The Runaways were an all-female teenage American rock band that recorded and performed in the second half of the 1970s. The band released one live set during its run. Among their best-known songs are "Cherry Bomb", "Hollywood", "Queens of Noise" and a cover version of the Velvet Underground’s "Rock & Roll". Never a major success in the United States, the Runaways became a sensation overseas in Japan, thanks to the hit single "Cherry Bomb"; the Runaways were formed in late 1975 by drummer Sandy West and rhythm guitarist Joan Jett after they had both introduced themselves to producer Kim Fowley, who gave Jett's phone number to West. The two met on their own at West's home and called Fowley to let him hear the outcome. Fowley helped the girls find other members. Two decades he said, "I didn't put the Runaways together, I had an idea, they had ideas, we all met, there was combustion and out of five different versions of that group came the five girls who were the ones that people liked."Starting as a power trio with singer/bassist Micki Steele, the Runaways began the party and club circuit around Los Angeles.
They soon added lead guitarist Lita Ford, who had auditioned for the bass spot. Steele was fired from the group, replaced by local bassist Peggy Foster, who left after just one month. Lead singer Cherie Currie was found and recruited in a local teen nightclub called the Sugar Shack, followed by Jackie Fox on bass; the Runaways were signed to Mercury Records in 1976 and their debut album, The Runaways, was released shortly after. The band toured the U. S. and played numerous sold-out shows. Their opening shows included headlining acts such as Cheap Trick, Van Halen, The Talking Heads, Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers; the documentary Edgeplay: A Film About the Runaways, directed by former Runaway bassist Vicki Blue revealed each girl patterned herself after an idol: Currie on David Bowie, Jett on Suzi Quatro, Ford a cross between Jeff Beck and Ritchie Blackmore, West on Roger Taylor, Fox on Gene Simmons. Their second album, Queens of Noise, was released in 1977, the band began a world tour; the Runaways became lumped in with the growing punk rock movement.
The band formed alliances with male punk bands such as the Ramones and the Dead Boys as well as the British punk scene by hanging out with the likes of the Damned, Generation X and the Sex Pistols. In the summer of 1977, their booking agent David Libert sent the group to Japan, where they played a string of sold-out shows; the Runaways were the number four imported music act in Japan at the time, behind ABBA, Kiss and Led Zeppelin in album sales and popularity. They were unprepared for the onslaught of fans. Jett described the mass hysteria as "like Beatlemania". While in Japan, the Runaways had their own TV special, did numerous television appearances and released the album Live in Japan, which went gold. In Japan, Fox left the band shortly before the group was scheduled to appear at the 1977 Tokyo Music Festival, she told the Telegraph her relationship with the band deteriorated after Fowley raped her in front of a roomful of people. Jett temporarily took over bass duties; when the group returned home, they replaced Fox with Vicki Blue.
Currie left the group after a blow-up with Ford in the fall of 1977. Jett, who had shared vocals with Currie, took over lead vocals full-time; the band released their fourth album, Waitin' for the Night, started a world tour with their friends the Ramones. Currie released a solo LP, Beauty's Only Skin Deep, produced by Fowley, began a separate U. S. tour, which included her identical twin sister Marie. Mercury Records chose not to release Currie's album in the U. S. although it was available as a pricey import via France. In 1980, billed as Cherie and Marie Currie, the sisters released an album for Capitol, Messin' with the Boys, produced by Steve Lukather, engaged to and married Marie Currie. Cherie had some success after the Runaways. "Since You Been Gone", a duet with Marie off Messin' with the Boys, charted number 95 on U. S. charts. Due to disagreements over money and the management of the band, the Runaways and Kim Fowley parted ways in 1977; the group hired new management, Toby Mamis, who worked for Blondie and Suzi Quatro.
When the group split with Fowley, they parted with their record label Mercury/Polygram, to which their deal was tied. In the Edgeplay documentary, members of the group as well as the parents of Currie and West, have accused Fowley, others assigned to look after the band, of broken promises as to schooling and other care, using divide and conquer tactics to keep control of the band, along with the verbal taunting of band members; the band spent much time enjoying the excesses of the rock'n' roll lifestyle during this time. They partnered with Thin Lizzy producer John Alcock, after Jett's future partner Kenny Laguna turned down the job, to record their last album And Now... The Runaways. Blue left the group due to medical problems and was replaced by Laurie McAllister in November 1978. Laurie McAllister was referred to the band by her neighbor, Duane Hitchings, who played keyboards on And Now... The Runaways. Before joining the Runaways, McAllister played with Baby Roulette and the Rave Ons, who had one song released on a Kim Fowley compilation LP called Vampires From Outer Space.
