Bird of prey
Birds of prey, or raptors, include species of bird that hunt and feed on vertebrates that are large relative to the hunter. Additionally, they have keen eyesight for detecting food at a distance or during flight, strong feet equipped with talons for grasping or killing prey, powerful, curved beaks for tearing flesh; the term raptor is derived from the Latin word rapio, meaning to take by force. In addition to hunting live prey, most eat carrion, at least and vultures and condors eat carrion as their main food source. Although the term bird of prey could theoretically be taken to include all birds that consume animals, ornithologists use the narrower definition followed in this page. Examples of animal-eating birds not encompassed by the ornithological definition include storks, gulls, penguins and shrikes, as well as the many songbirds that are insectivorous; the common names for various birds of prey are based on structure, but many of the traditional names do not reflect the evolutionary relationships between the groups.
Eagles tend to be large birds with massive feet. Booted eagles have legs and feet feathered to the toes and build large stick nests. Ospreys, a single species found worldwide that specializes in catching fish and builds large stick nests. Kites have long wings and weak legs, they spend much of their time soaring. They will take live vertebrate prey, but feed on insects or carrion; the true hawks are medium-sized birds of prey that belong to the genus Accipiter. They are woodland birds that hunt by sudden dashes from a concealed perch, they have long tails for tight steering. Buzzards are medium-large raptors with robust bodies and broad wings, or, any bird of the genus Buteo. Harriers are slender hawk-like birds with long tails and long thin legs. Most use a combination of keen eyesight and hearing to hunt small vertebrates, gliding on their long broad wings and circling low over grasslands and marshes. Vultures are carrion-eating raptors of two distinct biological families: the Accipitridae, which occurs only in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Members of both groups have heads either or devoid of feathers. Falcons are medium-size birds of prey with long pointy wings, they belong to the Falconidae family, rather than the Accipitridae. Many are swift flyers. Caracaras are a distinct subgroup of the Falconidae unique to the New World, most common in the Neotropics – their broad wings, naked faces and appetites of a generalist suggest some level of convergence with either the Buteos or the vulturine birds, or both. Owls are variable-sized night-specialized hunting birds, they fly silently due to their special feather structure that reduces turbulence. They have acute hearing. Many of these English language group names referred to particular species encountered in Britain; as English-speaking people travelled further, the familiar names were applied to new birds with similar characteristics. Names that have generalised this way include: kite, sparrow-hawk or sparhawk, kestrel, harrier, buzzard; some names have not generalised, refer to single species: merlin, osprey.
The taxonomy of Carl Linnaeus grouped birds into orders and species, with no formal ranks between genus and order. He placed all birds of prey into a single order, subdividing this into four genera: Vultur, Falco and Lanius; this approach was followed by subsequent authors such as Gmelin and Turnton. Louis Pierre Veillot used additional ranks: order, family, species. Birds of prey were divided into nocturnal tribes, thus Veillot's families were similar to the Linnaean genera, with the difference that shrikes were no longer included amongst the birds of prey. In addition to the original Vultur and Falco, Veillot adopted four genera from Savigny: Phene, Haliæetus and Elanus, he introduced five new genera of vultures and eleven new genera of accipitrines. The order Accipitriformes is believed to have originated 44 million years ago when it split from the common ancestor of the secretarybird and the accipitrid species; the phylogeny of Accipitriformes is difficult to unravel. Widespread paraphylies were observed in many phylogenetic studies.
More recent and detailed studies show similar results. However, according to the findings of a 2014 study, the sister relationship between larger clades of Accipitriformes was well supported; the diurnal birds of prey are formally classified into five families of two orders. Accipitridae: hawks, buzzards, harriers and Old World vultures Pandionidae: the osprey Sagittar
Crayfish known as crawfish, crawlfish, freshwater lobsters, mountain lobsters, mudbugs, or yabbies are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters. Taxonomically, they are members of the superfamilies Parastacoidea, they breathe through feather-like gills. Some species are found in brooks and streams where there is running fresh water, while others thrive in swamps and paddy fields. Most crayfish cannot tolerate polluted water, although some species such as Procambarus clarkii are hardier. Crayfish feed on animals and plants, either living or decomposing, detritus; the name "crayfish" comes from the Old French word escrevisse. The word has been modified to "crayfish" by association with "fish"; the American variant "crawfish" is derived. Some kinds of crayfish are known locally as lobsters, crawdads and yabbies. In the Eastern United States, "crayfish" is more common in the north, while "crawdad" is heard more in central and southwestern regions, "crawfish" further south, although there are considerable overlaps.
