Indian Territory in the American Civil War
During the American Civil War, Indian Territory occupied most of what is now the U. S. state of Oklahoma. It served as a region set aside for Native American tribes of the Southeastern United States following the Indian Removal Act. It was occupied by captured Native Americans who had removed from their lands. The Union organized several regiments of Indian Home Guard to serve in the Indian Territory and sometimes adjacent areas of Kansas, the area was largely undeveloped, railroads did not exist in this area and the Union did not have enough troops to control the few roads. Pro-Union Indians had abandoned their own farms because of raids by pro-Confederacy Indians and fled to Kansas or Missouri and it was not feasible to sustain a large military operation by living off the land. This was demonstrated in 1862, when General William Weer led 5,000 men in the Indian Expedition into Indian Territory from Baxter Springs, weers troops captured a Confederate supply train at the Battle of Locust Grove.
However, no Union supplies arrived after that, and the expedition ran short of food, weers men mutinied, arresting Weer and putting Colonel Frederick Salomon in command. The Confederacy took an interest, seeking a source of food in the event of a Union blockade, a connection to western territories. At the onset of war, Confederate forces took possession of the US army forts in the area, in June and July 1861, its officers negotiated with Native American tribes for combat support. After refusing to allow Creek lands to be annexed by the Confederacy, after reaching Kansas and Missouri and Native Americans loyal to the Union formed three volunteer regiments known as the Indian Home Guard. It fought in Indian Territory and Arkansas, the first battle in the territory occurred on November 19,1861. Opothleyahola rallied Indians to the Union cause at Deep Fork, a total of 7,000 men and children resided in his camp. A force of 1,400 Confederate soldiers under Colonel Douglas H. Cooper initiated the Battle of Round Mountain, Opothleyahola moved his camp to a new location at Chustenalah.
On December 26,1861, Confederate forces again attacked, this time driving Opothleyahola, in 1862, Union General James G. Blunt ordered Colonel William Weer to lead an expedition into the Indian Territory, the expedition included five white regiments, two Indian regiments and two artillery battalions. The main objective of the expedition was to escort the Indian refugees who had fled to Kansas back to their homes in Indian Territory, a secondary objective was to hold the territory for the Union. Weers expedition met with success at the Battle of Locust Grove in Indian Territory. The expedition camped at Locust Grove for two weeks, waiting for a Union supply train, one detachment from the main force moved on to Fort Gibson, causing the Confederates stationed there to withdraw
A slave is unable to withdraw unilaterally from such an arrangement and works without remuneration. Many scholars now use the chattel slavery to refer to this specific sense of legalised. In a broader sense, the word slavery may refer to any situation in which an individual is de facto forced to work against his or her will. Scholars use the generic terms such as unfree labour or forced labour. However – and especially under slavery in broader senses of the word – slaves may have some rights and/or protections, Slavery began to exist before written history, in many cultures. A person could become a slave from the time of their birth, while slavery was institutionally recognized by most societies, it has now been outlawed in all recognized countries, the last being Mauritania in 2007. Nevertheless, there are still more slaves today than at any point in history. The most common form of the trade is now commonly referred to as human trafficking. Chattel slavery is still practiced by the Islamic State of Iraq.
An older interpretation connected it to the Greek verb skyleúo to strip a slain enemy, there is a dispute among historians about whether terms such as unfree labourer or enslaved person, rather than slave, should be used when describing the victims of slavery. Chattel slavery, called traditional slavery, is so named because people are treated as the chattel of the owner and are bought, although it dominated many societies in the past, this form of slavery has been formally abolished and is very rare today. Even when it can be said to survive, it is not upheld by the system of any internationally recognized government. Indenture, otherwise known as bonded labour or debt bondage is a form of labour under which a person pledges himself or herself against a loan. The services required to repay the debt, and their duration, debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation, with children required to pay off their parents debt. It is the most widespread form of slavery today, debt bondage is most prevalent in South Asia.