McAllister appeared onstage with the Runaways at their final shows in California during the last weeks of December 1978 and she quit soon after in January 1979. Disagreement between band members included the musical style.
Fresh Fruit for Rotting Vegetables
Fresh Fruit for Rotting Vegetables is the debut studio album by the American punk rock band Dead Kennedys. It was first released on September 2, 1980 through Cherry Red Records in the United Kingdom and issued by Jello Biafra's own Alternative Tentacles label in the United States; the best selling and the most critically acclaimed album by Dead Kennedys, Fresh Fruit for Rotting Vegetables has become a major staple of American punk. It is the only Dead Kennedys album to feature drummer Ted and guitarist 6025. Lead vocalist Jello Biafra's strong political statements on songs such as "California Über Alles" and "When Ya Get Drafted" launched Dead Kennedys into the political arena. Musically, Fresh Fruit for Rotting Vegetables laid the blueprint for future Dead Kennedys' releases; the surf and rockabilly-inspired riffs owe something to Ramones' most influential recordings, drawing from early American AM pop and rehashing it in the immediate, aggressive context of punk rock. The lyrics lend a significant bite to the breakthrough of the strident musical assault.
On the original vinyl version Side A was tracks 1–7 and Side B was tracks 8–14. The songs on Fresh Fruit for Rotting Vegetables were recorded with minimal overdubs limited to vocals and the addition of rhythm guitar in places; the photo on the front cover, showing several police cars on fire, was taken during the White Night riots of 21 May 1979, that resulted from the light sentence given to former San Francisco City Supervisor Dan White for the murder of Mayor George Moscone and Supervisor Harvey Milk. When Biafra ran for mayor, one of his policies had been for a statue to be erected to Dan White, for eggs and stones to be available nearby for pelting it. In 2014, the album became the subject of a book, released in the UK, U. S. Brazil and Germany, written by author Alex Ogg. In contemporary reviews, Trouser Press found that the style and content of the album derived from the group The Sex Pistols and "will sound dated to the trend-conscious." But the album "may be the only legitimate companion piece to the Pistols' Never Mind the Bollocks.
The review concluded that "The band works because of Jello Biafra, a distinctive and remarkable singer" who "thrives on extreme attitudes." The NME compared the album to music by the British punk group the UK Subs, stating that the Dead Kennedys "hardly come across as anything but smarter, both musically and intellectually... Despite grasp of dynamics and their highly-ordered arrangements, there's only one track here which makes effective use of their mannerisms and devices, that's'Holiday In Cambodia' available in single form, the biggest reason for this album's presence in the charts." Robert Christgau of the Village Voice stated that he found vocalist Jello Biafra poor, comparing his vocals to Tiny Tim if he were an out of work actor. The original back cover featured a found photograph of an old lounge band called Sounds of Sunshine, with Dead Kennedys' logo pasted onto the drum kit and skulls and crossbones spliced onto their instruments; the original photograph, as found by Flouride at a garage sale, had no identifying remarks on it whatsoever, was used because the band thought it was "hilarious".
Somehow Warner Wilder, the former vocalist of the defunct lounge band learned of the photo and threatened to sue Dead Kennedys. The back cover was reprinted with the heads of the band members cut off, but this solution was found to be unsatisfactory to Sounds of Sunshine, forcing an different photo of four old people in a living room; when Cleopatra Records reissued Fresh Fruit for Rotting Vegetables in 2002, the original unbeheaded lounge band picture reappeared. The 25th Anniversary "Deluxe Reissue" co-released by Cherry Red Records and Manifesto Records in 2005 used the old people photograph, but with Dead Kennedys' logo substituted for the Alternative Tentacles Bat Early IRS pressings featured the cover tinted orange with black lettering; this cover variation was not authorized by the band. According to a late-80s interview with Goldmine magazine, IRS told the band they wanted to make the domestic version different from the Cherry Red import, to which Biafra claimed to have told IRS, "Yeah, inferior to the original — change it back!"