The study of crayfish is called astacology. In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the term crayfish or cray refers to a saltwater spiny lobster, of the genus Jasus, indigenous to much of southern Oceania, while the freshwater species are called yabby or kōura, from the indigenous Australian and Māori names for the animal or by other names specific to each species. Exceptions include western rock lobster found on the west coast of Australia. In Singapore, the term crayfish refers to Thenus orientalis, a seawater crustacean from the slipper lobster family. True crayfish are not native to Singapore, but are found as pets, or as an invasive species in the many water catchment areas, are alternatively known as freshwater lobsters; the body of a decapod crustacean, such as a crab, lobster, or prawn, is made up of twenty body segments grouped into two main body parts, the cephalothorax and the abdomen. Each segment may possess one pair of appendages, although in various groups these may be reduced or missing.
On average, crayfish grow to 17.5 centimetres in length. Walking legs have a small claw at the end. There are three families of crayfish, two in the Northern Hemisphere and one in the Southern Hemisphere; the Southern Hemisphere family Parastacidae, with 14 extant genera and two extinct genera, live in South America and Australasia. They are distinguished by the absence of the first pair of pleopods. Of the other two families, the three genera of the Astacidae live in western Eurasia and western North America, while the 15 genera of the family Cambaridae live in eastern Asia and eastern North America; the greatest diversity of crayfish species is found in southeastern North America, with over 330 species in nine genera, all in the family Cambaridae. A further genus of astacid crayfish is found in the Pacific Northwest and the headwaters of some rivers east of the Continental Divide. Many crayfish are found in lowland areas where the water is abundant in calcium, oxygen rises from underground springs.
In 1983, Louisiana designated the crayfish, or crawfish as they are referred, as their official state crustacean. Louisiana produces 100 million pounds of crawfish per year with the red swamp and white river crawfish being the main species harvested. Crawfish are a part of Cajun culture dating back hundreds of years. A variety of cottage industries have developed as a result of commercialized crawfish iconology, their products include crawfish attached to wooden plaques, T-shirts with crawfish logos, crawfish pendants and necklaces made of gold or silver. Australia has over 100 species in a dozen genera. Australia is home to the world's three largest freshwater crayfish – the Tasmanian giant freshwater crayfish Astacopsis gouldi, which can achieve a mass of over 5 kilograms and is found in rivers of northern Tasmania, the Murray crayfish Euastacus armatus, which can reach 2.5 kilograms, although there have been reports of animals up to 3 kilograms and is found in much of the southern Murray-Darling basin. and marron from Western Australia which may reach a weight of 2.2 kilograms.
Many of the better-known Australian crayfish are of the genus Cherax, include the, common yabby, western yabby and red-claw crayfish. The marron species C. tenuimanus is critically endangered, while other large Australasian crayfish are threatened or endangered. In New Zealand, two species of Paranephrops are endemic, are known by the Māori name kōura. Fossil records of crayfish older than 30 million years are rare, but fossilised burrows have been found from strata as old as the late Palaeozoic or early Mesozoic; the oldest records of the Parastacidae are in Australia, are 115 million years old. Some crayfish suffer from a disease called crayfish plague, caused by the North American water mould Aphanomyces astaci, transmitted to Europe when North American species of crayfish were introduced there. Species of the genus Astacus are susceptible to infection, allowing the plague-coevolved signal crayfish to invade parts of Europe. Crayfish are eaten worldwide. Like other edible crustaceans, only a small portion of the body of a crayfish is eaten.
