Administrative divisions of New York (state)
The administrative divisions of New York are the various units of government that provide local government services in the state of New York. The state is divided into counties, cities and villages. Cities and villages are municipal corporations with their own governments that provide most local government services. Whether a municipality is defined as a city, town, or village is dependent not on population or land area, but rather on the form of government selected by the residents and approved by the state legislature; each such government is granted varying home rule powers as provided by the New York Constitution. New York has various corporate entities that serve single purposes that are local governments, such as school and fire districts. New York has 62 counties, which are subdivided into 62 cities. In total, the state has more than 3,400 active local governments and more than 4,200 taxing jurisdictions. Counties and incorporated municipal governments in New York State have been granted broad home rule powers enabling them to provide services to their residents and to regulate the quality of life within their jurisdictions.
They do so while adhering to the United States Constitution and the Constitution of the State of New York. Articles VIII and IX of the state constitution establish the rights and responsibilities of the municipal governments; the New York State Constitution provides for democratically elected legislative bodies for counties, cities and villages. These legislative bodies are granted the power to enact local laws as needed in order to provide services to their citizens and fulfill their various obligations; the county is the primary administrative division of New York. There are sixty-two counties in the state. Five of the counties are boroughs of the city of New York and do not have functioning county governments. While created as subdivisions of the state meant to carry out state functions, counties are now considered municipal corporations with the power and fiscal capacity to provide an array of local government services; such services include law enforcement and public safety and health services, education.
Every county outside of New York City has a county seat, the location of county government. Nineteen counties operate under county charters, while 38 operate under the general provisions of the County Law. Although all counties have a certain latitude to govern themselves, "charter counties" are afforded greater home rule powers; the charter counties are Albany, Chautauqua, Dutchess, Herkimer, Nassau, Onondaga, Putnam, Rockland, Suffolk, Tompkins and Westchester. Sixteen counties are governed through an assembly with the power of a board of supervisors, composed of the supervisors of its constituent towns and cities. In most of these counties, each supervisor's vote is weighted in accordance with the town's population in order to abide by the U. S. Supreme Court mandate of "one person, one vote". Other counties have legislative districts of equal population. Most counties in New York do not use the term "Board of Supervisors." 34 counties have a County Legislature, six counties have a Board of Legislators, one county has a Board of Representatives.
The five counties, or boroughs, of New York City are governed by a 51-member City Council. In non-charter counties, the legislative body exercises executive power as well. Although the legislature can delegate certain functions and duties to a county administrator, who acts on behalf of the legislature, the legislature must maintain ultimate control over the actions of the administrator. Many, but not all, charter counties have an elected executive, independent of the legislature. In New York, each city is a autonomous incorporated area that, with the exceptions of New York City and Geneva, is contained within one county. Cities in New York are classified by the U. S. Census Bureau as incorporated places, they provide all services to their residents and have the highest degree of home rule and taxing jurisdiction over their residents. The main difference between a city and a village is that cities are organized and governed according to their charters, which can differ among cities, while most villages are subject to a uniform statewide Village Law.
Villages are part of a town, with residents who pay taxes to and receive services from the town. Cities are neither part of nor subordinate to towns except for the city of Sherrill, which for some purposes is treated as if it were a village of the town of Vernon; some cities are surrounded by a town of the same name. There are sixty-two cities in the state; as of 2000, 54.1% of state residents were living in a city. In 1686, the English colonial governor granted the cities of New York and Albany city charters, which were recognized by the first State Constitution in 1777. All other cities have been established by act of the state legislature and have been granted a charter. Cities have been granted the power to revise the
May Day is a public holiday celebrated on 1 May. It is an ancient Northern Hemisphere spring festival and a traditional spring holiday in many cultures. Dances and cake are part of the festivities. In the late 19th century, May Day was chosen as the date for International Workers' Day by the Socialists and Communists of the Second International to commemorate the Haymarket affair in Chicago. International Workers' Day can be referred to as "May Day", but it is a different celebration from the traditional May Day; the earliest known May celebrations appeared with the Floralia, festival of Flora, the Roman goddess of flowers, held on 27 April during the Roman Republic era, the Maiouma or Maiuma, a festival celebrating Dionysus and Aphrodite on an unknown date in May every three years. The Floralia opened with theatrical performances. In the Floralia, Ovid says that goats were released as part of the festivities. Persius writes that crowds were pelted with vetches and lupins. A ritual called the Florifertum was performed on either April 27 or May 3, during which a bundle of wheat ears was carried into a shrine, though it is not clear if this devotion was made to Flora or Ceres.