During a 1981 performance at the 9:30 Club in Washington, D. C. Biafra mentions, "Some of you stooped so low as to buy our wonderful album with the shitty Disneyland orange cover, not our idea." Post-IRS, pre-Alternative Tentacles pressings on IRS's Faulty Products subsidiary added "Police Truck" to the middle of the Side A sequence, between "Let's Lynch the Landlord" and "Drug Me". Some Cherry Red vinyl pressings added "Too Drunk to Fuck" to the end of Side A. Pirate pressings of Fresh Fruit for Rotting Vegetables were manufactured in Italy and Portugal. According to Biafra, these pressings were manufactured by someone who retained the master parts from defunct Italian licensees and put out what Biafra described as "Clorox bottle-quality pressings"; these pressings were sold by a cut-out distributor to record stores that were, in Biafra's words, "too snooty" to deal with the independent distributors that Alternative Tentacles dealt with. The run-out groove of the early Alternative Tentacles pressings as well as early Cherry Red pressings includes the text "Well??
Who are the Brain Police???" - a reference to the song "Who Are the Brain Police?" by The Mothers of Invention. All tracks written except where noted. Fresh Fruit for Rotting Eyeballs is the a
Stephen Richard Hackett is an English musician, songwriter and producer who gained prominence as the guitarist of the progressive rock band Genesis from 1971 to 1977. Hackett contributed to six Genesis studio albums, three live albums, seven singles and one EP before he left to pursue a solo career, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of Genesis in 2010. Hackett released his first solo album, Voyage of the Acolyte, while still a member of Genesis in 1975. After a series of further solo albums beginning in 1978, Hackett co-founded the supergroup GTR with Steve Howe in 1986; the group released the self-titled album GTR, which peaked at No. 11 on the Billboard 200 in the United States and spawned the Top 20 single "When the Heart Rules the Mind". When Hackett left GTR in 1987, the group disbanded. Hackett resumed his solo career, he toured worldwide on a regular basis since. Hackett's body of work encompasses many styles. According to Guitar World: "Hackett's early explorations of two-handed tapping and sweep picking were far ahead of their time, influenced Eddie Van Halen and Brian May."
Other guitarists influenced by Hackett include Steve Rothery. Stephen Richard Hackett was born on 12 February 1950 in Pimlico, south central London to Peter and June Hackett, he was born one day before the birth of singer Peter Gabriel. He has a younger brother John who took up the flute and has performed and written with Hackett throughout his solo career. Hackett attended Sloane Grammar School in Chelsea. In the 1950s, the family relocated to Vancouver, Canada but returned home after his parents, his mother in particular, became too homesick. Hackett grew up having access to various musical instruments, such as the harmonica and recorder, but he did not develop an interest in the guitar until the age of 12 when he started playing single notes. By 14, he was learning chords and experimenting with chord progressions, although he never received any formal training. Hackett's earliest musical influences were opera, he has said. Hackett has cited numerous British blues artists as influences, namely Danny Kirwan, Peter Green, various guitarists in John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers, as well as Jimi Hendrix, The Beatles, King Crimson.
Hackett's first professional playing experience came as a member of three rock bands: Canterbury Glass, with whom he played on "Prologue" on their album Sacred Scenes and Characters, recorded in 1968 but distributed in 2007. He joined Quiet World in 1970 which featured his brother John on flute, he did not write any material with the group as the band's founders directed what the other members played, which did not bother Hackett as he wished to get more experience in a recording studio since the band had secured a contract with a label. Hackett played on the band's only studio album, The Road, released on Dawn Records, left them soon after. In December 1970, Hackett placed an advertisement in Melody Maker in his search for a new band, it read: "Imaginative guitarist-writer seeks involvement with receptive musicians, determined to strive beyond existing stagnant music forms". It was responded to by Genesis lead vocalist Peter Gabriel. Genesis, which comprised keyboardist Tony Banks, bassist Mike Rutherford, drummer Phil Collins, had lost founding guitarist Anthony Phillips and sought a new, permanent replacement to his temporary replacement Mick Barnard.