This may include institutions not commonly classified as slavery, such as serfdom, Human trafficking primarily involves women and children forced into prostitution. And is the fastest growing form of forced labour, with Thailand, India, Brazil, in 2007, Human Rights Watch estimated that 200,000 to 300,000 children served as soldiers in current conflicts. A forced marriage may be regarded as a form of slavery by one or more of the involved in the marriage
Strawberry Plains, Tennessee
Strawberry Plains is an unincorporated community straddling the boundary between Jefferson and Sevier counties in the U. S. state of Tennessee. Before 2010, it was treated by the United States Census Bureau as a county division. Strawberry Plains is located on the bank of the Holston River, according to the United States Geological Survey, a variant is Straw Plains. Strawberry Plains has been the site of a post office since 1806, the zip code is 37871, though parts of Strawberry Plains are located in the zip codes 37914 and 37924. Strawberry Plains is said to be named for the wild strawberries that grew there in abundance when white settlers from North Carolina first arrived in the area. The conspirators failed in their efforts to burn the Strawberry Plains bridge, through much of the 20th century, Strawberry Plains was the site of a Tennessee limestone quarry and an underground zinc mine. The zinc mine shut down in 2001, but reopened in 2006, in December 2008 it was announced that the mine would close again in February 2009.
In September 2007 the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation announced plans to build a facility and crime lab in Strawberry Plains. This facility was completed, and opened in July 2009, the Strawberry Plains exit of Interstate 40, exit 398 at Strawberry Plains Pike has grown rapidly. There are several hotels and gas stations, with more under construction, the Tennessee Department of Transportations region one headquarters are located off I-40. Strawberry Plains has a Food City supermarket, a Family Dollar store, Strawberry Plains is home to satellite campuses of Pellissippi State Community College and King University
The Cherokee language is part of the Iroquoian language group. The Cherokee were one of the first, if not the first, article 8 in the 1817 treaty with the Cherokee stated Cherokees may wish to become citizens of the United States. The Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma has around 300,000 tribal members, in addition, numerous groups claiming Cherokee lineage, some of which are state-recognized, have members who are among those 819, 000-plus people claiming Cherokee ancestry on the US census. Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the Cherokee Nation and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians have headquarters in Tahlequah, the UKB are mostly descendants of Old Settlers, Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817. They are related to the Cherokee who were relocated there in the 1830s under the Indian Removal Act. The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is on the Qualla Boundary in western North Carolina, the Cherokee refer to themselves as Ani-Yunwiya, which means Principal People.
Many theories—though none proven—abound about the origin of the name Cherokee and it may have originally been derived from the Choctaw word Cha-la-kee, which means people who live in the mountains, or Choctaw Chi-luk-ik-bi, meaning people who live in the cave country. The earliest Spanish rendering of the name Cherokee, from 1755, is Tchalaquei, Another theory is that Cherokee derives from a Lower Creek word, Cvlakke. The Iroquois in New York have historically called the Cherokee Oyata’geronoñ, Tsalagi is sometimes misused as a name for the people, Tsalagi is actually the Cherokee word for the Cherokee language. There are two theories of Cherokee origins. Another theory is that the Cherokee had been in the Southeast for thousands of years, researchers in the 19th century recorded conversations with elders who recounted an oral tradition of the Cherokee peoples migrating south from the Great Lakes region in ancient times. They may have moved south into Muscogee Creek territory and settled at the sites of mounds built by the Mississippian culture, in the 19th century, European-American settlers mistakenly attributed several Mississippian culture sites to the Cherokee, including Moundville and Etowah Mounds.