Floralia concluded with competitive events and spectacles, a sacrifice to Flora. According to the 6th century chronicles of John Malalas, the Maiouma was a "nocturnal dramatic festival, held every three years and known as Orgies, that is, the Mysteries of Dionysus and Aphrodite" and that it was "known as the Maioumas because it is celebrated in the month of May-Artemisios". During this time, enough money was set aside by the government for torches and other expenses to cover a thirty-day festival of "all-night revels." The Maiouma was celebrated with splendorous offerings. Its reputation for licentiousness caused it to be suppressed during the reign of Emperor Constantine, though a less debauched version of it was restored during the reigns of Arcadius and Honorius, only to be suppressed again during the same period. A May festival celebrated in Germanic countries, Walpurgis Night, commemorates the official canonization of Saint Walpurga on May 1st, 870.. In Gaelic culture, the evening of April 30th was the celebration of Beltane, the start of the summer season.
First attested in 900 AD, the celebration focused on the symbolic use of fire to bless cattle and other livestock as they were moved to summer pastures. This custom continued into the early 19th century, during which time cattle would be made to jump over fires to protect their milk from being stolen by fairies. People would leap over the fires for luck. Since the 18th century, many Roman Catholics have observed May – and May Day – with various May devotions to the Blessed Virgin Mary In works of art, school skits, so forth, Mary's head will be adorned with flowers in a May crowning. 1 May is one of two feast days of the Catholic patron saint of workers St Joseph the Worker, a carpenter, husband to Mother Mary, surrogate father of Jesus. Replacing another feast to St. Joseph, this date was chosen by Pope Pius XII in 1955 as a counterpoint to the communist International Workers Day celebrations on May Day; the best known modern May Day traditions, observed both in Europe and North America, include dancing around the maypole and crowning the Queen of May.
Fading in popularity since the late 20th century is the tradition of giving of "May baskets," small baskets of sweets or flowers left anonymously on neighbours' doorsteps. In the late 20th century, many neopagans began reconstructing some of the older pagan festivals and combining them with more developed European secular and Catholic traditions, celebrating May Day as a pagan religious festival. Traditional English May Day rites and celebrations include crowning a May Queen and celebrations involving a maypole, around which dancers circle with ribbons. Morris dancing has been linked to May Day celebrations; the earliest records of maypole celebrations date to the 14th century, by the 15th century the maypole tradition was well established in southern Britain. The spring bank holiday on the first Monday in May was created in 1978. In February 2011, the UK Parliament was reported to be considering scrapping the bank holiday associated with May Day, replacing it with a bank holiday in October coinciding with Trafalgar Day, to create a "United Kingdom Day".
Unlike the other Bank Holidays and common law holidays, the first Monday in May is taken off from schools by itself, not as part of a half term or end of term holiday. This is because it has no Christian significance and does not otherwise fit into the usual school holiday pattern. May Day was abolished and its celebration banned by Puritan parliaments during the Interregnum, but reinstated with the restoration of Charles II in 1660. 1 May 1707, was the day the Act of Union came into effect, joining England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. In Oxford, it is a centuries-old tradition for May Morning revellers to gather below the Great Tower of Magdalen College at 6 am to listen to the college choir sing traditional madrigals as a conclusion to the previous night's celebrations. Since the 1980s some people jump off Magdalen Bridge into the River Cherwell. For some years, the bridge has been closed on 1 Ma
A post office is a public department that provides a customer service to the public and handles their mail needs. Post offices offer mail-related services such as acceptance of parcels. In addition, many post offices offer additional services: providing and accepting government forms, processing government services and fees, banking services; the chief administrator of a post office is called a postmaster. Prior to the advent of postal and ZIP codes, postal systems would route items to a specific post office for receipt or delivery. During the nineteenth-century, in the United States, this led to smaller communities being renamed after their post offices; the term "Post-Office" has been in use since the 1650's, shortly after the legalization of private mail services in England in 1635. In early Modern England, post riders – mounted couriers – were placed every few hours along post roads at posting houses known as post houses, between major cities; these stables or inns permitted important correspondence to travel without delay.