Gabriel advised Hackett to listen to their last album Trespass Hackett auditioned for the group. Hackett's first live gig with Genesis took place at City University, London on 24 January 1971. Hackett's first recording with Genesis was Nursery Cryme, he helped shape the group's sound by encouraging them to incorporate a Mellotron into the songs, his guitar work is prominently featured through solos on "The Musical Box", "The Return of the Giant Hogweed", "The Fountain of Salmacis". He became an early proponent of the guitar tapping technique attributed to Eddie Van Halen. Hackett claimed that Van Halen had told him that he learned the technique after attending a Genesis concert in the mid-1970s. Foxtrot included Hackett's guitar solo composition "Horizons", which he based on a Suite for Cello by Bach. Selling England by the Pound features Hackett using tapping and sweep picking popularised by Yngwie Malmsteen, both of which are used on "Dancing with the Moonlit Knight"; the song "Firth of Fifth" contains one of Hackett's well known guitar solos and has remained a favourite in concert after Hackett's departure.
The writing sessions for The Lamb Lies Down on Broadway was a difficult time not just for Hackett but the entire group due to the personal lives of some members which affected the mood in the group. Hackett explained: "Everybody had their own agenda; some of us were married, some of us had children, some of us were getting divorced. And we were still trying to get it together in the country". Hackett, in particular, was going through a divorce from his first wife. While Gabriel wrote the majority of the lyrics, all the band members co-wrote the music. Hackett had "Fly on a Windshield" as his favourite moments on the album. After recording his debut album Voyage of the Acolyte, Hackett resumed working in Genesis and recorded A Trick of the Tail, the band's first with Collins on lead vocals. Hackett is credi
Notting Hill is an affluent district in West London, located north of Kensington within the Royal Borough of Kensington & Chelsea. Notting Hill is known for being a cosmopolitan and multicultural neighbourhood, hosting the annual Notting Hill Carnival and Portobello Road Market. From around 1870, Notting Hill had an association with artists. For much of the 20th century, the large houses were subdivided into multi-occupancy rentals. Caribbean immigrants were drawn to the area in the 1950s because of the cheap rents, but were exploited by slum landlords like Peter Rachman and became the target of white Teddy Boys in the 1958 Notting Hill race riots. In the early 21st century, after decades of gentrification, Notting Hill has a reputation as an affluent and fashionable area known for attractive terraces of large Victorian townhouses and high-end shopping and restaurants. A Daily Telegraph article in 2004 used the phrase "the Notting Hill Set" to refer to a group of emerging Conservative politicians, such as David Cameron and George Osborne, who would become Prime Minister and Chancellor of the Exchequer and were once based in Notting Hill.
Notting Hill is in the historic county of Middlesex. It was a hamlet on rural land until the expansion of urban London during the 19th century; as late as 1870 after the hamlet had become a London suburb, Notting Hill was still referred to as being in Middlesex rather than in London. The origin of the name "Notting Hill" is uncertain though an early version appears in the Patent Rolls of 1356 as Knottynghull, while an 1878 text and New London, reports that the name derives from a manor in Kensington called "Knotting-Bernes,", "Knutting-Barnes," or "Nutting-barns", goes on to quote from a court record during Henry VIII's reign that "the manor called Notingbarons, alias Kensington, in the parish of Paddington, was held of the Abbot of Westminster." For years, it was thought to be a link with Canute, but it is now thought that the "Nott" section of the name is derived from the Saxon personal name Cnotta, with the "ing" part accepted as coming from the Saxon for a group or settlement of people.
The area in the west around Pottery Lane was used in the early 19th century for making bricks and tiles out of the heavy clay dug in the area. The clay was fired in a series of brick and tile kilns; the only remaining 19th-century tile kiln in London is on Walmer Road. In the same area, pig farmers moved in after being forced out of the Marble Arch area. Avondale Park was created in 1892 out of a former area of pig slurry called "the Ocean"; this was part of a general clean-up of the area which had become known as the Potteries and Piggeries. The area remained rural until London's westward expansion reached Bayswater in the early 19th century; the Ladbroke family was Notting Hill's main landowner, from the 1820s James Weller Ladbroke began to develop the Ladbroke Estate. Working with the architect and surveyor Thomas Allason, Ladbroke began to lay out streets and houses, with a view to turning the area into a fashionable suburb of the capital. Many of these streets bear the Ladbroke name, including Ladbroke Grove, the area's main north-south axis, Ladbroke Square, London's largest private garden square.
The original idea was to call the district Kensington Park, other roads are reminders of this. The local telephone prefix 7727 is based on the old telephone exchange name of PARk. Ladbroke left the actual business of developing his land to the firm of City solicitors, Bayley, who worked with Allason to develop the property. In 1823 Allason completed a plan for the layout of the main portion of the estate; this marks the genesis of his most enduring idea – the creation of large private communal gardens known as "pleasure grounds", or "paddocks", enclosed by terraces and/or crescents of houses. Instead of houses being set around a garden square, separated from it by a road, Allason's houses would have direct access to a secluded communal garden in the rear, to which people on the street did not have access and could not see. To this day these communal garden squares continue to provide the area with much of its attraction for the wealthiest householders. In 1837 the Hippodrome racecourse was laid out.
The racecourse ran around the hill, bystanders were expected to watch from the summit of the hill. However, the venture was not a success, in part due to a public right of way which traversed the course, in part due to the heavy clay of the neighbourhood which caused it to become waterlogged; the Hippodrome closed in 1841, after which development resumed and houses were built on the site. The crescent-shaped roads that circumvent the hill, such as Blenheim Crescent, Elgin Crescent, Stanley Crescent, Cornwall Crescent and Landsdowne Crescent, were built over the circular racecourse tracks. At the summit of hill stands the elegant St John's church, built in 1845 in the early English style, which formed the centrepiece of the Ladbroke Estate development; the Notting Hill houses were large, but they did not succeed in enticing the richest Londoners, who tended to live closer to the centre of London in Mayfair or Belgravia. The houses appealed to the upper middle class, who could live there in Belgravia style at lower prices.
In the opening chapter of John Galsworthy's Forsyte Saga novels, he housed the Nicholas Forsytes "in Ladbroke Grove, a spacious abode and a great bargain". In 1862 Thomas Hardy left Dorchester for London to work with architect Arthur Blomfield.
A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their first or true name. Pseudonyms include stage names and user names, ring names, pen names, aliases, superhero or villain identities and code names, gamer identifications, regnal names of emperors and other monarchs, they have taken the form of anagrams and Latinisations, although there are many other methods of choosing a pseudonym. Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones and become the individual's full-time name. Pseudonyms are "part-time" names, used only in certain contexts – to provide a more clear-cut separation between one's private and professional lives, to showcase or enhance a particular persona, or to hide an individual's real identity, as with writers' pen names, graffiti artists' tags, resistance fighters' or terrorists' noms de guerre, computer hackers' handles. Actors, voice-over artists and other performers sometimes use stage names, for example, to better channel a relevant energy, gain a greater sense of security and comfort via privacy, more avoid troublesome fans/"stalkers", or to mask their ethnic backgrounds.
In some cases, pseudonyms are adopted because they are part of a cultural or organisational tradition: for example devotional names used by members of some religious institutes, "cadre names" used by Communist party leaders such as Trotsky and Lenin. A pseudonym may be used for personal reasons: for example, an individual may prefer to be called or known by a name that differs from their given or legal name, but is not ready to take the numerous steps to get their name changed. A collective name or collective pseudonym is one shared by two or more persons, for example the co-authors of a work, such as Carolyn Keene, Ellery Queen, Nicolas Bourbaki. Or James S. A. Corey; the term is derived from the Greek ψευδώνυμον "false name", from ψεῦδος, "lie, falsehood" and ὄνομα, "name". A pseudonym is distinct from an allonym, the name of another person, assumed by the author of a work of art; this may occur when someone is ghostwriting a book or play, or in parody, or when using a "front" name, such as by screenwriters blacklisted in Hollywood in the 1950s and 1960s.
See pseudepigraph, for falsely attributed authorship. Sometimes people change their name in such a manner that the new name becomes permanent and is used by all who know the person; this is not an alias or pseudonym, but in fact a new name. In many countries, including common law countries, a name change can be ratified by a court and become a person's new legal name. For example, in the 1960s, black civil rights campaigner Malcolm Little changed his surname to "X", to represent his unknown African ancestral name, lost when his ancestors were brought to North America as slaves, he changed his name again to Malik El-Shabazz when he converted to Islam. Some Jews adopted Hebrew family names upon immigrating to Israel, dropping surnames, in their families for generations; the politician David Ben-Gurion, for example, was born David Grün in Poland. He adopted his Hebrew name in 1910, when he published his first article in a Zionist journal in Jerusalem. Many transgender people choose to adopt a new name around the time of their social transitioning, to resemble their desired gender better than their birth name.
Businesspersons of ethnic minorities in some parts of the world are sometimes advised by an employer to use a pseudonym, common or acceptable in that area when conducting business, to overcome racial or religious bias. Criminals may use aliases, fictitious business names, dummy corporations to hide their identity, or to impersonate other persons or entities in order to commit fraud. Aliases and fictitious business names used for dummy corporations may become so complex that, in the words of the Washington Post, "getting to the truth requires a walk down a bizarre labyrinth" and multiple government agencies may become involved to uncover the truth. A pen name, or "nom de plume", is a pseudonym adopted by an author; some female authors used male pen names, in particular in the 19th century, when writing was a male-dominated profession. The Brontë family used pen names for their early work, so as not to reveal their gender and so that local residents would not know that the books related to people of the neighbourhood.
The Brontës used their neighbours as inspiration for characters in many of their books. Anne Brontë published The Tenant of Wildfell Hall under the name Acton Bell. Charlotte Brontë published Jane Eyre under the name Currer Bell. Emily Brontë published Wuthering Heights as Ellis Bell. A well-known example of the former is Mary Ann Evans. Another example is Amandine Aurore Lucile Dupin, a 19th-century French writer who used the pen name George Sand. In contrast, some twentieth and twenty first century male romance novelists have used female pen names. A few examples of male authors using female pseudonyms include Brindle Chase, Peter O'Donnell and Christopher Wood. A pen name may be used if a writer's real name is to be confused with the name of another writer or notable individual, or if their real name is deemed to be unsuitable. Authors who write both fiction and non-fiction, or in different genres, may use
Progressive rock is a broad genre of rock music that developed in the United Kingdom and United States throughout the mid to late 1960s. Termed "progressive pop", the style was an outgrowth of psychedelic bands who abandoned standard pop traditions in favour of instrumentation and compositional techniques more associated with jazz, folk, or classical music. Additional elements contributed to its "progressive" label: lyrics were more poetic, technology was harnessed for new sounds, music approached the condition of "art", the studio, rather than the stage, became the focus of musical activity, which involved creating music for listening, not dancing. Prog is based on fusions of styles and genres, involving a continuous move between formalism and eclecticism. Due to its historical reception, prog's scope is sometimes limited to a stereotype of long solos, overlong albums, fantasy lyrics, grandiose stage sets and costumes, an obsessive dedication to technical skill. While the genre is cited for its merging of high culture and low culture, few artists incorporated literal classical themes in their work to any great degree, only a handful of groups purposely emulated or referenced classical music.
The genre coincided with the mid 1960s economic boom that allowed record labels to allocate more creative control to their artists, as well as the new journalistic division between "pop" and "rock" that lent generic significance to both terms. Prog faded soon after. Conventional wisdom holds that the rise of punk rock caused this, but several more factors contributed to the decline. Music critics, who labelled the concepts as "pretentious" and the sounds as "pompous" and "overblown", tended to be hostile towards the genre or to ignore it. After the late 1970s, progressive rock fragmented in numerous forms; some bands achieved commercial success well into the 1980s or crossed into symphonic pop, arena rock, or new wave. Early groups who exhibited progressive features are retroactively described as "proto-prog"; the Canterbury scene, originating in the late 1960s, denoted a subset of prog bands who emphasised the use of wind instruments, complex chord changes and long improvisations. Rock in Opposition, from the late 1970s, was more avant-garde, when combined with the Canterbury style, created avant-prog.
In the 1980s, a new subgenre, neo-progressive rock, enjoyed some commercial success, although it was accused of being derivative and lacking in innovation. Post-progressive draws upon newer developments in popular music and the avant-garde since the mid 1970s; the term "progressive rock" is synonymous with "art rock", "classical rock" and "symphonic rock". "art rock" has been used to describe at least two related, but distinct, types of rock music. The first is progressive rock as it is understood, while the second usage refers to groups who rejected psychedelia and the hippie counterculture in favour of a modernist, avant-garde approach. Similarities between the two terms are that they both describe a British attempt to elevate rock music to new levels of artistic credibility. However, art rock is more to have experimental or avant-garde influences. "Prog" was devised in the 1990s as a shorthand term, but became a transferable adjective suggesting a wider palette than that drawn on by the most popular 1970s bands.