However, the Cherokee did not reach this part of Georgia until the late 18th century, pre-contact Cherokee are considered to be part of the Pisgah Phase of Southern Appalachia, which lasted from circa 1000 to 1500. During the late Archaic and Woodland Period, Indians in the region began to cultivate plants such as elder, pigweed, sunflowers. People created new art forms such as shell gorgets, adopted new technologies, during the Mississippian Culture-period, local women developed a new variety of maize called eastern flint corn. It closely resembled modern corn and produced larger crops, the successful cultivation of corn surpluses allowed the rise of larger, more complex chiefdoms with several villages and concentrated populations during this period. Corn became celebrated among numerous peoples in ceremonies, especially the Green Corn Ceremony. Much of what is known about pre-18th-century Native American cultures has come from records of Spanish expeditions, the earliest ones of the mid-16th-century encountered people of the Mississippian culture, the ancestors to tribes in the Southeast such as the Muscogee and Catawba
Native Americans in the American Civil War
Native Americans in the American Civil War composed various Native American bands and nations. Native Americans served in both the Union and Confederate military during the American Civil War, at the outbreak of the war, for example, the majority of the Cherokees sided with the Union, but soon after allied with the Confederacy. Native Americans fought knowing they might jeopardize their sovereignty, unique cultures, Native Americans served in both the Union and Confederate military during the American Civil War. Many of the tribes viewed the Confederacy as the better choice due to its opposition to a federal system which lacked a respect for the sovereignty of Indian nations. In addition, some Native American tribes, such as the Creek, at the beginning of the war, Albert Pike was appointed as Confederate envoy to Native Americans. In this capacity he negotiated several treaties, one such treaty was the Treaty with Choctaws and Chickasaws conducted in July 1861, the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Seminole and Creek tribes were the only tribes to fight on the Confederate side.
The Confederacy wanted to recruit Indians east of the Mississippi River in 1862, so they opened up a camp in Mobile. The Mobile Advertiser and Register would advertise for a chance at military service, the Secretary of War has authorized me to enlist all the Indians east of the Mississippi River into the service of the Confederate States, as Scouts. In addition to the Indians, I will receive all white male citizens, to each member, Fifty Dollars Bounty, arms, camp equipage &c, furnished. The weapons shall be Enfield Rifles, for further information address me at Mobile, Ala. Stand Watie, along with many Cherokee, sided with the Confederate Army, in which he was made colonel and commanded a battalion of Cherokee. Reluctantly, on October 7,1861, Chief Ross signed a treaty transferring all obligations due to the Cherokee from the U. S. Government to the Confederate States. In the treaty, the Cherokee were guaranteed protection, rations of food, livestock and other goods, in exchange, the Cherokee would furnish ten companies of mounted men, and allow the construction of military posts and roads within the Cherokee Nation.
However, no Indian regiment was to be called on to fight outside Indian Territory, as a result of the treaty, the 2nd Cherokee Mounted Rifles, led by Col. John Drew, was formed. Following the Battle of Pea Ridge, March 7–8,1862, Drews Mounted Rifles defected to the Union forces in Kansas, where they joined the Indian Home Guard. In the summer of 1862, Federal troops captured Chief Ross, William Holland Thomas, the only white chief of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, recruited hundreds of Cherokees for the Confederacy, particularly for Thomas Legion. The Legion, raised in September 1862, fought until the end of the war, Choctaw Confederate battalions were formed in Indian Territory and in Mississippi in support of the southern cause. The Choctaws, who were expecting support from the Confederates, got little and their zeal for the Confederate cause, began to evaporate when they found that neither arms nor pay had been arranged for them
Appomattox Court House National Historical Park
The Appomattox Court House National Historical Park is a National Historical Park of original and reconstructed 19th century buildings in Appomattox County, Virginia. The McLean House was the site of the conference. The park was established August 3,1935, the village was made a national monument in 1940 and a national historical park in 1954. It is located three miles east of Appomattox, the location of the Appomattox Station and the new Appomattox Court House. It is in the center of the state about 25 miles east of Lynchburg, the antebellum village started out as Clover Hill named after its oldest existing structure, the Clover Hill Tavern. The village was a stop along the Richmond-Lynchburg stage road. The activity in Clover Hill centered around Clover Hill Tavern, the tavern provided lodging to travelers. Fresh horses for the line were provided at the stop. It was the site of meetings and so when Appomattox County was established by an Act on February 8,1845. It was parts of Buckingham, Prince Edward, the jurisdiction took its name from the headwaters that emanate there, the Appomattox River.