In early America, post offices were known as "stations". This term and "post house" fell from use as horse and coach service was replaced by railways and automobiles. Today, the term "Post Office" refers to postal facilities providing customer service; the term "General Post Office" is sometimes used for the national headquarters of a postal service if it does not provide customer service within the building. A postal facility, used for processing mail is instead known as sorting office or delivery office, which may have a large central area known as a "sorting" or "postal hall". Integrated facilities combining mail processing with railway stations or airports are known as mail exchanges. There is evidence of corps of royal couriers disseminating the decrees of the Egyptian pharaohs as early as 2,400 BC and the service may precede that date. Organized systems of post houses providing swift mounted courier service seems quite ancient, although sources vary as to who initiated the practice. By the time of the Persian Empire, a system of Chapar-Khaneh existed along the Royal Road.
The 2nd-Century BC Mauryan and Han dynasties established similar systems in China. Suetonius credited Augustus with regularizing the Cursus Publicus. Local officials were obliged to provide couriers who would be responsible for their message's entire course. Locally maintained post houses owned rest houses were obliged or honored to care for them along their way. Diocletian established two parallel systems: one providing fresh horses or mules for urgent correspondence and another providing sturdy oxen for bulk shipments. Procopius, though not unbiased, records that this system remained intact until it was dismantled in the surviving empire by Justinian in the 6th Century; the Princely House of Thurn and Taxis family initiated regular mail service from Brussels in the 16th century, directing the Imperial Post of the Holy Roman Empire. The British Postal Museum claims that the oldest functioning post office in the world is on High Street in Sanquhar, Scotland; this post office has functioned continuously since 1712, an era in which horses and stage coaches were used to carry mail.
In parts of Europe, special postal censorship offices censor mail. In France, such offices were known as cabinets noirs. In many jurisdictions, mail boxes and post office boxes have long been in widespread use for drop-off and pickup of mail and small packages outside post offices or when offices are closed. Deutsche Post introduced the Pack-Station for package delivery in 2001. In the 2000s, the United States Postal Service began to install Automated Postal Centers in many locations both in post offices and in retail locations. APCs can accept mail and small packages. General Post Office Dublin, headquarters of the Irish post and headquarters of the 1916 Easter Uprising First Toronto Post Office General Post Office, erected on the site of the Black Hole of Calcutta General Post Office in Chennai, India General Post Office in Lahore, Pakistan General Post Office, the headquarters of the Sri Lankan Post General Post Office, headquarters of the Croatian post Istanbul Main Post Office, home of the Istanbul Postal Museum James Farley Post Office, America's largest operating post office, the main office for New York City.
It bears the famous translation of Herodotus's description of the Persian postal system along its front facade: "Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds". General Post Office, the main post office of Mumbai and one of the world's largest Polish Post Office, the scene of intense fighting during the 1939 German invasion of Danzig General Post Office Building, former headquarters of the Chunghwa Post and present home of the Shanghai Postal Museum Manila Central Post Office Taipei Post Office, the headquarters of Taiwan Post General Post Office, the headquarters of Hongkong Post Bandinelli Palace, a former post office in Lviv in the Ukraine General Post Office, the city's first "all-marbl
Arlene Francis was an American actress and television talk show host, game show panelist. She is known for her long-standing role as a panelist on the television game show What's My Line?, on which she appeared for 25 years, from 1950–1975 on both the network and syndicated versions of the show. Francis was born on October 20, 1907, in Boston, the daughter of Leah and Aram Kazanjian, her Armenian father was studying art in Paris at the age of 16 when he learned that both his parents had died in one of the massacres perpetrated by the Turkish government in Turkey between 1894 and 1896, known as the Hamidian Massacres. He immigrated to the United States and became a portrait photographer, opening his own studio in Boston in the early 20th century. In life, Kazanjian painted canvases of dogwoods, "rabbits in flight", other nature scenes, selling them at auction in New York; when Francis was seven years old, her father decided that opportunities were greater in New York and moved the family to a flat in Washington Heights, Manhattan.