The Horned Serpent appears in the mythologies of many Native Americans. Details vary among tribes, with many of the stories associating the mystical figure with water, rain and thunder. Horned Serpents were major components of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex of North American prehistory. Horned serpents appear in European and Near Eastern mythology. Horned serpents appear in the oral history of numerous Native American cultures in the Southeastern Woodlands and Great Lakes. Muscogee Creek traditions include a Horned Serpent and a Tie-Snake, estakwvnayv in the Muscogee Creek language; these are sometimes interpreted as being the same creature and sometimes different—similar, but the Horned Serpent is larger than the Tie-Snake. To the Muscogee people, the Horned Serpent is a type of underwater serpent covered with iridescent, crystalline scales and a single, large crystal in its forehead. Both the scales and crystals are prized for their powers of divination; the horns, called chitto gab-by, were used in medicine.
Jackson Lewis, a Muscogee Creek informant to John R. Swanton, said, "This snake lives in the water has horns like the stag, it is not a bad snake.... It does not harm human beings but seems to have a magnetic power over game." In stories, the Horned Serpent enjoyed eating Rhus glabra. Alabama people call the Horned Serpent, tcinto såktco or "crawfish snake", which they divide into four classifications based on its horns' colors, which can be blue, white, or yellow. Yuchi people made effigies of the Horned Serpent as as 1905. An effigy was fashioned from painted blue, with the antlers painted yellow; the Yuchi Big Turtle Dance honors the Horned Serpent's spirit, related to storms, lightning and rainbows. Among Cherokee people, a Horned Serpent is called an uktena. Anthropologist James Mooney, describes the creature: Those who know say the Uktena is a great snake, as large around as a tree trunk, with horns on its head, a bright blazing crest like a diamond on its forehead, scales glowing like sparks of fire.
It has rings or spots of color along its whole length, can not be wounded except by shooting in the seventh spot from the head, because under this spot are its heart and its life. The blazing diamond is called Ulun'suti—"Transparent"—and he who can win it may become the greatest wonder worker of the tribe, but it is worth a man's life to attempt it, for whoever is seen by the Uktena is so dazed by the bright light that he runs toward the snake instead of trying to escape. As if this were not enough, the breath of the Uktena is so pestilential, that no living creature can survive should they inhale the tiniest bit of the foul air expelled by the Uktena. To see the Uktena asleep is death, not to the hunter himself, but to his family. According to Sioux belief, the Unhcegila are dangerous reptilian water monsters that lived in ancient times, they were of various shapes. In the end the Thunderbirds destroyed them, except for small species like lizards; this belief may have been inspired by finds of dinosaur fossils in Sioux tribal territory.
The Thunderbird may have been inspired by finds of pterosaur skeletons. Awanyu—Tewa Misi-kinepikw —Cree Msi-kinepikwa —Shawnee Misi-ginebig —Oji-Cree Mishi-ginebig —Ojibwe Pita-skog —Abenaki Sinti lapitta—Choctaw Unktehi or Unktehila—Dakota Olobit—Natchez Uktena—aniyunwiya The ram-horned serpent is a well-attested cult image of north-west Europe before and during the Roman period, it appears three times on the Gundestrup cauldron, in Romano-Celtic Gaul was associated with the horned or antlered god Cernunnos, in whose company it is depicted. This pairing is found as early as the fourth century BC in Northern Italy, where a huge antlered figure with torcs and a serpent was carved on the rocks in Val Camonica. A bronze image at Étang-sur-Arroux and a stone sculpture at Sommerécourt depict Cernunnos' body encircled by two horned snakes that feed from bowls of fruit and corn-mash in the god's lap. At Sommerécourt is a sculpture of a goddess holding a cornucopia and a pomegranate, with a horned serpent eating from a bowl of food.
At Yzeures-sur-Creuse a carved youth has a ram-horned snake twined around his legs, with its head at his stomach. At Cirencester, Cernunnos' legs are two snakes which rear up on each side of his head and are eating fruit or corn. According to Miranda Green, the snakes reflect the peaceful nature of the god, associated with nature and fruitfulness, accentuate his association with regeneration. Other deities accompanied by ram-horned serpents include "Celtic Mars" and "Celtic Mercury"; the horned snake, conventional snakes, appear together with the solar wheel as attributes of the sun or sky god. The description of Unktehi or Unktena is, more similar to that of a Lindorm in Northern Europe in Southern Scandinavia, most of all as described in folklore in Eastern Denmark. There, too, it is a water creature of huge dimensions, while in Southern Sweden it is a huge snake, the sight of, deadly; this latter characteristic is reminiscent of the basilisk. In Mesopotamian mythology Ningishzida, is sometimes depicted as a serpent with horns.