Early Virginians believe the name Appomattox came from an Indian tribe called Apumetec, from about 1842, Hugh Raine basically owned most of the Clover Hill area. He obtained it from his brother John Raine who defaulted on his loans, later, he sold the property to a Colonel Samuel D. McDearmon. Since his acquisition, it became the county seat and he surveyed 30 acres of the hamlet and he designated 2 acres to be used by the new county to build a courthouse and other government buildings. The courthouse was to be built across the Stage Road from the Clover Hill Tavern, the jail was to be built behind the courthouse. McDearmon divided the land surrounding the courthouse into 1-acre lots. He felt that with Clover Hills new status as a county seat he would find professional people ready and his hopes were dashed in 1854 as the train depot stopped three miles west in Appomattox, Virginia. The American Civil War put the nails in the coffin. The district once known as Clover Hill and renamed to Appomattox Court House continued to decline as businesses moved to the area of the Appomattox Station, the village contained 30 acres of the original Pattesons Clover Hill Tavern property of some 200 acres
Trail of Tears
The forced relocations were carried out by various government authorities following the passage of the Indian Removal Act in 1830. The relocated people suffered from exposure and starvation while en route, the removal included members of the Cherokee, Seminole and Choctaw nations. The phrase Trail of Tears originated from a description of the removal of the Cherokee Nation in 1838. Between 1830 and 1850, the Chickasaw, Creek and Cherokee people were removed from their traditional lands in the Southeastern United States. Those Native Americans that were relocated were forced to march to their destinations by state, the Cherokee removal in 1838 was brought on by the discovery of gold near Dahlonega, Georgia in 1828, resulting in the Georgia Gold Rush. Approximately 2, 000-6,000 of the 16,543 relocated Cherokee perished along the way, the process of cultural transformation, as proposed by George Washington and Henry Knox, was gaining momentum, especially among the Cherokee and Choctaw. Although the effort was opposed by many, including U. S.
In 1831, the Choctaw became the first Nation to be removed, after two wars, many Seminoles were removed in 1832. The Creek removal followed in 1834, the Chickasaw in 1837, a limited number of non-Indians, including some Africans, accompanied the Indians on the trek westward. By 1837,46,000 Indians from the states had been removed from their homelands. Territories—federally administered regions whose boundaries supervened upon the Native treaty claims, the removals, conducted under Presidents Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, followed the Indian Removal Act of 1830. The Act provided the President with powers to exchange land with Native tribes, the law gave the president power to pay for transportation costs to the West, should tribes choose to relocate. The law did not, allow the President to force tribes to move West without a mutually agreed-upon treaty, in the years following the Act, the Cherokee filed several lawsuits regarding conflicts with the state of Georgia. Some of these reached the Supreme Court, the most influential being Worcester v.
Georgia. Samuel Worcester and other non-Indians were convicted by Georgia law for residing in Cherokee territory in the state of Georgia, without a license. The Court ruled in Worcesters favor, declaring that the Cherokee Nation was subject only to federal law, chief Justice Marshall argued, The Cherokee nation, then, is a distinct community occupying its own territory in which the laws of Georgia can have no force. The whole intercourse between the United States and this Nation, is, by our constitution and laws, vested in the government of the United States, Andrew Jackson did not listen to the Supreme Court mandate barring Georgia from intruding on Cherokee lands. He feared that enforcement would lead to warfare between federal troops and the Georgia militia, which would compound the ongoing crisis in South Carolina
Choctaw in the American Civil War
Choctaw in the American Civil War participated in two major arenas- East and West. Majors J. W. Pierce and S. G, at the beginning of the American Civil War, Albert Pike was appointed as Confederate envoy to Native Americans. In this capacity he negotiated several treaties, one such treaty was the Treaty with Choctaws and Chickasaws conducted in July 1861, soon Confederate battalions were formed in Indian Territory and in Mississippi in support of the southern cause. The Choctaws, who were expecting support from the Confederates, got little and their zeal for the Confederate cause, began to evaporate when they found that neither arms nor pay had been arranged for them. A disgusted officer acknowledged that with the exception of a supply for the Choctaw regiment, no tents, clothing, or camp. In 1861, a Mississippi citizen attempted to raise a volunteer Choctaw company for the Confederacy, in the summer of 1862, eighty-two Mississippians filed a petition to Mississippi Governor John J. Pettus. The petitioners urged the conscription of the Indians, in that petition, John Harrisson, a white planter, was noted to have enrolled about two companies of the Indians.