She remained a New York resident until she entered a San Francisco nursing home in 1993. After attending Finch College, Francis began a varied career as an entertainer based in New York City, she became an accomplished stage actress, performing in many local theatre and off-Broadway plays, compiling 25 Broadway plays to her credit through 1975. In 1932, she made her film debut in Universal's Murders in the Rue Morgue, she appeared in films sporadically until the 1970s. Francis became a well-known New York City radio personality. In 1938 she became the female host of the radio game show What's My Name?. In 1940, Francis played Betty in Betty and Bob, an early radio soap opera broadcast. In 1943, she began as host of a network radio game show, Blind Date, which she hosted on ABC and NBC television from 1949–52, she was a regular contributor to NBC Radio's Monitor in the 1950s and 1960s, hosted a long-running midday chat show on WOR-AM that ran from 1960 to 1984. Francis was a panelist on the weekly game show What's My Line? from its second episode on CBS in 1950 until its network cancellation in 1967, in its daily syndicated version from 1968–75.
The original show, which featured guests whose occupation, or "line," the panelists were to guess, became one of the classic television game shows, noted for the urbanity of its host and panelists. She appeared on other game shows, including Match Game, Password, To Tell the Truth, other programs produced by Mark Goodson and Bill Todman, including a short-lived hosting stint on Goodson-Todman show By Popular Demand replacing original host Robert Alda. According to TV Guide, Francis was the highest-earning game show panelist in the 1950s, making $1000 per show on the prime time version of What's My Line? By contrast, the second-highest paid panelists on TV, Dorothy Kilgallen and Faye Emerson, received $500 per appearance. Francis was the emcee on the last episodes of the short-lived The Comeback Story, a 1954 reality show on ABC in which celebrities shared stories of having overcome adversities in their personal lives. Francis was a pioneer for women on television, one of the first to host a program, not musical or dramatic in nature.
From 1954-57, she was host and editor-in-chief of Home, NBC's hour-long daytime magazine program oriented toward women, conceived by network president Pat Weaver to complement the network's Today and Tonight programs. Newsweek put her on its cover as the "first lady of television", she hosted Talent Patrol in the mid-1950s. She acted in a few Hollywood films, debuting in the role of a streetwalker who falls prey to mad scientist Bela Lugosi in Murders in the Rue Morgue. In her memoir, Francis said she was cast for the movie though her only acting experience at the time was in a small Shakespearean production in a convent school she had attended; some sixteen years she appeared in the film version of Arthur Miller's play, All My Sons with Edward G. Robinson. In the 1960s Francis made three films: she played the wife of James Cagney in One, Three, directed by Billy Wilder and filmed in Munich, she made The Thrill of It All with James Garner and, in 1968, the television version of the play Laura, which she had played on stage several times.
Her final film performance was in Wilder's Fedora. She wrote an autobiography in 1978 entitled Arlene Francis: A Memoir with help from longtime friend Florence Rome, she wrote That Certain Something: The Magic of Charm in 1960 and a cookbook, No Time for Cooking, in 1961. She was a member of the Peabody Awards Board of Jurors from 1980-82. Francis guested on television programs, including Mrs. G. Goes to College in 1962 in the episode "The Mother Affair". Francis was married twice, her first marriage, from 1935 to 1945, was to an executive of Paramount Pictures. She wrote of this experience in her 1978 autobiography: Having made the actual physical break, it was easier for me than I had thought to explain to Neil some of what I felt, what I had been feeling for so long a time. Not all, of course. There were areas which I couldn't discuss then, which would be too hurtful to him, I felt. I saw him often, he courted me as though we had just met, but I was building up strengths which enabled me to resist not only his blandishments but th
Ammophila is a genus of flowering plants consisting of two or three similar species of grasses. The common names for these grasses include marram grass, bent grass, beachgrass; these grasses are found exclusively on the first line of coastal sand dunes. Their extensive systems of creeping underground stems or rhizomes allow them to thrive under conditions of shifting sands and high winds, to help stabilize and prevent coastal erosion. Ammophila species are native to the coasts of the North Atlantic Ocean where they are the dominant species on sand dunes, their native range includes few inland regions, with the Great Lakes of North America being the main exception. The genus name Ammophila originates from the Greek words ἄμμος, meaning "sand", φίλος, meaning "friend"; the Ammophila grasses are known as examples of xerophytes, plants that can withstand dry conditions. Despite their occurrence on seacoasts, Ammophila grasses are not tolerant of saline soils. Ammophila thus stabilizes the sand. For this reason, the plants have been introduced far from their native range.