In other depictions, he is accompanied by bashmu, horned serpents. Ningishzida shares "great serpent", with several other Mesopotamian gods. Avanyu Coi Coi-Vilu Chinese dragon Feathered Serpent Kukulcan Lindworm Moñái Nāga Quetzalcoatl Sidewinder rattlesnake of the American Southwest, a living "horned serpent" Kitchi-at'Husis and Weewilmekq Tciptckaam Horned deity
Cherokee National Holiday
The Cherokee National Holiday is an annual event held each Labor Day weekend in Tahlequah, Oklahoma. The event celebrates the September 6, 1839 signing of the Constitution of the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma after the Trail of Tears Indian removal ended. Began in 1953, the event has grown into one of the largest festivals in Oklahoma, attracting in excess of 70,000 attendees coming from all over the United States. Many attendees are tribal members of the "Five Civilized Tribes". Others who attend the event are the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians located in western North Carolina and the United Keetowah Band which, like the Cherokee Nation, are headquartered in Tahlequah; the holiday hosts many different cultural and artistic events such as a two night intertribal pow wow, Cherokee marbles and cornstalk shoot tournaments, softball tournaments, rodeos and art shows, gospel singings, the annual Miss Cherokee pageant, the Cherokee National Holiday parade, the annual "State of the Nation" address by the Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation.
Each year a committee chooses a new theme for the annual celebration. Some recent themes have included: Homes. Health. Hope. – 2013 From One Fire to a Proud Future – 2012 Jobs and Community – 2011 Happy, Healthy People – 2010 Learn from all that I observe – 2009 Planting the Seed Corn For Our Children's Future – 2008 The Cherokee Nation Continues in Full Force and Effect – 2006 Celebrating the State of Sequoyah – 2005 The Spirit of the Trail – 2004 The Strength of Our Nation – 2003 Building One Fire – 2002 Celebrating The Seven Clans – 2001 Cherokee Heritage Center Cherokee language Park Hill, Oklahoma Cherokee National Holiday Archives The Cherokee Nation Homepage
A water beetle is a generalized name for any beetle, adapted to living in water at any point in its life cycle. Most water beetles can only live in fresh water, with a few marine species that live in the intertidal zone or littoral zone. There are 2000 species of true water beetles native to lands throughout the world. Many water beetles carry an air bubble, called the elytra cavity, underneath their abdomens, which provides an air supply, prevents water from getting into the spiracles. Others have the surface of their exoskeleton modified to form a plastron, or "physical gill", which permits direct gas exchange with the water; some families of water beetles have fringed hind legs adapted for swimming. Most families of water beetles have larvae that are aquatic. Water beetles can be predators, or scavengers. Herbivorous beetles leaves, they might suck juices out the stem of a plant nearby. Scavenger beetles will feed on decomposing organic material, deposited; the scavenged material can come from aquatic vegetation, feces, or other small organisms that have died.
The great diving beetle, a predator, feeds on things like worms and sometimes small fish. Families in which all species are aquatic in all life stages include: Dytiscidae Gyrinidae Haliplidae Noteridae Amphizoidae Hygrobiidae Meruidae Hydroscaphidae. Families in which the adults are not aquatic include: Hydrophilidae Lutrochidae Dryopidae Elmidae Eulichadidae Heteroceridae Limnichidae Psephenidae Ptilodactylidae Torridincolidae Sphaeriusidae Aquatic insects Epler, J. H. 1996. Identification manual for the water beetles of Florida
The Cherokee Nation known as the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, is the largest of three Cherokee federally recognized tribes in the United States. It was established in the 20th century and includes people descended from members of the Old Cherokee Nation who relocated from the Southeast due to increasing pressure to Indian Territory and Cherokee who were forced to relocate on the Trail of Tears; the tribe includes descendants of Cherokee Freedmen and Natchez Nation. Over 299,862 people are enrolled in the Cherokee Nation, with 189,228 living within the state of Oklahoma. According to Larry Echo Hawk, former head of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the current Cherokee Nation is not the historical Cherokee tribe but instead a "successor in interest". Headquartered in Tahlequah, the Cherokee Nation has a tribal jurisdictional area spanning 14 counties in the northeastern corner of Oklahoma; these are Adair, Craig, Mayes, McIntosh, Nowata, Rogers, Tulsa and Washington counties. During 1898–1906, beginning with the Curtis Act of 1898, the US federal government all but dissolved the former Cherokee Nation's governmental and civic institutions, to make way for the incorporation of Indian Territory into the new state of Oklahoma.