Harrissons Indian companies likely merged with J. W. Pierces unit, J. W. Pierce and S. G. Spann, both of whom were white planters, organized the Mississippi Choctaw as Confederates starting in 1862. Pierce and Spann created two distinct & separate units that had common members, the Indian troops first mission was to track down deserters—most found in Jones County, however, S. G. Spann was aware of their potential for scouting and using guerrilla warfare. Major S. G. Spann wrote many years that the passengers were rescued due to their heroic acts, as the war progressed, Indian troops were sent to Louisiana as reinforcements to Col. H. H. Millers command at Ponchatoula in March 1863. The newspapers of the time gave the Indian troops credit for pushing back the Yankees, during or after Griersons Raid in April/May 1863, over half of the Indian members of the 1st Choctaw Battalion deserted while the rest remained with the battalion. The 1st Choctaw Battalion, under the command of Major J. W. Pierce, was ordered to disband on May 9,1863.
After a number of Choctaw Indians were captured near Ponchatoula in May 1863, as scouts in Spanns battalion, the Mississippi Choctaws served in the Tuscaloosa, Alabama area in fall 1863. Their likely role was to track conscripts for General Gideon J. Pillow, although Spanns Battalion of Independent Scouts was disbanded on November 6 of 1863, Spann continued service with his battalion of Choctaw Indians. Many Mississippi Choctaws served until they surrendered in May 1865, Major S. G. Spann, Commander of Dabney H. Maury Camp of Newton, wrote about the deeds of the Choctaw years after the Civil War had ended. Many earnest friends and comrades insist that the Choctaw Indian as a Confederate soldier should receive his proper place on the scroll of events during the American Civil War. This task having been so nearly ignored, I send some reminiscences that will be an exponent of the merit of the Choctaw Indian on the American Continent. My connection with the Choctaw Indians was brought about incidentally, Maj. J. W.
Pearce, of Hazelhurst, organized a battalion of Choctaw Indians, of Kemper, DeKalb, Jasper, Scott], and Newton Counties, Miss
Stand Watie — known as Standhope Uwatie and Isaac S. Prior to removal of the Cherokee to Indian Territory in the late 1830s, the majority of the tribe opposed their action. In 1839 the brothers were attacked in an attempt, as were other relatives active in the Treaty Party. All but Stand Watie were killed, Watie in 1842 killed one of his uncles attackers, and in 1845 his brother Thomas Watie was killed in retaliation, in the continuing cycle of violence. Watie was acquitted at trial in the 1850s on the grounds of self-defense, during the American Civil War and soon after, Watie served as Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation. By then, the majority of the supported the Confederacy. A minority supported the Union and refused to ratify his election, the former chief John Ross, a Union supporter, was captured in 1862 by Union forces. Watie led the Southern Cherokee delegation to Washington after the war to sue for peace, the US government negotiated only with the leaders who had sided with the Union, and named John Ross as principal chief in 1866 under a new treaty.