Alfred Wiedemann writes that Ammophila arenaria "has been introduced into every British colonial settlement within its latitudinal tolerance range, including southeast and southwest Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, the Falkland Islands, Norfolk Island and has been reported from Argentina and Chile." Ammophila species were introduced in the late 19th century on the Pacific coast of North America as well, massive, intentional plantings were continued at least through 1960. In all of the locations where they have been introduced, Ammophila plants are now listed as invasive, costly efforts are underway to eradicate them. Only two species seem incontrovertible: A. breviligulata. Two other species have been proposed, are discussed below. A. arenaria - European marram grass or European beachgrass. Native to coasts of Europe and northwest Africa. Inflorescence to 25 cm long. A. baltica - Purple marram. A. baltica has now been identified as a hybrid between A. Calamagrostis epigejos; the hybrid occurs in parts of northern Europe from the Baltic Sea west to eastern England, is known as × Ammocalamagrostis baltica or × Calammophila baltica.
A. breviligulata - American marram grass or American beachgrass. Native to coasts of eastern North America, including the shores of the Great Lakes. Inflorescence to 30 cm long. A. champlainensis or A. breviligulata ssp. champlainensis - Champlain beachgrass. Native to shores of Lake Ontario and Lake Champlain. Inflorescence to 22 cm long. In Europe, Ammophila arenaria has a coastal distribution, is the dominant species on sand dunes where it is responsible for stabilising and building the foredune by capturing blown sand and binding it together with the warp and weft of its tough, fibrous rhizome system. Marram grass is associated with two coastal plant community types in the British National Vegetation Classification. In community SD6 Ammophila is the dominant species. In the semi-fixed dunes, where the quantity of blown sand is declining Ammophila becomes less competitive, other species, notably Festuca rubra become prominent; the ability of marram grass to grow on and bind sand makes it a useful plant in the stabilization of coastal dunes and artificial defences on sandy coasts.
The usefulness was recognized in the late 18th century. On the North Sea coast of Jutland, marram grass was traditionally much used for fuel, cattle fodder etc; the use led to sand loss of arable land. Hence, legislation promoting dune stabilization came into force in 1779 and 1792, successively leading to a system of state-supported dune planters overlooked by dune bailifs. Marram grass was – and still is – propagated by root and shoot cuttings dug up locally and planted into the naked sand in periods of calm and moist weather. Women from the village of Newborough, Wales once used marram grass in the manufacture of mats, haystack covers and brushes for whitewashing. Marram grass has been used for thatch in many areas of the British isles close to the sea; the harvesting of marram grass for thatch was so widespread during the 17th century that it had the effect of destabilizing dunes, resulting in the burial of many villages and farms. In 1695 the practice was banned by an Act of the Scottish Parliament: Considering that many lands and pasturages lying on sea coasts have been ruined and overspread in many places in this kingdom by sand driven from adjacent sand hills....
His Majesty does prohibit and discharge the pulling of bent, broom or juniper off the sand hills for hereafter. Like other xerophytes, marram grass is well adapted to its surroundings in order to thrive in an otherwise harsh environment; the natural loss of water through transpiration is not desirable in a dry landscape, marram grass has developed particular adaptations to help it deal with this. Sandy conditions drain water and windy conditions will further increase rates of transpiration. Marram grass has a rolled leaf that creates a localized environment of water vapour concentration within the leaf, helps to prevent water loss; the stomata sit in small pits within the curls of the structure, which make them less to open and to lose water. The folded leaves have hairs on the inside to slow or stop air mov
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai