °F in around 15 -- 20 °F in the winter. Record high temperatures of 112 °F have been recorded, as have record low temperatures of –25 °F; the first freeze occurs around October 10 and the last can happen as late as May 4. Extratropical cyclones which disrupt the weather for the eastern two-thirds of the US originate in or near Colorado, which means Greeley does not experience many developed storm systems. Warm fronts and freezing rain are nonexistent here. In addition, the city's proximity to the Rocky Mountains and lower elevation, compared to the mountains west of the city, result in less precipitation and fewer thunderstorms; this is paradoxical, because adjacent areas experience between 9 hail days per year. The climate in Greeley, as well as all of Colorado, is dry.
The Chinook winds coming off the mountains raise temperatures to near 70 °F in January and February, sometimes to near 90 °F in April. Greeley's elevation and low year-round humidity means that nighttime low temperatures are never above 68 °F in the hottest part of the summer; the diurnal temperature range is rather wide, with a 50-degree difference between daytime highs and nighttime lows not uncommon in the spring and fall. Rapid day-to-day and diurnal fluctuation in temperature is common; as of the 2010 census, there were 92,889 people, 33,427 households, 21,250 families residing in the city. The age distribution shows 68,936 residents are age 18 and older and 23,953 residents are under 18 years of age; the age distribution of the population showed 31.3% from 0 to 19, 11.4% from 20 to 24, 25.4% from 25 to 44, 21.1% from 45 to 64, 10.7% ages 65+. The median age was 30.5 years old. The gender distribution was 50.9 % female. For every 100 females, there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.9 males.
The racial makeup of the city was 79.1% White, 1
Abraham Buford II
Abraham "Abe" Buford II was an American soldier and landowner. After serving in the United States Army during the Mexican–American War, Buford joined the Confederate States Army in 1862 and served as a cavalry general in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. After the war, he became a thoroughbred horse breeder. Abraham Buford was born in Woodford County, the son of Frances W. Kirtley and her husband, William B. Buford, he was named for his great-uncle Abraham, a Continental Army officer during the American Revolutionary War. He descended from a Huguenot family named Beaufort who fled persecution in France and settled in England before emigrating to America in 1635, his cousins and Napoleon Bonaparte Buford, who grew up nearby, were generals in the Union Army during the Civil War. Buford studied at Centre College before entering the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, in 1837. Graduating in 1841, as a second-lieutenant with the First dragoons from 1842 through 1846, he did Frontier duty in the Kansas Territory and the Indian Territory.
He served in the Mexican–American War in which he was appointed brevet captain for bravery at the Battle of Buena Vista. When that war ended, he was dispatched for further duty on the Frontier and in 1848 was part of the Santa Fe Trail expedition. In 1849, Buford escorted the mail from Santa Fe, New Mexico, to the east, using, in part, the new Cherokee Trail, he was sent to the Army's cavalry school in Carlisle, but in October 1854 he resigned his commission and returned to his native Kentucky where his family owned a farm property near Versailles in his native Woodford County. Following the outbreak of the American Civil War, like his native State, Buford tried to stay out of the Civil War and succeeded in doing so for well over a year. In September 1862, during Confederate General Braxton Bragg's invasion of Kentucky, Buford joined the Confederate States Army, he helped raise and took command of a Kentucky brigade and on September 2, 1862, was commissioned Brigadier General. Among his missions, Buford covered General Braxton Bragg's retreat from Kentucky, was part of the Vicksburg Campaign under General Loring, fought in the Battle of Champion Hill, a raid on Paducah, KY on 25 March 1864 under Maj. Gen. Nathan B.
Forrest, the Battle of Brice's Crossroads and was wounded on December 24, 1864, at Richland Creek during the Battle of Nashville when he covered Lt. Gen. Hood's retreat following the Confederate Army's loss. In Alabama in February, 1865, he commanded a division in Forrest's Cavalry Corps until the surrender at Selma following Wilson's Raid; when the war ended in 1865, Brigadier General Buford returned to his farm in Kentucky where he became a leading breeder of Thoroughbreds. Abe Buford named his Woodford County farm Bosque Bonita, a place The New York Times would call the "most princely residence in the Bluegrass region." It was here that slave Billy Walker was born in 1860. He went on to ride Baden-Baden to victory in the 1877 Kentucky Derby. Beginning in 1852, the stallion Sovereign stood at stud at Bosque Bonita, developing into an influential sire; the next year, Abe Buford was part of a syndicate with Richard Ten Broeck, Captain Willa Viley and Junius R. Ward, who bought the three-year-old colt, Lexington.
In 1858 Lexington was sold to Robert A. Alexander of Woodburn Stud for $15,000 in 1858 the highest price paid for an American horse. Buford owned, raced, or bred a number of successful horses including Nellie Gray, Enquirer and Versailles. Mannie Gray, whom Thoroughbred Heritage calls "one of the most influential American mares in breeding history," was owned and raced by Buford who sold her to fellow Kentuckian, Major Barak G. Thomas of Dixiana Farm. In 1866, Leamington's new owner, Canadian Roderick Cameron, sent him to stand at stud at Bosque Bonita for the season. Although Leamington covered just thirteen mares that year, he produced an outstanding crop of foals, Anna Mace, Longfellow, Lynchburg and Miss Alice. In 1875, General George Custer came to Bosque Bonita Farm to buy cavalry remounts before the Battle of Little Big Horn. Since Abe Buford's time, Bosque Bonita has been owned by such prominent horsemen as John H. Morris who had trained horses for George J. Long's Bashford Manor Stable for many years and who operated Woodburn Stud on a long-term lease beginning in 1905.
John Morris still owned Bosque Bonita in the 1940s. Fritz Hawn bought Bosque Bonita Farm in the fall of 1977 from Robert A. Alexander. Two years he sold the property to William Stamps Farish III who renamed it Lane's End Farm; some of the famous horses who stood at the farm in recent times and are buried there include Bally Ache, Sovereign Dancer, Fappiano. During the 1870s Abe Buford suffered a series of financial reversals that forced him into bankruptcy with the resulting loss of Bosque Bonita Farm to his creditors. In addition, he suffered a devastating personal loss when his only son, William A. Buford, died at age twenty-three in 1872, he lost his wife Amanda Harris Buford in 1879 and on March 26 of that same year, his brother, Colonel Thomas Buford of Henry County, Kentucky and killed Judge John Milton Elliott in Frankfort, Kentucky. Tom Buford was jailed pending trial. Abe Buford spent a great deal of money on legal fees for his defense. On appeal of a guilty verdict, Thomas Buford would be found not guilty by reason of insanity and was sent to the Anchorage, Kentucky psychiatric hospital.
In his final years, Abe Buford made a living working for racing newspapers. In 1884, following his b
Colorado is a state of the Western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th most extensive and 21st most populous U. S. state. The estimated population of Colorado was 5,695,564 on July 1, 2018, an increase of 13.25% since the 2010 United States Census. The state was named for the Colorado River, which early Spanish explorers named the Río Colorado for the ruddy silt the river carried from the mountains; the Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, on August 1, 1876, U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed Proclamation 230 admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state. Colorado is nicknamed the "Centennial State" because it became a state one century after the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence. Colorado is bordered by Wyoming to the north, Nebraska to the northeast, Kansas to the east, Oklahoma to the southeast, New Mexico to the south, Utah to the west, touches Arizona to the southwest at the Four Corners.
Colorado is noted for its vivid landscape of mountains, high plains, canyons, plateaus and desert lands. Colorado is part of the western and southwestern United States, is one of the Mountain States. Denver is most populous city of Colorado. Residents of the state are known as Coloradans, although the antiquated term "Coloradoan" is used. Colorado is notable for its diverse geography, which includes alpine mountains, high plains, deserts with huge sand dunes, deep canyons. In 1861, the United States Congress defined the boundaries of the new Territory of Colorado by lines of latitude and longitude, stretching from 37°N to 41°N latitude, from 102°02'48"W to 109°02'48"W longitude. After 158 years of government surveys, the borders of Colorado are now defined by 697 boundary markers and 697 straight boundary lines. Colorado and Utah are the only states that have their borders defined by straight boundary lines with no natural features; the southwest corner of Colorado is the Four Corners Monument at 36°59'56"N, 109°2'43"W.
This is the only place in the United States where four states meet: Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. The summit of Mount Elbert at 14,440 feet elevation in Lake County is the highest point in Colorado and the Rocky Mountains of North America. Colorado is the only U. S. state that lies above 1,000 meters elevation. The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County and into Cheyenne County, Kansas, is the lowest point in Colorado at 3,317 feet elevation; this point, which holds the distinction of being the highest low elevation point of any state, is higher than the high elevation points of 18 states and the District of Columbia. A little less than half of Colorado is flat and rolling land. East of the Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Nebraska at elevations ranging from 3,350 to 7,500 feet; the Colorado plains are prairies but include deciduous forests and canyons. Precipitation averages 15 to 25 inches annually. Eastern Colorado is presently farmland and rangeland, along with small farming villages and towns.