Progressive rock is varied and is based on fusions of styles and genres, tapping into broader cultural resonances that connect to avant-garde art, classical music and folk music and the moving image. Although a unidirectional English "progressive" style emerged in the late 1960s, by 1967, progressive rock had come to constitute a diversity of loosely associated style codes; when the "progressive" label arrived, the music was dubbed "progressive pop" before it was called "progressive rock", with the term "progressive" referring to the wide range of attempts to break with standard pop music formula. A number of additional factors contributed to the acquired "progressive" label: lyrics were more poetic. Critics of the genre limit its scope to a stereotype of long solos, overlong albums, fantasy lyrics, grandiose stage sets and costumes, an obsessive dedication to technical skill. While progressive rock is cited for its merging of high culture and low culture, few artists incorporated literal classical themes in their work to any great degree, only a handful of groups purposely emulated or referenced classical music.
Writer Emily Robinson says that the narrowed definition of "progressive rock" was a measure against the term's loose application in the late 1960s, when it was "applied to everyone from Bob Dylan to the Rolling Stones". Debate over the genre's criterion continued to the 2010s on Internet forums dedicated to prog. According to musicologists Paul Hegarty and Martin Halliwell, Bill Martin and Edward Macan authored major books about prog rock while "effectively accept the characterization of progressive rock offered by its critics.... They each do so unconsciously." Academic John S. Cotner contests Macan's view that progressive rock cannot exist without the continuous and overt assimilation of classical music into rock. Author Kevin Holm-Hudson ag
Jerry Wayne Hussey is an English musician, born in Bristol, England. He is best known as the lead singer of The Mission, for being the guitarist with The Sisters of Mercy. Hussey grew up in Bristol, he was influenced at a young age by Marc Bolan and his band T. Rex, was thus inspired to become a guitarist. Brought up in the LDS Church, he rebelled against his parents' wishes that he serve as a missionary and moved to Liverpool in the late 1970s to join the scene around Eric's Club, a noted nightclub of the time. Hussey started to perform, most notably with Pauline Murray and The Invisible Girls, with whom he started songwriting; the first success for Hussey came when he joined Dead or Alive at the request of frontman Pete Burns. After Burns retreated to become more studio-based, Hussey decided to leave and was offered a position with The Sisters of Mercy, concentrating on 12-string and 6-string guitars, contributing to arrangements and using his higher ranged voice for backing vocals which contrasted with Andrew Eldritch's melancholic baritone.
When the Sisters of Mercy disbanded and bassist Craig Adams set up The Mission, recruiting Mick Brown on drums and Simon Hinkler on guitars. He lived in Leeds for a while before moving to London towards the end of the 1980s. Hussey has produced and played on records by The Mission's Mercury Records labelmates All About Eve and in the late 1990s provided some remixes for Cleopatra Records, he produced and appeared on some tracks for the US band Gossamer including the track "Run" for the first Unquiet Grave compilation by Cleopatra Records. He produced and played on Brilliant Mistakes by the Greek band Flowers of Romance. Hussey has played live with The Cure, he is a Liverpool F. C. supporter and after his team's victory in the Champions League Final of 2005, he composed the song entitled "Draped in Red" featured on the album God is a Bullet. Hussey lives in São Paulo, married to a Brazilian actress and has two children from previous relationships. Since 2002, Hussey has played solo shows that features Mission material, new songs and covers.
After he wound up The Mission for the second time in early 2009, he released his first solo album called Bare in October of that year on the Sony Music label. In May 2009, Hussey announced on The Mission's website and in an interview on BBC 6 Music that he and Julianne Regan were working together on an album of cover songs, reinterpretations of old material and new songs, invited fans to suggest songs for the duo to cover; this album was released in the autumn of 2011 as Curios under the name Hussey-Regan on Cherry Red Records. In 2014, he released his second solo album, Songs of Candlelight & Razorblades, of acoustic songs; when playing live solo, Hussey uses a Martin D42. When playing live with the band, Hussey uses a Schecter Corsair 12-string made for him for The Mission's 25th anniversary shows in late 2011. In the studio, he uses both Fender Starcaster, his signature 12-string setup has a Fender Electric, a Vox Teardrop, an Ovation Acoustic, a Taylor acoustic. During his time with the Sisters, he used an Aria Pro II.
It's Been Hours Now EP The stranger/Some of that Sophisticated Boom Boom Body and Soul Walk Away No Time To Cry First and Last and Always God's Own Medicine The First Chapter Children Carved in Sand Grains of Sand Masque Neverland Blue Aura God is a Bullet Dum Dum Bullet The Brightest Light Another Fall from Grace Bare Songs of Candlelight and Razorblades Wayne Hussey on Myspace