Watie stayed out of politics for his last years, and tried to rebuild his plantation. Watie was born in Oothcaloga, Cherokee Nation on December 12,1806, the son of Uwatie, a full-blood Cherokee, according to one biography, this name meant standing firm when translated to English. He combined his Cherokee and English names into Stand Watie and his brothers were Gallagina, nicknamed Buck, and Thomas Watie. They were close to their paternal uncle Major Ridge, and his son John Ridge, by 1827, their father David Uwatie had become a wealthy planter, who held African-American slaves as laborers. After Uwatie converted to Christianity with the Moravians, he took the name of David Uwatie, he, in his life, Degataga preferred to use a form of the English translation of his Cherokee name, Stand Firm. Later, the dropped the U from the spelling of their surname. Along with his two brothers and sisters, Stand Watie learned to read and write English at the Moravian mission school in Spring Place, Stand Watie occasionally helped write articles for the Cherokee Phoenix newspaper, for which his older brother Elias served as editor from 1828-1832.
The first Native American newspaper, the Phoenix published articles in both Cherokee and English, Watie became involved in the dispute over Georgias repressive anti-Indian laws. After gold was discovered on Cherokee lands in northern Georgia, thousands of white settlers encroached on Indian lands, there was continuing conflict, and Congress passed the 1830 Indian Removal Act, to relocate all Indians from the Southeast, to lands west of the Mississippi River. In 1832 Georgia confiscated most of the Cherokee land, despite federal laws to protect Native Americans from state actions, the state sent militia to destroy the offices and press of the Cherokee Phoenix, which had published articles against Indian Removal
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
Appalachia is a cultural region in the Eastern United States that stretches from the Southern Tier of New York to northern Alabama and Georgia. As of the 2010 United States Census, the region was home to approximately 25 million people, sociological studies in the 1960s and 1970s helped to re-examine and dispel these stereotypes. While endowed with abundant natural resources, Appalachia has long struggled, by 1990, Appalachia had largely joined the economic mainstream, but still lagged behind the rest of the nation in most economic indicators. Since Appalachia lacks definite physiographical or topographical boundaries, there has been disagreement over what exactly the region encompasses. The most commonly used definition of Appalachia is the one initially defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission in 1965. When the Commission was established, counties were added based on economic need, in 1921, John C. Campbell published The Southern Highlander and His Homeland in which he modified Frosts map to include 254 counties in 9 states.
A landmark survey of the region in the decade by the United States Department of Agriculture defined the region as consisting of 206 counties in 6 states. In 1984, Karl Raitz and Richard Ulack expanded the ARCs definition to include 445 counties in 13 states, although they removed all counties in Mississippi and added two in New Jersey. The name was altered by the Spanish to Apalachee and used as a name for the tribe. Pánfilo de Narváezs expedition first entered Apalachee territory on June 15,1528, now spelled Appalachian, it is the fourth oldest surviving European place-name in the U. S. After the de Soto expedition in 1540, Spanish cartographers began to apply the name of the tribe to the mountains themselves. The first cartographic appearance of Apalchen is on Diego Gutiérrez map of 1562, le Moyne was the first European to apply Apalachen specifically to a mountain range as opposed to a village, native tribe, or a southeastern region of North America. The name was not commonly used for the mountain range until the late 19th century.
A competing and often more popular name was the Allegheny Mountains, Alleghenies, in the early 19th century, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either Appalachia or Alleghania. In northern U. S. dialects, the mountains are pronounced /æpəˈleɪtʃənz/ or /æpəˈleɪʃənz/, the cultural region of Appalachia is pronounced /æpəˈleɪʃə/, /æpəˈleɪtʃə/, all with a third syllable like lay. In southern U. S. dialects, the mountains are called the /æpəˈlætʃənz/, and this pronunciation is favored in the core region in central and southern parts of the Appalachian range. The occasional use of the sh sound for the ch in the last syllable in northern dialects was popularized by Appalachian Trail organizations in New England in the early 20th century, Native American hunter-gatherers first arrived in what is now Appalachia over 16,000 years ago. The earliest discovered site is the Meadowcroft Rockshelter in Washington County, several other Archaic period archaeological sites have been identified in the region, such as the St.
Albans site in West Virginia and the Icehouse Bottom site in Tennessee