Corn, hay and oats are all typical crops. Most villages and towns in this region boast both a grain elevator. Irrigation water is available from subterranean sources. Surface water sources include the South Platte, the Arkansas River, a few other streams. Subterranean water is accessed through artesian wells. Heavy use of wells for irrigation caused underground water reserves to decline. Eastern Colorado hosts considerable livestock, such as hog farms. 70% of Colorado's population resides along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range Urban Corridor between Cheyenne and Pueblo, Colorado. This region is protected from prevailing storms that blow in from the Pacific Ocean region by the high Rockies in the middle of Colorado; the "Front Range" includes Denver, Fort Collins, Castle Rock, Colorado Springs, Pueblo and other townships and municipalities in between. On the other side of the Rockies, the significant population centers in Western Colorado are the cities of Grand Junction and Montrose.
The Continental Divide of the Americas extends along the crest of the Rocky Mountains. The area of Colorado to the west of the Continental Divide is called the Western Slope of Colorado. West of the Continental Divide, water flows to the southwest via the Colorado River and the Green River into the Gulf of California. Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains are several large parks which are high broad basins. In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide is the North Park of Colorado; the North Park is drained by the North Platte River, which flows north into Nebraska. Just to the south of North Park, but on the western side of the Continental Divide, is the Middle Park of Colorado, drained by the Colorado River; the South Park of Colorado is the region of the headwaters of the South Platte River. In southmost Colorado is the large San Luis Valley, where the headwaters of the Rio Grande are located; the valley sits between the Sangre De Cristo Mountains and San Juan Mountains, consists of large desert lands that run into the mountains.
The Rio Grande drains due south into New Mexico and Texas. Across the Sangre de Cristo Range to the east of the S
Rawlins is a city in Carbon County, United States. The population was 9,259 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Carbon County. It was named for Union General John Aaron Rawlins, who camped in the locality in 1867; as of the census of 2010, there were 9,259 people, 3,443 households, 2,206 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,123.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,960 housing units at an average density of 480.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 84.7% White, 1.1% African American, 1.3% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 9.2% from other races, 2.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 24.3% of the population. There were 3,443 households of which 35.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.2% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.9% were non-families. 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.04. The median age in the city was 34.3 years. 25.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 54.7% male and 45.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,538 people, 3,320 households, 2,237 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,153.4 people per square mile. There were 3,860 housing units at an average density of 521.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.86% White, 0.81% African American, 1.46% Native American, 0.84% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 8.28% from other races, 2.65% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21.05% of the population. There were 3,320 households out of which 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.6% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.6% were non-families. 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.97. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.0% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 111.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 112.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $36,600, the median income for a family was $42,137. Males had a median income of $33,179 versus $22,580 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,887. About 10.4% of families and 13.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.2% of those under age 18 and 17.7% of those age 65 or over. Rawlins is located in Wyoming. 41°47′25″N 107°14′3″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.28 square miles, of which, 8.24 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. The city is 6800 feet above sea level.
Rawlins' climate is semi-arid. The Wyoming Department of Corrections Wyoming State Penitentiary is located in Rawlins; the facility was operated by the Wyoming Board of Charities and Reform until that agency was dissolved as a result of a state constitutional amendment passed in November 1990. The United States Postal Service operates the Rawlins Post Office. Residents are zoned to schools in the Carbon County School District#1All residents are zoned to Rawlins Elementary School, Rawlins Middle School and Rawlins High School. Western Wyoming Community College offers outreach programs through the Carbon County Higher Education Center; the main campus is housed in the former Sunny Side Elementary School building. Rawlins is served by the Rawlins Daily Times; the town's two radio stations, KRAL and KIQZ have both been silent for some time. The stations are owned by Inc.. Sources connected to the FCC say, "...that any station owned or operated by Mt. Rushmore Broadcasting will "not likely" have their licenses renewed once they expire, due to the history of "past violations and cavalier attitude towards following and maintaining" rules and regulations, that this and other Mt. Rushmore stations could have their broadcasting rights taken away "at any moment."
In early 2015, it was reported that staff had unexpectedly resigned, there was difficulty finding new employees. Interstate highways: I-80 East-west interstate running from New York City, NY to San Francisco, CA. I-80 runs south of Rawlins; the I-80 business loop runs through Rawlins, following Cedar Street before turning north onto Third Street, west onto Spruce Street. US routes: US 30 Runs concurrent with I-80; the US-30 business loop runs concurrent with the I-80 business loop. US 287 Runs through Rawlins on east Cedar Street before moving north onto North Higley Boulevard. Wyoming state highways: WYO 71 Starts at CR401 near Teton Reservoir and travels through southern parts of Rawlins until ending at Wyoming 78 near I-80 exit 214. WYO 78 Wyoming Highway 78 known as South Higley Boulevard, begins at the Wyoming State Penitentiary south of Rawlins, until ending at W