From 1906 to 1938, the structure and function of the tribal government was not defined. After the dissolution of the tribal government of the Cherokee Nation in the 1900s and the death of William Charles Rogers in 1917, the Federal government began to appoint chiefs to the Cherokee Nation in 1919; the service time for each appointed chief was so brief that it became known as "Chief for a Day". Six men fell under this category, the first being A. B. Cunningham who served from November 8 to November 25; the short service times were just long enough to have one sign a treaty to cede more land. In the 1930s, the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration worked to improve conditions by supporting the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, which encouraged tribes to reconstitute their governments and write constitutions. On August 8, 1938, the tribe convened a general convention in Oklahoma to elect a Chief, they choose J. B. Milam as principal chief. President Franklin D. Roosevelt confirmed the election in 1941.
W. W. Keeler was appointed chief in 1949. After the U. S. government under President Richard Nixon had adopted a self-determination policy, the nation was able to rebuild its government. The people elected W. W. Keeler as chief. Keeler, the president of Phillips Petroleum, was succeeded by Ross Swimmer. In 1975 the tribe drafted a constitution, under the name Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, ratified on June 26, 1976; the tribe has conducted litigation using this name. In 1985 Wilma Mankiller was elected as the first female chief of the Cherokee Nation; the Cherokee Nation was destabilized in May 1997 in what was variously described as either a nationalist "uprising" or an "anti-constitutional coup" instigated by Joe Byrd, the Principal Chief. Elected in 1995, Byrd became locked in a battle of strength with the judicial branch of the Cherokee tribe; the crisis came to a head on March 22, 1997, when Byrd said in a press conference that he would decide which orders of the Cherokee Nation's Supreme Court were lawful and which were not.
A simmering crisis continued over Byrd's creation of a armed paramilitary force. On June 20, 1997 his private militia illegally seized custody of the Cherokee Nation Courthouse from its legal caretakers and occupants, the Cherokee Nation Marshals, the Judicial Appeals Tribunal and its court clerks, they ousted the lawful occupants at gunpoint. The court demanded that the courthouse be returned to the judicial branch of the Cherokee Nation, but these requests were ignored by Byrd; the Federal authorities of the United States refused to intervene because of potential breach of tribal sovereignty. The State of Oklahoma recognized. By August, it sent in state troopers and specialist anti-terrorist teams. Byrd was required to attend a meeting in Washington, DC with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, at which he was compelled to reopen the courts, he served the remainder of his elected term. In 1999 Byrd lost the election for Principal Chief to Chad Smith but was elected to the Tribal Council in 2013. A new constitution was drafted in 1999 that included mechanisms for voters to remove officials from offices, changed the structure of the tribal council, removed the need to ask the Bureau of Indian Affairs' permission to amend the constitution.
The tribe and Bureau of Indian Affairs negotiated changes to the new constitution and it was ratified in 2003. Confusion resulted. To overcome the impasse, the Cherokee Nation voted by referendum to amend its 1975/1976 Constitution "to remove Presidential approval authority," allowing the tribe to independently ratify and amend its own constitution; as of August 9, 2007, the BIA gave the Cherokee Nation consent to amend its Constitution without approval from the Department of the Interior. Certain non-Cherokee groups contest the viability of this constitution; the Cherokee freedmen, descendants of African American slaves owned by citizens of the Cherokee Nation during the Antebellum Period, were first guaranteed Cherokee citizenship under a treaty with the United States in 1866. This was in the wake of the American Civil War, when the US emancipated slaves and passed US constitutional amendments granting freedmen citizenship in the United States. In reaching peace with the Cherokee, who had sided with the Confederates, the US government required that they end s
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w